Rodolfo Amedeo Lanciani.

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form is concerned there are two kinds of salt in commerce ;
(a), coarse salt including salt made by solar heat, and rock salt
crushed to a suitable size ; and (b), common fine salt^ or boiled
salt obtained by artificial heat and more rapid evaporation ;
both kinds have their special market value. The amount of
salt consumed for the promotion of animal life far exceeds that
required by vegetables, but the amount demanded for meat
packing and for the dairy business is very much larger. In
the inaustrial arts, we can scarcely claim that any of our home
resources have been turned to account A proper exposition
of the various uses to which salt is applied in cnemical
manufacturing industry would be a description of one of the
most important chemical arts of the present day. To do justice
to this question would require more time than I feel entitled to
claim. I shall therefore confine myself merely to the presenta-
tion of a few statistics in regard to the quantity annually pro-
duced.

England produces from thirty to thirty-two millions of
bushels of salt, (56 lbs. each), of which seventeen millions are
used for the manufacture of soda ash, sal soda, caustic soda,
bicarbonate of soda, hydrochloric acid, bleaching powder, etc.,
etc, while about two-thirds of the rest is exported, leaving
scarcely one-fifth of its whole production for domestic consump-
tion.* The production of salt in the United States amounts at

* England abolished its tax on salt in 1823. The prioe has varied only within
narrow limits for many years past ; the production in some localities has changed
much since that time ; for instance, Worcestershire produced in 1823 but 9,000



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C. A, Chessmann on the Chemistry of Common Salt 89

present to from sixteen to eighteen millions of bushels, and the
consumption to from thirty-two to thirty-four millions of bushels ;
in other words, almost one bushel to every head of its popula-
tion. This large consumption of salt is due to our extensive
meat packing and dairy business ; the consumption for manu-
&cturmg purposes being scarcely worth mentioning. Almost
one-half of the amoimt of our present consumption, it will be
noticed, is imported. We must consequently increase our pro-
duction to twice the present amount, if we would supply our
pr^icnt demand ; and if we would support the industrial arts at
the rate England does, we must increase this production more
than three times. Our natural sources of supply would, even
in their present incomplete state of development, suffice to
ftimish the amount required. Our prospects might therefore
be considered highly gratifying, if the question of quantity
only were involv^ But as the cheapness of the raw material
and of labor are not less important points, which ought to be
duly weighed before entering upon a new industrial enterprise
in which skill and capital have for years secured a monopoly in
the market, we must acknowledge that we are not yet fully
prepared to enter the lists as successful competitors. Some
of our older salines are not yet sufficiently explored to warrant
the expectation of a cheap supply fh>m them in their present
condition, and many of our recently discovered brines are too
far from cheap communication or from centers of skill and
industry, to be to any extent available for our present emer-
gencies.

In some of the countries in Europe, where the government
holds the salt monopoly for revenue purposes, the practice has
for obvious reasons oeen adopted of taxmg the salt used for
domestic purposes, while the salt used for manufacturing pur-
poses is supplied at cost, being first rendered unfit for
domestic application by the addition of ground charcoal,
oxyd of iron, eta These additions are selected with
reference to the particular use for which the salt is
intended. May intelligently directed individual enterprise,
supported by a wise legislation, soon recognize the pro-
per means by which our home production may be best stimu-
lated, and thus our chemical industry receive the most important
element for its successful and rapid development

tons, while it0 present produ'^on is 200,000 tons; the Cheshire salt works are
ofipable of making one million of tons per year; in both cases the sources of sup-
idy exceed the demand. The Worcestershire works export annually 50.000 tons,
while the Cheshire works export 650,000 tons. The Stoke's works employ 500
hands, produce about 3,000 tons per week, consuming 1,500 to 2,000 tons of coal
A (air workman at 2s. per ton will make 28& per week. — {Chem, News^ No. 3*77,
Feb., 1867, page 88.

Amherst, Mass., August, 1869.



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90 J, L, Smith on Meteoric Stones Jrom Danville, AUu



Art. XII. — Account of a fall of Meteoric Stones near Dan-
viUcj Ala,, with an analysis of the same ; by J. Lawrence
Smith, Louisville, Ky.

Although the meteorite of Danville, Alabama, fell in Nov.,
1868, and an analysis has been made of it during the past
summer, it is only recently that I obtained a complete account
of the phenomena attending its tail.

