Rodolfo Amedeo Lanciani.

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ments involving diffractive action, he has produced artificial echpse-
photographs exhibiting the same appearance. But the recent ex-
periments of Prof. Morton, of which Dr. Curtis must have been
unaware, settled the question some time since by the production of
other artificial eclipse-pictures by methods which exclude diffrac-
tion, yet manifest the crepuscule as clearly as in the original pho-
tographs. Such pictures have for a considerable time been in our
possession, and Pro£ Morton found the explanation of the phenom-
enon in a local redevelopment of the negative. This explanation
seems fully to account for Dr. Curtis's results as well as for his
own.

!Mr. Lane's attention was given to teloscopic observation of the
contacts and the corona ; observations which were evidently car-
ried out with his characteristic ability, but space is unfortunately
wanting to us for a full description of his paper. Among other
things, he measured the dimensions of two of the flocculent masses,
or " cometoid bodies," in the protuberant aggregation at 110**;
and he was able to trace the outline of the moon's eastern limb for
2"* 5* after the end of the total obscuration.

!Mr. Gilman's observations were made at Sioux City, Iowa, lati-
tude 42° 47i', longitude 1^ 16'" 23«. llis memoir is illustrated by
numerous interesting diagrams, among which are sketches of spots
and faculsB on August 5, 6, and 7 . Some seconds previous to the
occurrence of totality, the great protuberance and a large portion
of the corona were seen by two of his companions. This protu-
berance (240°) was where Mr. Gilman had seen a bright double



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Astronomy. 139

facula just before the first contact. Examined with a 4-ineh tele-
scope, it appeared of an orange-color, dotted with minute flakes of
brilliant crimson. Another highly interesting fact is that four of
the party saw an object which they confidently believed to be a
star near the limits of the corona, in the neighborhood of the great
protuberance. The position described was that of ^ Ca)icri [mis-
written TtZeonis/inAstr, Nachr., Ixxiv, 375] which was seen with
one of the telescopes at Burlington. If this star was detected or
seen by the unaided eye, no higher testimony could be brought to
the keenness of the observer's vision; for its magnitude is but 5*8,
being only three-tenths of a magnitude brighter than the faintest
star visible to the average eye on moonless nights.

Mr. Bardwell, besides observing the times of contact, searched
for inferior planets, and with the same negative results which oth-
ers obtained.

Gen. Myer was at the summit of ' White Top Mountain,' near
Abingdon, Va., 5,630 feet above the sea level. lie saw the ]>right
specks noted by so many as flitting across the moon's disk, and
which some, erroneously, as we believe, have supposed to be me-
teors. With a deep-red shade-glass, " while some two digits of
the sun were still uneclipsed," he noted a luminous prominence of
yellowish color upon the moon's limb. ]Many of the details of the
total phase were distinctly visible to the naked eye in this clear
atmosphere, and when the last line of sunlight separated into beads,
the sruides exclaimed that the sun was breaking to pieces !

We have dwelt so long upon the observations within the terri-
tory of the United States, that no opportunity remains to give de-
tails regarding the observations of P*rof Hall at Behring's Straits
(latitude 64° 20', longitude 6** 25"^). After their long voyage and
hopeful endurance, they had the disappointment of seeing clouds
dnft over the sky, about an hour before the eclipse began. With-
in an hour after it had ended, the sky was cloudless again. The
sun and moon were invisible from a short time before until a short
time after totality, but the darkness was greatest between 17^
and 9 2p a. m.,— during which period there was less light than at
the midnight preceding. The report is accompanied by copious
meteorological and magnetic observations, which bear witness to
the fullness of the preparations made, and testify that nothing with-
in the control of rrof. Hall was wanting to render his results ex-
ceedingly valuable. Capt. S. R. Franklin of the United States
Steamer Mohican, saw three protuberances upon the moon's disc,
but no more. b. a. g.

