Rodolfo Amedeo Lanciani.

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Totallength, ..... 06-2™-
Transverse diameter of proximal end, - - 21*

Vertical diameter of articular head, • - 14*2

Transyerse diameter of articular head, - - 8*2

Vertical diameter of distal end, - - -Id's

Longer diameter of diaft at center, - - 8*4

Shorter diameter of shaft at center, - • 5*

The present specimen shows so many points of resemblance
to the numerus of the Thicked-billea Guillemot {OcUarractes
hmvtd Linn.), that it will probably find in this species its nearest
living representative. It indicates, however, a somewhat larger
bird ; and on carefully comparing the humeri of the two, some
marked differences may be detected, which are quite sufficient
to prove the species distinct The most important of these
are the following : — ^The head of the humerus in the fossil
specimen is more obtusely rounded, both transversely and
vertically; the two grooves, on the inner surfitce of the
distal extremity, for the tendons of the triceps muscle, are of
nearly equal width, the upper depression being somewhat wider
than the other, but in C. lomvia Linn, the lower groove is much
the broader; the ulnar condyle has, moreover, on its inte-
rior surface, a small obtuse tubercle, extending upward and in-
ward, as in the humerus of the Great Auk {Aim impennis Linn.),
while this projection is wanting in the Thicked-billM Gxiillemot ;
the lower face of the same condyle also differs from that of Ae
latter species in forming a much narrower crescent ; and in
several minor points of structure a similar want of correspond-
ence mav be seen.

A right humerus, closely resembling the preceding specimen,
and evidently belonging to the same genus, was presented to
the Philadelphia Academy a few years since by Dr. A. C.
Hamlin, who obtained it in the Post-tertiary clays, near
Bangor, Maine, at a depth of forty-seven feet below the surface.
It appears to be distinct from the above species, as well as from,
C, lomvia Linn., and will be described at an early day by the
writer, in a paper now in course of preparation on the remains
of some Quaternary birds.

Ghrus Haydeni Marsh, si^ nov.
The various explorations that have been made in the Tertiary
deposits of the Upper Missouri region, so remarkably rich in
mammalian remains, have, strange to say, brought to light but
a single fragmentary specimen which can with certainty be
refened to the class of oirds ; although the material collected



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(X d Marth an OtdaeeouB and Tertiwry Birds. 216

there has heeaa car^illy examined for these foseilB by several
paleontologi8t& The only specimen hitherto detectea was ob-
tained by Dr. F. Y. Hajaen, several years since, in the later
Tertiary beds of the Niobrara river. It is the distal extremity
of a left tibia, one of the most common, and most characteristic
parts of fossil birds, and indicates unmistakably a large species
of the genus Orus, or Orane& Although the specimen is some-
what injured, the most important parts are well preserved, and
appear to exhibit good distmctive characters. Tne innw arti-
cular condyle is partially broken away, but was evidently much
narrower than the other, and is continued &r backward as a very
sharp ridge. The outer condyle is somewhat flattened below,
and Its posterior extension projects beyond the surface of the
shaft, although not so £Eur as that of tne inner condyle. The
trochlear space is rather narrow, and has its deepest part inside
of the median line. It is shjghtly concave transversely below,
and deeply so posteriorly. TqjB ecto-condyloid surfece is con-
cave, but has a low tubercle just in front of its central point
The supratendinal bridge is very broad, internal, transverse, and
its suriace is concave vertically. It spans a very narrow, but
deep, internal canal The lower outlet is subtriangular in out-
line, and looks obliquely forward and downward. The supe-
rior aperture is broadly oval, and the upper edge of the bridffe
is continued slightly above it on either side of the canal The
lower opening has its upper, straight margin slightly rounded,
and its tower edge is formed by a sharp ridge, wmch separates it
from the nearly flat intercondyloid space. External to this
aperture is a prominent tubercle, which has its inner edge on
the median line, and is connected above by a low ridge with the
outer elongated tubercle for the attachment of the oblique liga-
ment A more prominent crest extends obliquely downwara,
and unites it with the external condyle. The inner margin of
the canal is bounded by a weU defined ridge, which, lust above
the bridge, is inflected over the edge. Externally, the margin
of the canal is low, and indistinct The groove K)r the tendon
of the short tibial muscle is well defined, and bounded out-
wardly by a low ridge, which causes a projection on the exterior
sur&ce of the shaft.
The principal dimensions of this specimen are as follows : —
Length of portion preserved, - - - ai* mm.

