Rodolfo Amedeo Lanciani.

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P^C^HjOjaPtO. HjO hydrate of oxyd of platinum.

P(Ca H 3O) gPtO . N 3O3 nitrate of oxyd " "

P(C2H50)3.PtN2H^.2nCl chlorhydrate of trioxethyl-phospho-

platin-diamin.
PgCL . PtClj chlorid of hexachloro-diphosphoplatinum.
P2(H0) J . PtCL diphospho-chloroplatmous acid.
PatAgO), .PtCla silver salt.

PalCaHgO)- .PtClj chlorid of hexoxethyl-diphospho platinum.
P2(C,H50)e.PtNJE[^.2Ha" " « diamina

P2(C2H^0)3Cl3PtCl2 chlorid of trichloro-trioxethyl-diphospho

platinum.
Pg (031150)3 (H0)8 Pt Cla diphospho-trioxethyl-chloro-platinous

acid.

Schtltzenberger points out the analogy between these compounds
and the ammonia-platinum bases. In a third note he gives a
method of isolating the radicals contained in the above described
compounds. By treating the alcoholic solutions of the two chlo-
ridsP(C2H50)3PtCl2, and Pj^(C2H50)ePtCl2, with zinc, viscid
black masses are obtained, havmg respectively the formulas PlC,
H^0)3R and Pa(C3H50)^Pt, and combining directly with chlo-
rine to reproduce the original chlorids. — Comptes JienduSj Ixx,
1287, 1414; Ixxi, 69. w. G.

3. On new derivatives of triethylphosphine, — Cahours and Gal
have studied the product of the action of platinic chlorid upon tri-
ethylphosphine, and have obtained a compound having the form-
ula,* P(C^Hj)3PtCl, which they regard as the equivalent of the
green salt of Magnus in the ammonia series. This body crystal-
Rzes from its solution in ether in voluminous transparent prisms of
an amber yellow color. An alcoholic solution of this salt heated
to 100** for several hours in sealed tubes, yields crystals of an iso-

♦ 0=6 0=8 Pt=98-7.



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416 Scientific JnteUigence.

meric white salt. When the yellow salt is hoiled with water and
triethylphosphine, a colorless salt is formed, which has the form-
ula, [^(C^H^lj] PtCl and which the authors consider to be the
phosphorous analogue of the salt of Reiset. It loses an atom of
triethylphosphine when long kept, and leaves the white modifica-
tion of the chlorid first described. With argentic oxyd and water
it yields a strongly alkaline liquid ; with the chlorids of gold and
platinum well defined salts. Palladium forms a compound similar
to the first described salt of platinum, and also forming amber
yellow prisms. This does not, however, unite with another atom
of triethylphosphine. When triethylphosphine is added to a solu-
tion of auric chlorid, AuClg, in alcohol a colorless crystalline salt
is obtained which has the formula, P(C4H.)3AuCL Compounds
of an exactly analogous composition were obtained with the chlo-
rid of platinum, palladium and gold, and triethylarsine. — Comp-
tea Hendus^ Ixx, 1 380, Ixxi, 208. w. g.