2. On tlie flight of a remarkable meteorite across the Western
poHion of Ohio near Forest^ lat. 40° 50' and long. W., 84'' 40';
by J. Lawrence Smith, Louisville Ky. — A few minutes before
three o'clock on the morning of Oct. 27th, the citizens of Foiest,
and for miles around, were suddenly aroused by a terrific sound in
the upper regions like the report of a heavy siege gun, followed
by two or three reports in quick succession, resembling the reports
of field pieces fired by section, and ended in a peculiar and rather



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140 Miscellaneous Intelligence,

metallic, rumbling or roaring sound, dying away in the distance.
The interval between the first and successive reports was two or
three seconds; the other intervals about one second. The
firmest houses were shaken, windows rattled, and thousands
of sleepers were roused in an instant, bewildered at the
unusual and appaling noise; and many were the conjectures
as to what it was ; some thought it was an earthquake, but to the
greater part it was simply an inexplicable phenomenon. Persons
who happened to be awate at the time, were first startled to see
the night suddenly lighted into day, and soon relapsed again into
the usual darkness. While wondering what caused it, the stun-
ning sound broke in upon them and greatly increased the mystery.
The time between the going out of the light and the report is
estimated by citizens here at from one-half to one minute.

Mr. Pierson of Patterson, a village about one mile, a little west
of south of Forest, states that he saw the meteor coming directly
toward him, from a direction about S. 35** W. ; that it was a baU
of fire apparently as large as a bucket, exceedingly bright and
dazzling and had a luminous tail apparently thirty feet long and
three feet wide; that it vanished or exploded, as he thought,
directly overhead. At Finly, twenty miles northwest of Forest,
the statement is, that there at about 3 o'clock on Wednesday
morning, Oct. 28th, the inhabitants were aroused by a terrific
explosion somewhere in the upper regions.

The night was one of clear moonlight, and exceedingly cold for
the season. The night watchmen had witnessed it ; and one says
the he first saw it in the southeast, in size, seemingly, as large as
a beer keg, and of intense brightness ; that it descended,* leaving
a luminous streak behind, and that when near the earth, it explo-
ded, with a terrific sound, and fierce brightness ; that the light,
after the explosion, took a southerly course, and disappeared.
Another watchman reports that at the time of the explosion, it
appeared as large as a load of hay, and that the sound of the
explosion was stunning, not like a quick sharp report of thunder,
but, as he termed it, more like the coming together of railroad
cars, but much louder, and that the light was brighter than that
of the sun. The direction of the meteor from Finley, as given by
the watchman, with the bearing of the meteor's path, as described
by Mr. Pierson of Patterson, and the fact, that to many the sound
seemed nearly overhead, would indicate that it exploded or tei^
minated its course in the vicinity of Forest; yet' a careful
investigation might prove its terminus to be many miles from that
place. The sound seems to have been heard for perhaps fifty miles
around, if not more. The stones or fragments that nave fallen,
may never be found, owing to the fact that the explosion was at
night, and the consequent difficulty of determining its exact local-
ity. In Kenton, Ohio, the phenomena are said to nave occurred a
few miimtes before 3 o'clock and consequently they were not well
observed ; many persons saw the light but not the meteor, and all
were sensible of the shock and sound. The meteor did not pass



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Miscellaneous Bibliography. 141

this place nearer than twenty miles, and the best judges give its
duration at from two to three minutes from the flash to the explo-
sion. The sound was of such force as to shake the houses and
many believed it to be an earthquake.

These are all the statements I have been able to obtain in regard
to the appearance of this meteor and its accompanying phenomena.
It was beyond all doubt a meteorite, and I am using all possible
means to discover any fragments that may have fallen. I must
acknowledge the assistance afforded by Mr. Moore and Mr.
Thomson, of Ohio.