Depth of external condyle, - - 19*2

Width of supratendinal bridge, - - - 7*2

Width of upper outlet, - - - 2*4

Width of lower outlet, - - - 8-0

TraiMverse diameter of shaft where broken, - 12*6

Antero-poeterior diameter of shaft where broken, 8*2

Tina specimen, also, belongs to the Academy of Natural



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216 0, G. Marsh on Oretaceous and Tertiary Birds.

Sciences in Philadelphia, and the extinct species it indicates is
named for Dr. F. V. Hayden, whose explorations have added so
much to our knowledge of the geology of the Upper Missouri,
and Eocky Mountain r^ons.

Oraculus Idahensis Marsh, sp. nov.

A collection of Tertiary fossils fix>m Idaho, lately received
by Professor Newberry, of Columbia College, contained the
greater portion of the left metacarpal bone of an aquatic bird,
which he has kindly loaned to the writer for examination.
The specunen is in perfect preservation, and has such marked
characters tl\at it wul evidently admit of at least approximate
determination. Among the most prominent features of the
fossil, at its proximal extremity, are, the great anterior projec-
tion of the radial apophysis, which is also elevated, and its su-
perior portion considerably compressed ; the deep anterior car-
pal fossa, which extends mto the base of the carpal articular
surfisMje ; the very deep and narrow posterior carpal fossa, which
is auriform in outline, and extends obliquely inward and for-
ward; and the internal and oblique position of the smaller
metaciaipal bona The pisiform tubercle on the inner surfece is
of medium size, and its summit nearly flat A sharp ridge ex-
tends from its anterior edge directly upward to the margin of
the articular surfaca The groove in fix>nt of this tubercle is
very deep and broad. The fossa for the attachment of the in-
ner lateral ligament of the wrist is also deep, and has, apparently,
a small pneumatic opening near its center. The smaller branch
of the metacarpal bone was slender, and but little separated
fix)m the larger ona Its outer edge at its superior attachment
is on the median line, and opposite to this point, on the outer
posterior edge of the large metacarpal, there is a small tubercle,
to which the superior flexor muscle of the hand was attached.
The lower extremity of the specimen has, unfortunately, been
lost

The principal dimensions of this metacarpal bone are as fol-
lows : —

Length of portion preserved, - - - - 46*""'

Transverse diameter of proximal extremity, - 16 -2

Diameter through pisiform tubercle, - - - 8*1

Width of carpal articular surface, - - - '7'2

Length of raoial apophysb, - - - - 12*
Distance from inner superior edge to union of

metacarpals, 18*6

Greater diameter of large shaft where broken, 5'4

The species represented by this ft>ssil appears to have been
related to the Cormorants, and may be placed provisionally in
the genus Oracuhis; the metacarpal of which the present speci-



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A. K VerriU on Shells /rom the Gulf of ddi/omia. 217

men resembles in nearly all important particulars. The most
marked difference between them is the presence in the latter of
Ae anterior carpal fossa. This interesting specimen, the only
fossil bird bone yet found west of the Eocky Mountains, is
fix)m a fresh-water Tertiary deposit, probably of Pliocene age,
on Castle Creek, Idaho Territory.

In addition to the acknowledgments made in the course of
the present article, the writer desires, in conclusion, to express
his gratefdl thanks to Professor Joseph Leidy, of Philadelphia,
who generously placed in his hands jot exammation the various
bird rranains already mentioned as belonging to the Academy
of Natural Sciences in that city. A more complete description,
with illustrations, of all the remains here brieny noticed, and a
determination of their nearer relations to living species, as well
as the conclusions their discovery suggests, are reserved for a
future commimication

Yale CoHege, New Hayen, Coim., Feb. let, 1870.



Akt. XX VL — ContribiUions to Zoology from the Museum of Yale
GoUege. No. VL — Descriptions of Shells from the (htlf of
California; by A. E. Verbill.

Having in preparation faunal catalogues of the extensive
collections of mollusca in the Museum of Yale College, col-
lected in the Gulf of California by Capt J. Pedersen, and at
Panama, San Salvador, Peru, and other localities on the West
Coast of America bv Prof F. H. Bradley, it seems useful to
notice here some of the more interesting and new species.
These will hereafter be more fiilly described and figured in the
Transactions of the Connecticut Academy. Most of the follow-
ing species were obtained by pearl divers near La Paz.

Semele Junonia Verrill, sp. nov.