4. On 8ilic(y-propionic acid, — By the simultaneous action of
zinc-ethyl and sodium upon ethyl-silicic monochlorhydrine, SiCl(0
03115)3, Friedel and Ladenburg have obtained a liquid boiling
at ISS'^-S C. and having the formula, Si(C2H ^(OCaUs),, which
they term tribasic silico-propionic ether. A concentrated solution
of caustic potash does not set free in this compound the silicon in
the form of silicic oxyd SiO,, but gives a product having the for-
mula, SiCaHgOgH, which however cannot be obtained in this way
in a state of purity. By heating silico propionic ether at 1 80° C.
in a closed tuoe with chlorid of acetyl, the authors obtained a mix-
ture of acetic ether and a body having the formula SiCgHjCU.
By treating with water the part of this liquid which boils at 90 —
110°, chloAvdric acid and a white gelatinous body are formed;
this last is tne hydrate of silico-propionic acid. When dried at
100° the acid forms a white amorphous powder greatly resembling
silicic oxyd, but easily distinguished from it by its combustibility.
When heated it bums like tinder, disengaging combustible gas^.
The acid is insoluble in water, but dissolves in hot concentrated
caustic potash, and is not precipitated from this solution by HCl,
but only by NH^Cl, like SiOj, the residue after evaporation being
unchanged silico-propionic acid. The new substance appears there-
fore to be a weak acid analogous to silicic acid, and presents the
first known case of a silicic acid containing carbon. Its formula
shows that it contains the group, SiOgH, which may be termed
silicoxyl, and which is the analogue of carboxyl, CO^H. It is
easy to see also that it forms one term of a group of homologous
acids. — Comptes Rendiis^ Ixx, 1407. w. g.

5. On normal amylic alcohol, — ^Libben and Rossi have suc-
ceeded in obtaining synthetically the normal amylic alcohol, which
bears the same relation to the alcohol already known which noiv
mal butylic alcohol bears to that obtained by fermentation. Nor-
mal cyanid of butyl yields normal valeric acid, which greatly re-
sembles the acid already known, but which has an odor more close-
ly resembling that of butyric acid. It boils at 184°-186° at Tse""*.
When normal calcic valerate is mixed with normal calcic formate.



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Geology and Mineralogy. 417

and the mixture is distilled in small portions at a time, valeric
aldehyd is obtained, boiling at 102° C. This aldehyd, by the ac-
tion of nascent hydrogen, yields the normal amylic alcohoL The
alcohol much resembles that obtained by fermentation, but has a
higher boiling point, 137° C. under a pressure of 740"*"*. The au-
thors have prepared from it the chlorid, bromid, iodid and acetate
of amyl, all of which possess higher boiling points than the cor-
responding ordinary amylic ethers. The constitution of the nop-
mal alcohol must be expressed by the formula,

H
H

CH^.OH i^^

while common amylic alcohol has probably the formula attributed
to it by Erlenmeyer,



CH,

CH, = C

CH^



H3C CH.

V '

CH z=C^
CH



CH^.OH



CH,.CH(CH3),



H
H
OH

The authors promise a detailed description of the normal vale-
ric acid and its salts. — Comptes Rendua^ Ixxi, 369. w. 6.

6. TVansformation of the fatty acids into the corresponding alco-
hols, — Sattzeff has given a method of passing from the fatty
acids to the corresponcung alcohols, which possesses much inter-
est. An amalgam of sodium of 3 per cent is to be introducied
into a flask, and a mixture of one molecule of the chlorid and two
of the acid introduced, the mixture being cooled. After 12 hours
water is added, the liquid distilled, and the distillate saturated
with potassic carbonata The product separated is the ether form-
ed by the fatty acid with the corresponding alcohol. This may
then be saponified by potash. In this manner the author prepared
propylic and butylic alcohols. — BtUl. de la Soci&ti Ohimique^ xiii,
p. 61. w. G.

II. GEOLOGY AND MINERALOGY.



1. Ijanrentian Hocks of Nova Scotia: by Rev. Dr. Honeyman,
F.G.S., <fcc. — In this communication 1 propose to make a few
observations bearing upon remarks made by Dr. Hunt on the above
subject, in the July number of the American Journal of Science.