3. Elements of Asteroid (109) ; bv Wm. A. Roobbs. (From a
letter dated Alfred Observatory, Alfred, N. Y., Dec. 21st, I860.)
— ^I herewith conmiunicate for the Journal the elements of (109)
which I have computed from the following observations :

Date, W. M. T. Place of obseryation. a 6

Oct 9, 13 26 32, Hamilton Coll. Obs., 14 00 46-9+9 37 160.
Oct 31, 8 44 33, Halnilton ColL Obs., 9 11 27*8 9 54 47*8.
Oct 31, 8 44 33, Alfred Observatory, 9 11 32-4 9 64 48-0.
Nov. 28, 7 16 67, Alfred Observatory, 8 7 49-2 11 9 3-17.
Epoch Oct 90, W, M. T.



M=339 16 02'6



3Iean Eq. 1869*0






= 65 22 43-3
gt= 4 67 36-2
i = 8 4 10-6
9 = 17 16 40-7
fi =804-8304"
fog a= 4295348

For computing an ephemeris, I And :

log a;=9-9999681 + log sin (v + 146'' 19' 47"-4)
log y=9'9307966 + log sin (v + 65 46 21*1)
log 2=9-7181204 4" log sin (17 + ^4 11 42-2)

V. MISCELLANEOUS BIBLIOGBAPHY.

1. JExercises in Practical Chemistry^ by A. G. Vbbnon Hab-
couBT, M.A., F.R.S., Sec. C. S., and H. G. Madan, M.A., F.C.S.
Series 1st, Qualitative Exercises. 335 pp. 12mo, Oxford, at the
Clarendon Press, 1869. London, Macmillan & Co. — ^This little
volume is designed as the beginner's vade mecum in commencing
the study of practical chemistry in the laboratory. No attempt at
a systematic presentation of the elements of the science is here made.
The novitiate is presumed to be eaually innocent of nomenclature,
symbols and philosophy and is lea into the laboratory much as an
apprentice to a trade, and is therefore first made familiar with his
tools, and how to use them in the most simple operations before
even attempting the preparation of oxygen and otner gases. It is
illustrated by sixty-five wood cuts, mosfly new and many of them
very effective. The nomenclature is that of Williamson. Symbols



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142 Miscellaneous Bibliography.

expressing the more important reactions are given at the foot of
the pages where needed. We look with interest for the second
series on quantative chemistry.

2. On Aniline and its derivatines. A TVeatise upon the manu-
facture of Aniline and Analine Colors^ by M. Reimanx, PiD.,
L.A.M., to which is added, The report on the coloring matters
derived from coal tar, shown at the Freyich Exhibition^ 1867 ; by
Dr. A. W. HoFMANN, F.R.S., MM. G. de Laire, and Ch. Girabd.
The whole revised and edited by William Crookes, F.R.S. Ac.
8vo, pp. 164. (John Wiley and Son, Astor Place, New York,
1868. — Dr. Reimann's account of aniline and its derivatives is a
fine example of the union of exact science, with practical skill, and
as such teaches an important lesson beyond its special theme. It
could not have had a more valuable supplement than in the
admirable report of Dr. Hofmann and his associates, on the coal
tar colors shown at the French Exhitition of 1867. The book,
though published by Messrs. Wiley, was printed in London, by
Mr. Crookes at the office of the Chemical News.

3. A short Course in Qualitative Analysis^withthe New Notation*
by J. M. Crafts, Prof of General Chemistry in the Cornell Uni-
versity. 133 pp. 12mo, with five Tables. N. Y., 1869. (J. Wiley &
Son.) — Prof Crafts is well known to our readers from his frequent
valued chemical contributions. He has, in the small volume be-
fore us, attempted the solution of a problem which every chemical
instructor must meet whose duties call him to impart to a mixed
class of academic students a maximum of knowledge in a mini-
mum of time. A considerable portion of the first two chapters
is devoted to an explanation of the theory of chemical reactions
and nomenclature. The student is at once inducted into the no-
tions of modern chemistry and familiarized with atomicity and
the present chemical nomenclature. It is certain that under a
good teacher any faithful student will master the main points of
qualitative analysis by the time he has gone through the second
part of this useful little volume. Only 34 of the 64 radicals known
to chemists are treated of in this book. This brevity sometimes
mars symmetry and renders the work of the student almost too
simple, as when, for example, strontium is left out of group II.
The tables IV and V, intended to record in a compact form the
facts of analytical chemistry, are ingeniously devised by Mr. Per-
kins, to give the student exact ideas and methodical habits.