A large, broad, somewhat oval species ; anteriorly much pro-
longed and broadly rounded ; posteriorly shortened, strongly
plicated, the extremity broadly obliquely truncate. Surface
covered with regular, nearly equidistant, elevated, strong, con-
centric lamellae, which are not close, except near the umboes,
but bevond the plication become fainter, oblique, and parallel
with tne truncated posterior edge; interstices broadly con-
cave, smooth, with fine radiating grooves in the larger speci-
mens, and also sometimes with concentric striae. Epidermis
thin, shining, yellowish brown. Beaks but little prominent ;
dorsal edge o/^the right valve overlapping the ligament and
even more overlapping the edge of the left valve in front of the
beaks. Hinge stout and broad, its inner edge very sinuous ;



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218 A. E. Verrm on Shells Jrom the Oid/of OoUifarma.

the internal ligament strongly divergent £rom the margin, its
plate obliquely concavely truncate posterioriy; lateral teeth
stout, obtuse. Palial sinus large, broadly rounded, reaching
about the middle, its sur&ce finely striated and iridescent
The color of the interior is usually a rich pink or deep flesh-
color, lighter about the hinge ; sometimes yellowish or bright
orange ; externally generally orange-yellow, with the umboes
bright orange-yellow. One large specimen is pale yellow, with
bright lemon yellow umboes ; tne inside yellowish white with
the palial sinus and broad concentric bands pinkish.



Length,


316


indie&


2-56


2-35


1-44


Height


2-66


It


2-20


2^05


116


Breadth,


1-40


«i


112


•90


•52


Apex to anterior end,


210


t(


1-86


1^60


100


Plication to posterior end,


•80


II


•60


•50


•32


Palial sinus from edge,


1-85


ti


1^50


1-38


•86


Breadth of do.,


•87


tt


•74


•62


•32



Near La Paz, — Capt J. Pedersen. Six fresh specimens, the
valves mostly together. Obtained by pearl divers.

This fine species is allied to S. rosea and S. Jovis, The latter,
as figured by Reeve (Icon., voL viii, PL v, 84), is similar in form
and somewhat in color, but the lamellae are closer, and the pli-
cation is nearer the posterior edge. The hinge and palial sinus
afe not described, and the locality is uiikno¥m.

S, rosea (Sowerby, 1882) was aescribed from a single valve

found at Tumbez, rem. It is more orbicular and the lamella

are much closer.

Semde formosa.

Amphideama formosum Sowerby, Proa of the Committee of Sdenoe and Corres-
pondence of the Zo5L Soo of London, Part II, 1332, p. 199 ; Reeve, Icon., viii, PL
It, fig. 27.
Semeleformota Adams, Genera, ii, p. 411.

Of this lovely species two fresh specimens with the valves
together and two fresh odd valves were obtained with the pre-
ceding.

The form is much like that of S. Junonia^ but the anterior
dorsal edge is not concave, does not overlap, and the beaks are,
therefore, even less prominent The sides are covered with
close, more or less irregular, often slightly oblique, concentric,
rounded ribs, which are often ftircate, especially at the posterior
fold, separat^ by intervals of about their own width, ana become
verv fine and close toward the apex, and often interrupted and
nodulose on the umboes and anteriorly; beyond the strong
posterior plication they are stouter, irregularly bent up and
crowded, toward the apex rugose. Hinge less stout than in
the preceding, the internal ligament more parallel and nearer to
the margin, its plate not truncately terminated. Palial sinuB
large, broadly rounded, iridescently striated.



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A. M VerrtU on Sieibfram ^ Gtd/of OcUi/brnda. 219

The color is varied with white, light lemon-yellow, rosy,
brown, and purple; these colors bang arranged partly in
numerous rays, partly in spots and patches. Usually there are
many alternating narrow rays of white and rosy, the other
oolors being more irregularly distributed, but in one specimen
tiiere are a&o regular rays of yellow on one valve. Inside the
larger specimens are pinkish white, the middle and umbonal
regions bright yellow, the ligament plate deep purple; but
sinaller specimens are mottled with purplish red and yellow.

The largest specimen is 2*76 inches long; 2*25 high; 1-06
Inroad ; the palial sinus 1*62 long, from edge ; '85 wide.

Semde venusta (A. Adams, 1858) is perhaps only the young
of this species. It was from West Columbia.

Callista poUiccaris.

Cwpenter, Ann. and Mag. Nat Hist, yoL ziii, p. 312, 1866.
Dioneprora var., Reeve, Ckmch. Icon., ziy, PL x, fig. 46, {non Conrad).