While I was engaged in the service of the Canadian Survey,
ascertaining the extent of the distribution of the Upper and
Middle Silurian rocks of Arisaig, I unexpectedly came upon a
band of crystalline rocks, of considerable thickness and of great
lithological variety. There was a succession of different kinds of
diorites and homblendic rocks, traversed with veins of quartz
and many granular limestones. These extended about two miles
along the shore, stretching at the same time both into the sea and



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418 Scient(fic IntxU^gence.

land. After these oame a thick band of ophites and ophio-calcites.
Succeeding these were bands of dioiites and homblendic slates,
with quartz veins containing mica in crystals, and then white
feldspar rock of considerable thickness with green veins, and a
thick band of rose-colored feldspar. I was convinced that I had dis-
covered a series of Laurentian rocks. In geolo^cal position it is
unquestionably inferior to the Arisaig series, whidi ranges ftx>m the
Medina and Oneida through the Clinton, Niagara (?), Lower Held-
erberg, and possibly the Devonian, into the Lower Carboniferous.
There appeared to me to be a sufficient lithological resemblance,
between these rocks and those of Canada and Newfoundland Lau-
rentian, to warrant the conclusion. Dr. Hunt gives me the credit
of having profited by his suggestions, and the descriptions of
Laurentian rocks given by the Canadian Survey, and assures the
readers of the Journal, that these first brightened my ideas in
regard to the geological age of the rocks in question. Dr. Hunt,
however, knows right well that I had other and much better
means of acquiring the requisite knowledge. I spent the greater
part of six months in the Paris Exhibition, m the inunediate vicinity
of the Canadian Survey collection of rock specimens, from the
Laurentian rocks of Canada and Newfoundland, and those who
know me know that I am not in the habit of allowing such good
opportunities to pass unimproved* After Mr. Richardson had
finished the arrangement of these rocks in the Canadian depart-
ment of the Exhibition, when there was no geologist in the Canadian
and Newfoundland courts, my duties as Executive Commissioiier
in the Nova Scotia department requiring my constant attendance,
I had frequent occasion to direct the attention of English and
Continental geologists to the rock specimens referred to ; so that I
was not altogether ignorant of their character and appearance.

Thus schooled I considered the rocks discovered to be Lawrtnr
tian. The first to whom I communicated the discovery was H. R.
Hill, Esq., High Sheriff of Antigonish, who had often accompanied
me in my Arisaig trips, and whose knowledge of the Silurian rocks
of Arisaig and the places where fossils occur is somewhat intimate.
To him I declared positively that I had found the Laurentian
rocks in the neighborhood of our old geological field ; at the same
time I gave him specimens of these rocks. Shortly after I left the
field on account of the inclemency of the weather. On my way
home I had to pass through New Glasgow; I called upon Sir W.
Logan at his hotel and showed him specimens of the ophite and
ophiocalcite. He appeared to hail them as an important discov-
ery, declared them to oe of Quebec age, and recommended a search
for chromic iron in the locality. When Profi Hind inspected
the specimens which I had in the Museum, he appeared then to
regard them as Sir W. Logan had done, and in his report on the
Waverly Gold Fields, he mentions the discovery as a dis-
covery of Quebec rocks. In the month of December following, I
received a letter from Sir W. Logan, addressed to the care of
W. A. Hendry, Esq., Deputy Commissioner of Nova Scotia Crown
Lands, a gentleman who has had considerable field experience as