4. The Fruits and Fruit trees of America^ Jbc; by A. J. Downing.
Second revision and correction^ with large additions^ by Charles
Downing, pp. 1098, 8vo. New York, 1869. (John Wiley &
Son). — Those cultivators of fruits who have been accustomed to
handle the small duodecimo volume, which was left us by its
lamented author under the above title, will hardly recognize their
old acquaintance now grown to such portly dimensions. But the
same rural flavor and discrimination are found in the work which
Mr. Charles Downing has given us, that rendered the original edi-
tion of this work by his gifted brother a universal favorite on both
Bides of the Atlantic. But under Mr. Charles Do wning's editorship



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Miscellaneous Bibliography, 143

this work has become in fact a pomological encyclopedia, embrac-
ing a vast number of varieties of various fruits, which are of
interest to the curious reader rather than the cultivator. For
example, not less than 2800 vaneties and synonyms of the pear
are mentioned, while few cultivators in the Eastern United States
plant over twenty or thirty sorts. Fortunately for the novice in
pomology, Mr. Downing adds well considered select lists of the
various fruits, that of the pear containing about seventy varieties,
which serve to redeem the planter from chaos. The chapter on the
grape, is enriched by well drawn figures of the most approved
sorts of American origin, most of which have been produced by
cultivation since 1845, when the first edition of Downing was
published. It would have been well if the general introduction
to this fruit had been rewritten or extended to embrace important
new matters, as the sulphur treatment for Oidium Tuckeii, the later
researches on the insects infecting the vine, and the considerable ex-
periences which twenty years have given us, relating to vineyard
culture and American vines.

The title of this book reminds us that its contents do not cor-
respond to what it calls for. To one familiar with fruit culture
as It exists on the Pacific coast of the United States, Mr. Down-
ing's book appears more foreign than any European work on hor-
ticulture can to a cultivator living upon the Atlantic shores of the
continent. It would have given a completeness to the work, if
it had briefly sketched the main peculiarities of the most remark-
able fruit-growing region of North America.

6. Agricidtm*aZ Qualitative and Quantitative Chemical Anal-
ysiSj (after E. Wolff, Fresenius, Krocker and others), by G. C.
Caldwell, Professor of Agricultural Chemistry in the Cornell
University. 300 pp. New York; (Orange Judd & Co.). — ^This
work, prepared from the best sources in a thoroughly conscientious
and judicious manner, supplies a want now beginning to be seriously
felt m this country.

Prof Caldwell's book is intended to serve as a complete manual
of chemical analysis for the use of agricultural students. The
titles of its chapters are — I, Reagents. II, Analytical Operations.
m, Reactions and Methods of Quantitative Estimations. IV,
Special methods of Analysis, viz : Course in Qualitative Analysis,
including the elements encountered in Soils, Plants and Agri-
cultural Products, Estimation of Water, Organic Matter, Sulphur
and Chlorine in Organic Compounds, Separation and Estimation of
the Alkalies, AlkaU-Earths, Alumina, oxyds of iron and manga-
nese, silica and phosphoric acid. V, Analysis of Soils, Rocks and
Marls. VI, Analysis and Valuation of Fertilizers. VII, Ash-
Analysis. VIII, Analysis of Fodder and Food. IX, Wool and
Bark. X, Beverages. XI, Tables. We trust that this volume
will be studied and used by every student in our Agricultural Col-
leges, for the knowledge that can be acquired only by following
and by applying its methods is not only of the utmost importance
to the inoividual farmer, but bears most seriously upon the devel-



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144 Miscellaneotis Bibliography.

opment and conBervation of our greatest national resource, the
productive power of our soil. j.