On Friday evening, Nov. 27th, 1868, about five o'clock, Mr.
T. F. Freeman, of Danville, (about lat. 34' 30' and long. 87°
W. Greenwich), on stepping from his house, was startled bjr a
loud report, so much like artillery that for the moment its
origin was attributed to the firing of a small piece of artillery
kept in the village, but on inquiry it was ascertained that no
firing had taken place there, but that ihe sound was heard at
the village, and attributed to very heavy artillery at Decatur,
Trinity, HiUaboro, or some other point to the northward of
Danville. During the war, artill*^ry had been often heard in
the valley of the Tennessee, and various speculations were in-
dulged in as to what was meant by this cannonade at such a
time of day and in such a direction.

The following day, Mr. Wm. Brown, living three miles west of
Danville, brought to the village a piece of rock which he said
fell near him and some laborers, who were picking cotton. He
dug it up at a depth of about 1^ to 2 feet. It weighed about
4^ lbs., and had tne characteristic aspects of a meteoric stone ;
but it was broken by the party obtaining it, and all but about
half a pound, now in my possession, has been scattered and
probably lost or thrown away.

Several olher stones fell in the same vicinity. Some negroes
working in a cotton field on the plantation of Capt. McDaniel,
half a mile from Danville, heard a body fall with a whizzing,
humming sound, and strike the ground near them with tre-
mendous force ; but they were alarmed and did not approach
the spot that night ; a rain fell during the night and no trace
of it could be found the next day. Various other stones were
heard to fall in different parts of the adjacent country. Two
brothers, by the name of Wallace, were ploughing in their field,
about 1| miles N. W. of Danville ; they distinctly heard two
or three fainter reports, after the first loud one, and heard the
sound of two f lUing bodies whizzing down, one to the right
and the other to the left of them.

With the above data, and the known geography of the
country, its direction must have been N. E. and S. W., but it
is impossible to say from which of these quarters it came.



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J. L. Smith on Meteoric Stones from Danville^ Ala, 91

The portion of the meteorite that I possess has a large por-
tion of it covered with the usual black crust. Its general
aspect is rough and dull ; a portion of the outer surface, not
covered with the black coating, is nevertheless a surface that it
had when it reached the ground, for on this surface are streaks
and little patches of a bright, pitchy matter, which was once
fhsed, and was derived either from another part of the coating
that was thrown off in a melted state from the coated portion,
and whipped around, (as it were), on to the unfused surface
as the stone fell through the air, or from an incipient fusion that
was begun on the denuded surface, and arrested by the termi-
nation of the fall. Where the black crust reaches the denuded
places, it appears to be rounded off, as if it had been melted
matter passing from another portion of the stone, and rolled
over the surface of the borders.

The broken surface has a dark ^y color, and is som 3what
oolitic in structure, but not as much so as many other meteoric
stones. There are veins and patches of a slate-colored mineral
running through it. Pyrites and iron are also to be seen dif-
fused through the stone ; thin flakes of the iron giving that
slickenside-like appearance to a fracture not unfrequently seen
in this class of bodies. There seems to be more of iron in the
date-colored mineral than in the other parts. There are a few
patches of white mineral, which I take to be enstatite. The
specific gravity of the stone is 3*398.

For further examination, a portion of the meteorite was sep-
arated mechanically into three parts ; the pyrites, the metalHc
iron, and the earthy minerals. As in the case of most meteor-
ites, the earthy minerals were so intermixed that it was
impossible to separate the different varieties, three of which
were easily traceable by the eye.

The iron separated with great care from the pulverized me-
teorite constitutes 3092 per cent of the entire mass, and an
analysis furnished

Iron, 89'513

Nickel, 9050

Cobalt, 0*621

Copper, minute quantity

PIi«»ephorU8, 019

Sulpliur, 0-105

99 208
The sulphid of iron detached very carefully from the mass
of the meteorite gave

Iron, 611 1

Sulphur, 39-56

100-67



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92 J. L. Smith on Meteoric Stones from Danville, Ala.

which corresponds with the protosulphid of iron, FeS.
Whether it contains any of the sulphid known as troilite I am
not prepared to say.

The stony minerals were freed as much as possible from iron
and pyrites, and one gram treated with ten grams of hydro-
chloric acid on a water bath, and evaporated nearly to dryness,
then filtered and the filtrate well washed ; after which, the res-
idue in the filter was warmed with a sohition of caustic soda to
dissolve any silica belonging to the portion dissolved by the
acid ; it was then filtered again and washed. The result was

Sohible portion, 6088

Insoluble portion, 8912

The treatment by a solution of carstic soda or potash is of
importance for a correct result, as otherwise a portion of the
silica of the decomposed minerals will be estimated with the
portion that is undecomposed.