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Oeology and Mineralogy. 419

a geoloo^t, to whom I oommnnicated the contents of the letter.
In this letter Sir W. Logan says " after all it is not serpentine you
have dbcovered. Dr. Hunt says it is agalmatolite or aysyntribite
and it proves nothing ; the rocks may be of Upper Silurian or
Devonian age.'' I was not pre{>ared to maintain that the ophite
was not agalmatolite or dysyntribite ; simple test proved that the
ophiocalcite was undoubtedly a calcite. I could not for a moment
admit that the strata in question were Upper Silurian or Devonian.
Any one knowing the locality could not fail to be convinced that
they were underling the Upper and Middle Silurian of Arisaig,
and therefore might be Lower Silurian, Huronian, or Laurentian,
but certainly nothing more recent I had a specimen of the ophio-
calcite — ophiocalcite it is now acknowledged to be— -polished on
two opposite sides by Mr. Wesley, marble worker. In retuminff
it to me he said he had partly polished it by means of acid. K
turned out to be a very beautiful and peculiar specimen. I ex-
amined its surface by a combination of lenses having a considerable
magnifving power, and observed what appeared to me to be struo*
ture. 1 had often examined the magnificent specimens of Eozonal
serpentine which were exhibited in the Canadian department of
the Paris Exhibition of 1867, which were afterward deposited in
the Ecole des Mines of Paris. I also had received from a Bohe-
mian geologist in Paris a specimen of ophiocalcite with Eozoon
Bohemicum. I compared this with the Nova Scotian specimen ;
I became impressed with the conviction that if the Bohemian
was Eozonal so was the Nova Scotian, and that this was another
evidence of the Laurentian aee of the Nova Scotian rocks. In my
simplicity and ignorance of nets advanced in the Eozonal contro-
versy, I aid not know that serpentines of aU ages might contain
species of the genus Eozoon. I pointed out the peculiar structure
of the Nova Scotian specimen and its resemblance to that of the
Bohemian to Mr. Hendry, already referred to. He expressed
doubts on the matter of structure m both, as an unbeliever in the
Eozoon might do. About the same time Prof Lawson of Dal-
housie College and University, Halifax, came to the Musetmi and
asked if I had a specimen of the Eozoon Caniadenee ; I told him
that I had not, but that I had a specimen of the Eozoon Bohemtcutn
and what might be called the Eozoon Nova-Scoticum. He ex-
amined them, but replied that he wanted to see the real Eozoon
Canadense. Mr. Hendry confirms the above statements as fat* as
he is referred to, in the presence of Dr. How of Kings College and
University, Windsor, to whose friendship and kindness I am in-
debted for the loan of a copy of the numoer of the American Jour-
nal of Science, containing Dr. Hunt's article already referred to.

In the spring of 1869, I visited Montreal and took with me
the polishea specimen of ophiocalcite. I gave it to Dr. Hunt in
the lapidary's workshop in Gabriel street. A day or two after,
when i was engaged in the same place talking with Sir W. Logan,
Dr. Hunt entered with the specimen referred to in his article, and
stated to Sir W. Logan in my presence to the effect that Dr.
Honeyman had discovered a very interesting series of rocks ; that



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420 Scientific Intelligence.

the specimens tempted him to go to see them, and that he believed
them to be the Laurentian. Sir W. objected, saying that the
specimen was not serpentine. Dr. Hunt assured him that it was
ophiocalcite ; that he had examined it ; that the white effervesced
with acid. He also named some of the constituents ; I do not
recollect what they were. Sir W. and Dr. Hunt left I heard
nothing more about the matter until my very kind host, Dr.
Dawson, on returning from a visit to Gabriel street, told me, in
his library, that Dr. Hunt had said to him that certain rocks that
I had discovered were of Laurentian age ; but that he had advised
him to consider them first of all Devoniaa All that I replied
was, I heard him say so. For certain private reasons I expressed
no opinion on the subject. When I returned to Halifax I arranged
my representative coUection of Nova Scotia rocks in the Provincial
Museum under my charge, thus : Arisaig ophite, ophiocalcite and
porphyritic diorite, at the bottom of the series; granites, new
gneissoid rocks of Pro£ Hind, next ; andalusite rock and slates
next ; and thus they had remained until the present time. Many a
time have I pointed out these rocks to visitors who take an interest
in such matters, and told them the lowest ones were Laurentian.
I have certainly not been silent, as Dr. Hunt informs the readers
of the American Journal of Science, although the sound of my
voice may not have reached Gabriel street, Montreal I could
name many witnesses to attest this.