6. Lithologie des Mere de Vancien monde, par M. Delsssb. — We
have received from the author two beautiful charts, illustrating
the above work, which we propose to notice in another number.

7. Hydraulic Motors ; translated from the French cours de
M6canique app]iqu6, par M. Bbesse, Professeur de M6canique a
I'Ecole des Fronts et Chauss^es, bv F. A. Mahan, Lieutenant
U. S. Corps of Engineers. Revised by D. H. Mahan, LL.D., Pro-
fessor of Civil Engineering, Ac, United States Military Academy.
165 pp. 8vo. 1869. New York, (John Wiley & Son.) — ^A conven-
ient and thorough treatise on the subject of Hydraulic Motors.

8. Weisha^h'a Manual of Mechanics^ vol. i, part n, 8vo. New
York, (D. Van Nostrand). — The second part of the first volume of
Weisbach's Mechanics, noticed in our last volume (p. 449), has just
been received.

9. A Practical li'eatise on Metallurgy, ad opte d from the last
German Edition of KerVs Metallurgy ; by William Crookes,
P.R.S., and Ebnst KOhbig, Ph.D., M.E. In three large volumes,
8 vo. London, (Longmans & Co. ; New York, John Wiley ifc Son, 2
Clinton Hall, Astor Place.) — ^These volumes take up the subjects in
the following order: Vol. I, Lead, Silver, Zinc, Cadmium, Tm, Mer-
cury, Bismuth, Antimony, Nickel, Arsenic, Gold, Platinum, Sul-
phur. Illustrated by 207 wood engravings. 724, pp. 1868. VoL II,
Copper, Iron. Illustrated with 273 wood engravings, pp. 876, 1869.
Vol. ni. Steel, Fuel; Supplement. Illustrated witn 145 wood-
cuts. 803, pp. 1870. We have no space at this time for a further
notice.

10. HeliquicB AquitaniccB; by Messrs. Labtbt & Chbistt,
edited by Prof Thomas Rupert Jones. Part ix, of this beautiful
work on the Arch»ology of Southern France, has been published.

Lea on the Oemta Unto. Index to Vol. zn and supplementary index to Vols, i to
XI of Observations on the Genus Unio, together witii Description of new species of
the Family UnionidsB and description of new species of Melanidae, Paludinso, Heli-
ddse, etc. Isaac Lea, LL.D., eta Philadelphia, 1869.
' Bulletin of the National Association of Wool Manufaoturera Oct, 1869. Boston.

Address delivered on the Centennial Anniversary of the birth of Alexander yon
Humboldt tmder the auspices of the Boston Society of Natural History, by Louis
Agassiz. Boston, 1869. 108 pp. 8vo.

Mammalia of Massachusetts, by J. A. Allen. 112 pp. 8ya Bulletin of the Mu-
seum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard College, Cambridge, Mas& Na 8. 1869.

Alexandeb von Humboldt, eine wissenchaftlidie Biograpbie, by Dr. C^ Bnihns,
aided by various Savans of (Germany, is soon to be Issued in two large volumes by
F. A. Brockhaus of Leipzig.

Obituary.— Thomas Gbaham, author of the exceUent ** Elements of Chemistry,'*
and since 1855 Masier of the Mint, died Sept. I6th, in his 64th year.

AxKL Joachim Ebdmann. Director of the Qeologlcal Survey of Sweden, and
eminent in Mineralogy as well as Geology, died at Stockholm on the Ist of Decem-
ber last, at the age of 55 years.