Several specimens of this rare and beautiful species were
obtained, which show considerable variation, especially in color.
Most of these are more transversely oval and less rounded below
than the specimen figured by Eeeve. The posterior end is
always a little compressed and somewhat obhquely truncate.
Ligamentary area long and narrow, sU^htly excavate, wrinkled.
The sides are smooth and polished, fin^ concentrically striated ;
posteriorly and anteriorly obliquely corrugately wrinkled in
most of the specimens, but in eome^ especiaUy the smaller ones,
the anterior wrinkles are obsolete, and sometimes also the
posterior onea Palial sinus large, broad and ovaL Some
specimens are white, with onlv a few small specks or waved
Imes of orange-brown, and a few stripes of the same color on
the ligamentary area, the apex orange, upper part of lunule
brown ; more Qommonly the color is yellowish with concentric
waved or zigzag streaks and spots of orange-brown, sometimes
with imperfect radiating bands of the same color in addition ;
a large specimen is thus marked for about an inch from apex,
beyond which it is white, faintly specked with brown. One
la^e specimen is nearly white with many radiating bands of
orange- brown on one valve ; on the other oiffused orange-brown,
lighter above, crossed by many radiating darker brown banda
Another is darker chestnut-brown below, yellowish white
toward the umboes, but destitute of bands and spots. Some
of the smaller specimens have a purplish brown stain within,
crossing the palial sinus ; others are pure white.



Length,


210


inchefl.


208


1-76


•88


Height,


1-60


(1


1-46


1-26


•66


Breadth,


100


it


100


•80


•44


Apex to posterior end.


1-76


u


1-68


1*36


•68


Palial mnoa from edge,


116


(1


110


•96


•46



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220 A, R VerriU an Shells from the Qvifof Ckdifomia.

Near La Paz, — Capt J. Pedersen.

This species belongs to the subgenus, CkD^yatia^ of Homer.

Tivela elegans^ sp. nov.

The form is regular, transversely subelliptical, triangular above,
nearly equilateral, slightly swollen at the umboes ; the beaks but
little prominent Ligament short ; lunule elongated, distinctly
defineo. Hinge narrow, not very strong. In the left valve
the anterior tooth is prominent, about its own breadth from the
beak ; four principal cardinal teeth, nearly equally divergent,
rather thin, the posterior one bilobed, the marginal lobe pro-
longed ; in the nght valve four principal, ttin cardinal teeth,
the middle ones most prominent, rugose, palial sinus large,
broadly rounded, reaching nearly to the middla

The La Paz specimens show great variation in color.
Some are white with a few posterior oblique lines or spots of
reddish brown; others are broadly indistinctly rayed and
posteriorly wave-striped with lighter and darker gr^.yisn brown,
leaving the umboes and two narrow radiating bands yellowish
whita One is intricately and beautifully painted with rich
reddish brown, m regular, concentric, waved and angulated
bands, becoming zigzag posteriorly, with several median inter-
rupted white rays, which diflfer on the two valves, and the
posterior edge stained deep brown ; this is deej) purple within,
except apical and anterior and posterior whitish spots. The
lighter specimens are white within, except a spot of purplish
about each muscular scar.

The San Salvador specimens present many other variations
in color, but are mostly white, more or less profusely painted
with chestnut-brown in various concentric, more or less waved
and angulated bands, or in interrupted rays ; in some the color
is yellowish brown; in others the ground -color is reddish
brown, with darker bands. The beaks are sometimes, but not
usually, purplish ; the interior generally white, with a purplish
umbonal stam.

T, degana, T, ffindm.

Length, 1*02 inchea *98 *82 *74 '65

Height, -78 « -80 -65 -68 62

Breadth, -48 " -60 -42 -40 -60

La Paz, — Capt J. Pedersen ; Acajutla and Bealejo, — ^F. H.
Bradley.

This species varies somewhat in form, but is nearly always
more traverselv oval than T. ffindsii, of which we have typical
specimens both from San Salvador and Zorritos, Peru, wnich
agree exactly in form and color with Eeeve's figurea T. Hvndsii
is short, triangular, with very swoll^i umboes, and theposterior
end longest and a little produced, its sinus much smaller, and
the ligament very short, the hinge stouter, with the lateral



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A. E. Verrill on SheUsfrom the Ghdfqf Oali/omia. 221

teeth nearer the cardinal, and the latter more crowded and
stonter. T. radiata is less regular in form than T. elegans^ with
much smaller sinus and broader and stoater hinge, a much
longer ligament, sharper lateral tooth, and more numerous and
more divergent cardinal teeth, the posterior ones being much
more elongated.

The name, Trigona (Meg., 1811), is not only later than Tivela
(Link, 1807), but was previously used among Hyemenoptera
(Jut. 1807). It has also been used in Crustacea (Latr., 1817).

Venus isocardid, sp. nov.

A large, rounded, thick, and swollen species, cordate in fix)nt,
with a oroad deeply excavated lunule ; with the sculpture
entirely concentric, — ^the stout, elevated, rather close, slightly
recurved and flattened ribs separated by deep interstices in which
there are several very thin, crowded, slightly elevated lamellae.