I would now observe that, from one cause or other, I had never
met with Prof Hind since the time already referred to, until a day
or two after he had read a paper on his discovery of the Laurentian
rocks, before the Nova Scotia Institute of Natural Science. He
came to meet Dr. Lawson in the Museum. He commenced dis-
cussing the subject of his discovery. I then turned his attention
to my collection of rocks ; showed him the Laurentian of Arisaig,
and gave him a detailed account of the opinions expressed m
regard to them. He informed me that he had announced his dis-
covery of the Laurentian gneissoid in Sherbrooke and elsewhere,
to Sir Roderick Murchison, Sir W. Lo^an, &c. Not long after a
letter was inserted in the Halifax Morning Chronicle, addressed by
Prol Hind to the Hon. Robert Robertson, MKC, Commissioner
of Mines and Public Works, dated Windsor, 10th Feb., 1870, from
which I give the following extrsicts : *' Under date Montreal, Feb.
3, 1870, Dr. Hunt informs me that recent microscopic examination
of some of the specimens sent by Dr. Honeyman, has revealed
wellrdeflned ' Eozoon Canadense? " *' This," continued Dr. Hunt,
" must, I conceive, be conclusive evidence of their Laurentian age.^
'' Dr. Dawson, in a separate communication, confirms the identifi-
cation of the Eozoon."

I find, however, that in the discussion that followed the reading
of the paper, " On the Laurentian rocks of Arisaig, N. S.," ad-
dressed to the Geological Society of London, Dr. Dawson remarked
that the Arisaig Eozoon was different from that of Canada ; that
the Eozoon Bohemicum belonged to a formation more recent than
the Laurentian, and that the Arisaig Eozoon did not prove the



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Oeology and JdineraJogy, 421

rocks to be Laarentian. Vide printed abstract of the proceedings
of the Geological Society of London.

I do not regard the discovery of Elozoon as the only evidence of
the Laarentian age of the Arisaig rocks. I consider that relative
position, in connection with lUhological character, must have some-
thing to do with the determination of their age. Besides, is it not
possible that, as there appear to be new different species of Eozoon
oelonging to different countries and different ages, that there may
be different species in different countries, but still of the same age,
and still that the Nova Scotian species is still Laarentian.

Another extract from Prof Hind's letter : Ejr. Hunt says, in
his letter already referred to, " A line from the Laurentian of
Malignant Cove (Arisaig) to that in Newfoundland, will pass
through Cape Breton, and we can now look for limestone and
Eozoon there." Is it not possible that the thought may have oc-
curred to some one else besides Dr. Hunt ? Perhaps Dr. Hunt has
forgotten something that happened during the Exhibition in Paris
of 1867. He came into the Nova Scotian Court, accompanied by
Prof Lesley of Philadelphia ; he found among the polished speci-
mens of marble a green one which arrested bis attention ; he asked
where it came from, and was told that it came from Cape Breton,
(having been furnished by Mr. Hendry already referred to.) This
specimen also attracted the attention of Prol Wyville Thompson,
an Eozoonal unbeliever, who was a member of the Litemational
Jury; he said that it had Eozoonal structure ; he wished to have it
and got it ; he took it to London where it made no small stir among
the believers in the Eozoon, and gave occasion for a little ingen-
ious explanation on the part of Dr. Hunt ; so I was informed.

Anotner extract from rroi. Hind's letter : " It is thus, that Dr.
Honeyman's opinions have been beautiftdly verified, but it would
have greatly enhanced the gratification which Dr. Honeyman must
feel if the announcement hSA been made a year and a half ago."

As might be expected this observation caused some excitement
in Gabriel street. In order to rebut the above implied charge,
doubtless, Dr. Hunt finds fault with me for not expressing my
views, relative to the age of the rocks in question, in my official re-
port. I answer, I studiously avoided expressing any opinion on
controverted points in my report, and made it a simple record of
facts. As far as I recollect, I mentioned the discovery of the rocks
sirnplhiter. It appears that my alleged silence is considered by
Dr. Hunt as " simply incomprehensible.'^'^ I think I can bring the
matter to the level of the comprehension of even a less acute per-
son than Dr. Hunt. I have already shown that the term silence^ if
meant literally, is not a proper term to use in the case, as I have
not been silent on the subject. If by silence he means that I had
not addressed a communication on the subject to any scientific So-
ciety or Journal, until the publication of Pro£ Hind's letter. Dr.
Hunt has hit the mark. My defense is, I had not been able on
account of the inclemency of the weather and lateness of the sea-
son, to examine the rocks in a manner so thorough and satisfactory
as was desirable ; I did not think there was any great hurry in the