O. L. Ebdmann, the distinguished Chemist, and editor of the Journal fUr prak-
tiscbe Chemie since 1843, died on the 9th of October at Leipzig, aged 65 years

Michael Sabs, the eminent zoologlBt of Norway, and one of the first in Europe,
died at Christiania on the 22nd of October last, at the age of 65 years. The last of
his remarkable memoirs is noticed in the last volume of this Journal, (p. 142).



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THB

AMERICAN

JOURNAL OF SCIENCE AND ARTS.

[SECOND SERIES.]



Art. XVjll — Photometric Experiments. Pabt fibst. — On a
simple form of Photom/eter for ddermining the amount of LigJU
reflected by Metallic Surfaces at different incidences; by Ogdsn
K Rood, Prof of PhysicB in Columbia CoUege.

The fundamental idea of many fonns of photometer is based
on the comparison of two illuminated surfaces placed in imme-
diate juxta-position, and the iudement of the experimenter is
callea on to decide when the briffhtness of these ajjpears equal.^
If the difference of the two rival surfEu^es be considerable, the
inequality will be perceived even by an unpracticed eye, but as
the disparity is diminished the obseorver becomes less confident,
and, passing into a doubtful and dissatisfied frame of mind, is
at one mom^it inclined to consider the balance as gained, and
at the next equally certain that it has been lost It hence fol-
lows that no photometer of this form is adapted for investiga-
tions at all amiing at a refined diaracter.

Bunsen, to whom Physics as well as Chemistry is und^r so
many obligations, emplovs in the instrument which bears his
name another principle : nare, it is not the equality in the bright-
ness of two aqjacent sur£EU2es, but the actual disappearance of a
"spot'' on an illuminated ground, the powers oi the observer
bemg now taxed to a much less extent, as it is merely a ques-
tion of the visibility or invisibility of the "spot" The greet
superiority of this latter princij^le is evident £rom the mere state-
ment, and it only remains to investigate how the proposed ad-
vantage can best be realized in actual praotica It is, 1 believe,
genersJly admitted by those who have used Bunsen's photcHnetar,

Am. Joue. Sol— 8s(xnn>8nnB, Vol. XLIX, Na 14&— ICaboe, ISTOl
10



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146 0. N. Bood on Photometric JSxperimerUa.

that with it, the end proposed is only approximately attained,
the spot never becoming absolutely invisible, but merelv assum-
ing what may be termed an appearance of maximum mintnesB.
Dove* has proposed a form of photometer, the general idea of
which is not unUke that of Bunsen ; it consists of a compoimd
microscope provided with a microscopic photograph on glass,
which serves as the "screen," the intention being to illuminate
it fix)m both sides, in such a way that the photograph should
assume the same degree of brightness with its own border or
ground, and hence become invisible after compensation. In a
former number of this jonmalt I described a form of photometer
partly based on this suggestion of Dove's, and at the same
time detailed a few rough experiments that were made by its
aid. Since then I have followed iip the subject, and have ex-
amined somewhat, with the help of a more refined apparatus,
the practical application of the physical and physiological prin-
ciples involved m its more perfect construction and nse.

The microscope and microscopic photograph I dispense with, .
gaining thus not only in economy but also in delic^wjy, while the
plan of employing a silver-collodion film on glass was retained
and proved of great value, and, as will be shown in the second
part of this paper, the idea of a total disappearance of the "spot"
was at length realized to the fullest extent, when the precaution
of using an absolutely unvarying illumination was observed.
I proc^ now to describe the instrument, and will afterward
add some determinations that were made by its help.

Description of the instrument " The Screen,^^ — ^If we take a
plate of glass covered by an opaque preparation, with a sur-
face of some reflecting power, but without polish, and laying
bare a small portion of the glass, say ^y of an inch square and
having backed it up by a plate of ground glass, illuminate it
fix>nt and rear by two lights, it is evident that a mass of light
will be reflected to the eye of the observer from the opaque pig-
ment, while light coming from the second source wfll traverse
the naked portion of the plate and reach the same destination.



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