The insoluble portion was analyzed ; for although the anal-
ysis made in this way cannot furnish any positive indication
m regard to the true mineral constitution of the meteorite, it
is, nevertheless, an important guide. It was found to consist of

Silica, 60-08

Alumiiirt, 4*11

Protoxyd of iron, 19 85

Magnesia, 2014

Lime, 3*90



98-08
From all the circumstances connected with this mineral, its
physical characters, &c., it is doubtless a pyroxene of the au-
gite variety.

The soluble portion, owing to the unavoidable presence of a
little iron and pyrites, simply ftu-nished results on analysis
that showed it to be mostly olivine. The only matter, as a
whole, freed as much as possible from pyrites and nickeliferous
iron, gave

Silica, 45-90

Protoxyd of iron, 2364

Magnesia, 26*62

Alumina 1*73

Lime, 2-31

Soda, -61

Potash, -64

Oxyd of manganese, a minute quantity, not estimated.
Ox'yd of Chrome, »' *' "
Phosphorus, *^ *' •• »*

Lithia — marked reaction with the spectroscope.
Sulphur, 101



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A. E, VerriU on Echinoderrm and Corals^ etc. 93

The excess in the footing up of the analyses above 100 per
cent is due to the fact that a part of the iron, estimated as
protoxyd, is combined with sulphur forming sulphid of iron.

This meteoric stone is similar in every respect to that which
fell March 28th, 1859, in Harrison connty, Indiana, (which
locality I see referred to, in catalogues of meteorites, as Harri-
son county, Kentucky). This meteorite is therefore com-
posed of

Nickeliferoas Iron,

Olivine,

Pyroxene, ,

Protosulphid of iron

with minute quantities of schreibersite, chrome iron, and prob-
ably albite.

In concluding these observations on the Danville meteorite,
I cannot but feel more and more convinced of the importance
of a thorough reexamination of the mineral nature of the
meteoric stones^ and in the present case, I am not at all satis-
fied that the mineral characteristics are perfectly made out.



Art. XnX — GontrtbiUions to Zoology from the Museum of Yale
College, No. V. — Descriptions of Echinoderms and Corals from
the Oulf of California; by A. E. Verrill.

The Museum has recently received a large and important
collection of Radiata, collected by Capt J. Pedersen in the vicin-
ity of La Paz. The following notes and descriptions relate
to some of the more interesting species only.

ECHINOIDEA.

Meoma nigra VerrilL

Meoma nigra Verrill, Trans. Connecticut Acad., i, p. 317, ISBT.
Kkmia nigra A. Agassiz, Bulletin Mus. Ck)mp. Zool, p. 27. 1863.

Of this interesting species there are ten specimens in the col-
lection^ which show considerable variation from the type formerly
described by me, as well as among themselvea

The largest is 4-85 inches long, 4*25 broad, 2*10 high ; the
smallest 3*85 long, 8*40 broad, 1*76 high. The outline, as seen
from below, varies but little and is broad-oval, somewhat emar-
ginate anteriorly, obliquely truncate posteriorly, and slightly
compressed laterally, or, in other words, nearly heart-shaped.
The anal area is large, somewhat sunken, and is at the extreme
posterior end of the shell, occupying the greater part of the
truncated portion. Its form varies from regularly elliptical,
acuje at each end, to broad-oval, rounded below and acute



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94 A. JE. Verrill on Hchinoderms and Cordis