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422 Scientific Intelligence.

matter, as I did anticipate the great discoveries of my exceUent
friend Pro£ Hind. I have not yet had the desired opportonity,
and yet I have had to write on the subject : first, to the Geological
Society of London at the reqaest of I^ro£ Hind ; second, to the
American Journal of Science, at the instigation of Dr. Hunt,

2. Descriptions of Fossils collected hytheU,S. Geological Surt>ey
tmder the cJiarge of Clarence King^ Esq. (Proc. Acad. Nat ScL,
Philad., No. 1, 1870). — ^Mr. Mebk premces his numerous descrip-
tions of new species by the followmg observations, addressed to
Prof Joseph Leidy.

I send herewith, to be presented for publication in the Proceed-
ings of the Academy, descriptions of a few of the fossils brought
in by the United States Geological Survey under the direction of
Clarence King, Esq. You will please state, in presenting the paper,
that the Trilooites described in it from Eastern Nevada, are i&fsk-
dedly Primordial types, and, so far as I know, the first fossils of
that age yet brought in from any locality west of the Black Hills.
Mr. King's collections also establish the fact that the rich silver
mines of the White Pine district occur in Devonian rocks, though
the Carboniferous is also well developed there. The Devonian
beds of that district yet known by their fossils, seem mainly to
belong to the upper part of the system. Mr. K!ing, however, has
a few fossils from Pinon Station, Central Nevada, that appear to
belong to the horizon of the Upper Helderberg limestone of the
New York series.

The Tertiary fossilB described in this paper, from the re^on of
Hot Spring Mountains, Idaho, came fi-om an extensive and inter-
esting fresh-water Lacustrine deposit, and are all distinct specific-
ally, and some generically, from all the other Tertiary fossils yet
brought from the figir west Two of the species belong to the ex-
isting California genus Carinifex, or some closely aOied group,
while another beautifully sculptured species was thought, by Mr.
Tryon, to whom I sent a specimen of it, to be possibly a tnie
JUelania^ and allied to existing Asiatic forms.

It is an interesting fact, that among all of our fresh-water Ter^
tiary shells from this distant internal part of the Continent, nei-
ther the beaks of the bivalves, nor the apices of the spire in the
univalves, is ever in the slightest degree eroded ; even the most
delicate markings on these parts being perfectly preserved, if not
broken by some accident From this fact it may be inferred that
the waters of the lakes and streams of this region, during the
Tertiary epoch, were more or less alkaline, as is the case with many
of those there at the present day.

These descriptions, as well as others that I expect to send you
soon, are merely preliminary and will be re-written, and presented
with fidl illustrations, now m course of preparation, in Mr. Bang's
report of his survey.

3. Discovery of a Mastodon. — On Friday last, Mr. Fletcher Cor^
rell, a farmer residing one and one-half miles southeast of Illiopo-
lis, in this county, was digging a well upon his place, when, at the
d^th of about four feet trom the sur&ce, he struck a hard sub-



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Oeology and Mineralogy. 423

stance, at first supposed to be a stone or piece of wood imbedded
in the earth ; but upon digging farther, it was discovered to be
the remains of a mastodon.

The bones were in a fair state of preservation, and exhibited a
dark, spongy, porous appearance. One of the tusks, which was
broken in removing it from its long resting place, proved to be,
when measured, nearly ten feet in length, and twenty nine inches
in circumference three feet from the lower end. The other tusk,
and the main portion of the skeleton, are now being lifted from the
earth, and will probably be added to the collection of fossils now
being made by our state Geologist, Professor Worthen.



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