above; its position varies from nearly vertical to decidedly
oblique, and it is so nearl;^ terminal as to produce a posterior
emargination in a dorsal view of the shell In a side view some
specimens are decidedly depressed, but most are regularlj
arched, while one is decidedly elevated at the apex. There is
considerable variation in the depth of the anterior ambulacra!
groove, and also in the number and prominence of the large
tubercles, which are more or less restricted to the region enclosed
bv the peripetalous fasciole. The fasciole itself shows remark-
able variations, but does not agree at all with that of M.
^randis, as figured by Gray. The portion crossing the anterior
mterambulacral regions varies less than other parts, but in some
the intermediate transverse portion is nearly straight, in others
strongly curved and often crooked, in one it is bent up into a
right angle on each side of the ambulacral groove; its bend or
angle near the antero-lateral grooves is also variable, both in
form and extent, it being twice as large in some specimens as
in others, and in one an irregular, crooked branch passes from
the apex of the angle on the left side to the anterior groove.
In the posterior interambulacrum the course of the fasciole is
quite variable, in five examples it crosses with a strongly curved
upward bend, without any distinct angle, rising highest in four
specimens on the right side, in the other forming a nearly
straight transverse middle portion ; in three specimens it forms
a sharp angle on the right side ; in one a similar angle on the
left side ; in another there is a strong median angle, its apex
pointing to the anal region^ and another to the right of it, point-
ing to the summit ; in all the specimens it bends inward mrther
than in M, grandis. The lateral part of the fasciole also varies,
especially on the left side ; in five (but not the same five that
agree in the posterior region) it has but one angle, near the
antero-lateral grooves, where it rises highest ; in three it has two
angles, rising highest at the posterior one, and nearly straight
between ; in two othera, which also have two angles, the trans-
verse part is double. On the other side the fasciole varies in
the same way, but not in the same specimens, for some have two
aisles, both on the right and left; others two only on one
side ; others one on both sides. The anal fasciole is also vari-
able; usually the subanal branch is wanting or indistinct,
though indicated by a band of smaller tubercles, but in one
specimen it is well marked and the subanal disk is clearlv and
perfectly circumscribed. In this the subanal disk is very broad,
oilobed, narrowest in the middle, scarcely heart-shaped, the
anterior border being nearly transverse, and the posterior border
nearly parallel with the anal region and about 15 of an inch
fix)m it In others the posterior border is more curved. One
specimen has but three ovarial openings, the rest four. The



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from the Qxdfof California. 96

{»x>portionate length of the ambulacral grooves varies consider-
ably, both in different specimens and on opposite sides of the
same individual, sometimes those on the right being longest,
sometimes those on the left, and not uncommonly a longer ante-
rior one is offset by a shorter posterior one on the same side.

Mr. A. Agassiz thinks this species may be identical with M,
grandis Gray, described as from Australia, but if the figure of
the last be at all correct my specimens differ widely from that
described by Gray. The position of the anal area, esoecially, is
quite different, it being in Gray's figure at a considerable distance
m)m the posterior end, and therefore more ventral and nearer the
subanal fasciola The peripetalous fasciole is also very different
from that of any of my specimens.

Agassizia svbrotunda Gray.

Catalogue Ecfa. of BritiBh Mus., p. 63, tab. 3, fig. 2 ; YeTrfll, Proc. Boat Soc.,
Yd. xii, p. 381.

A. otnik§m Latken, Yidendc Medd., p. 184, tab. 2, fig. 8 ; YerrUl, TraoB. Oonn.
Acad., vol i, p. 320.

Of this species there were about a dozen specimens, mostly
more or less broken, which show but little variation and agree
well with Gray's figure.

Mr. A. Affassiz rc^irds this and A. ovulum Lutk. as identical
with A. $cr<mctUata VaL, which may weU be the case if the
figures in the Voyage de la Vdnus be incorrect, as he states.
The figures are certainly very unlike our specimens.

Clypeaster spedosus VerriU, sp. nov.

Dei)ressed, gradually rising toward the apex ; the lower side
sometimes sligntly concave from near the edge of the mouth,
in other specimens flat except close to the mouth, which is much
sunken. Outline oblong-pentagonal, with rounded angles and
slightly concave sides. The anterior end slightly elongated.
Interambulacral regions decidedly concave between the ends of
the ambulacral rosette ; the ambulacral re^ons enclosed by the
pores slightly raised, narrow, elongated, widening but little out-
wardly and somewhat acuminate at the end, which is often
nearly enclosed by the pores. The interambulacra are broader
and decrease much more rapidly toward the apex than in C.
Toaaceua. Anal opening tranvsersely oval, or rounded, situ-
ated about its own diameter from the edge of the shell

Length of largest specimens 4*60 inches ; breadth 8*90 ; height
115. jLength of anterior petal, fix^m the apex 1-90, its breadth
•82, breadth of enclosed space '50 ; length of anterior petals 1*70,
breadth '85, breadth of enclosed space '48 ; length of posterior
petals 1*80 and 1*85, breadth -94, of enclosed space '58 and "60 ;
diameter of anal opening "20 ; of actinal opening '88.

Thirty-five specimens of this species are contained in the col-
lection. They show but little variation in outline, except what



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96 A. K VerrUl on Echinoderms and Corals

is due to age, though some specimens are more elevated toward
the apex than others ; in regard to the flatness or concavity of
the lower side there is, however, great variation, though Dr.
Gray used this character in dividing the genus into section&
The youngest specimens are 2*30 long by 210 wide, and are
more oval in form and scarcely angular, but have the flatness
and form of ambulacra! rosette characteristic of the larger speci-
mens, as well as the same position of the anal opening.

From C. rosaceus of the Atlantic this species differs widely,
the former having a much more elevated and thick form, with
broader and more obovate ambulacra, which are much more
swollen ; the lower side is much more concave, and the anal
opening nearer the edge.

Some of the species described by Dr. Gray from the Indo-Pa-
cific faunae (C. Aiistrakisia^ C. testudinarius) seem to be more
closely allied, but only a direct comparison of specimens can
settle the true relations of these species. It may be that C.
testudinarius is the same and its locality incorrect, its outline •
being nearly identical, but the upper siae is said to be evenly
convex, ana the lower side concave from the margin.

This species is of especial interest as the first of the genus
known from the Pacific coast of America, although the genus
was known to occur on nearly all other tropical coasts.

Encope grandis Agassiz.

Of this very distinct species there arc numerous specimens in
the collection, varying in size from 3 inches in length by 8*20
wide, to 4 '60 inches by 4*40. There is but little variation in
outline and general appearance, and in all the margin is thick,
with the five large notches widely open, though in the lai^er
there appears to be a tendency to close the anterior pair. The
posterior interambulacral opening is large and broad-Oval with
thickened borders in all, but there is a variation of more than
50 per cent in its relative size ; the region around it is in all
more elevated than the central region and considerably swollen.
The form of the ambulacral rosette varies considerably. The
three anterior petals are subequal and usually long-oval,
obtusely roundea at the end, but in one case they are narrower
and more elliptical, especially the odd anterior one, which is
widest in the middle, tapering to each end, and in another they
are broader and more dilated outwardly than usual ; the two
posterior ones are much longer, widest outwardly, and curve
somewhat around the posterior opening, but they vary consider-
ably in relative width. The following are the proportions in
two extreme specimens ;



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from the QvJfof Oalifomia. 97

From abactinal center to j>osterior edge, 2*20 2*20

Center to anterior edge, 1*98 2*00

Center to lateral edge, 2*20 2*10

Length of anterior odd ambulacral petal, from center, 1*28 1*25

Greatest breadth of da, -60 -68

Breadth of its endoeed area, *20 *30

Length of antero-Iateral pair, 1*26 1*16

Breadth of do., -50 -66

BreadUi of enclosed area, . '16 -27

Length of posterior pair, ^ 1*66 1*56

Breadth of do., *46 *62

Breadth of enclosed area, *12 '20

The brandlings of the ambulacral grooves beneath are quite
constant in their arrangement, but the relative breadth and form
of the enclosed areas are quite as variable as in the dorsal rosette.
The region about the anal opening and around the posterior
foramen is sometimes deeplj concave or excavated; in most
cases slightly so ; and sometimes not at alL

Enoope CaMfornica Verrill, sp. nov.

Test broad^ thin at the edge, rounded anteriorlv, broadest
behind the middle, sub-truncate or rounded posteriorly ; usually
about as broad as loi^, sometimes broader than long. Apex
behind the center. Li profile the outline descends from the
center to the anterior edge, but rises from the center to the poste-
rior foramen, from which it descends rapidly to the edge. The
posterior interambulacrum is, therefore, swollen and the test is
most elevated near its foramen. Ambulacral rosette with the
petals long-oval, somewhat obovate, broadly roimded outwardly ;
the anterior pair shortest and most rounded ; the odd anterior one
somewhat longer and narrower and a liftle shorter than those of
the posterior pair, which are of about the same form and not
curved. Posterior foramen variable in form and size, usually
rather small, regularly oval, or rounded, sometimes long oval, or
even narrow and elongated, occasionally quite large and broad
oval, often obovate beneath, sometimes constricted in the middle.
Ambulacral foramina also quite variable in form and size, but
commonly small and rather regularly oval, often at a considerable
distance horn the margin.

Two sp^imens, showing the extreme variations, give the
following measurements :

Length of test, 4*76 4*30

Breadth, 4*66 4*30



Online LibraryRodolfo Amedeo LancianiThe American journal of science and arts → online text (page 12 of 109)