Umboes prominent^ swollen, the beaks much recurved, not
marginal ; doreal outline convex, broadly rounded and a Kttle
produced posteriorly; evenly rounded ventrally; anterior end
short, deeply indented by the very broad and sunken lunule,
which is smoothish and surrounded by a distinct groove, broadly
cordate, extending between the beaks. Ligamentary area nar-
row, smooth on the left valve, the concentric sculpture extending
over it on the right valve, which overlaps beyond the ligament
Muscular scars and palial line strongly marked, the sinus of
moderate length, tapering to an obtuse point, about as deep as
the width of the posterior muscular scar. Hinge stout, the ante-
rior tooth in the right valve elevated and stout ; central much
larger, slightly bilobed; posterior one much elongated, and
strong. In the left valve there is a small, conical, tubercular,
anterior tooth ; first cardinal elevated, stout triangular ; followed
by a stout strongly bilobed one ; posterior one confluent with
the ligament plate, long and curveo, less elevated.

Exteriorly more or less stained and blotched with brownish ;
interiorly tinged with light orange near the umboes.

Length 3-25 inches ; height 3*80; breadth 2-50; breadth of
lunule '68 ; length of palial sinus -60.

Near La Paz, — Capt J. Pedersen. Two fresh specimena

This massive species is allied to V. rugosa of the West Indies,
which it resembles in form and sculpture, but it has a different
and stronger hinge. The posterior tooth of the right valve,
especially, is much larger and longer, extending beyond the
middle of the ligament In the left valve the posterior tooth is
also much elongated and reaches beyond the middle of the liga-
ment, but it is much less elevated than in V. rugosa^ and less
separated from the ligament plate, there being only a shallow
groove between.



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222 A. R Verria on SheOsfrom Ae Qu^of Oaii/omia.

It belongs to the typical Venus^ as restricted by Messrs. H.
and A. Adams and most recent authors, but Rdmer has given
the subgeneric name, Ventricolaj to this group.

Ohione tumen&f sp. nov.

A stout, thick, often swollen, subtriangular, somewhat beaked
species, with broad, swoUen, rounded, concentric ridges or undu-
lations, increasing in size from the beaks to the margin, with
&int radiating sculpture on the upper side of the ridges. The
dorsal outline is nearly straight, tne ligament groove broad and
deeply excavated, smoothish in both valves, with a short liga-
ment; posteriorly slightly truncate ; ventraUy broadly roundea ;
anteriorly rounded and a little produced ; the lunule broad-oval,
deeply sunken, smoothish, or marked with slight radiating
lines. Beaks a little recurved, marginal The concentric ridges
or swellings are 12 or 14 in number, those near the beaks quite
small and close, but rapidly becoming broader and more ele-
vated ; so that the last three occupy an inch or more in breadth ;
their upper surfece is somewhat flattened and marked by low,
OTOwdwi, radiating ridces, which are obsolete, or nearly so, on
their outer sida The ninge is stout, its inner edge sinuous ; the
small anterior tooth in the right valve is thin and but slightly
elevated ; the central one stout, triangular and elevated ; in the
left valve the anterior tooth is stout, somewhat triangular and
acute, as much elevated as the central tooth, but not so stout
Palial sinus quite smalL Color externally, whitish, yellowish,
or light brownish, variously marked and blotched with dark
brown, which is sometimes in large radiating bands or spots,
intermixed with narrow angular lines ; at other times the brown
markings are so numerous and crowded as to nearly conceal the
ground color; within whitish, or with a dark purple stain pos-
teriorly.

Length, 1*60 inoheB. 1*48 indies.

Hei^ 1'65 " 1-35 •«

BreiMltib, 1-20 " 1*10 **

Apex to posterior ead, 1-46 '« 1-26 *<

La Paz, — Capt J. Pedenien. Forty-two specimenB, mostly
odd valyea

This species is very distinct from all otiners in its form and
peculiar broad swollen ridge& It slightly resembles C. stinffi-
OrtoaiOy especiaHj in color, but in the latter the first ridges are
lamellar and tjie later ones much smaller, more numerous, and
less swollen, while the shell is less beaked, the umboes less swol-
len, and the anterior edge is much less recurved and diorter,
but the post^or more pdnted. The hinge in 0. iumens is aJso
much broader and stouter, with the innmr edge much more sin-
uous and the teeth longer and stouter.



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A. K VerriU on SheOsJrtm the Oulfof CaltfomicL 228

Chione succinctcu

Vmwi muemda Yal , in Hmnb. Bee. d'Oiba., yoL ii, PL 48, fig. 1, p. 219, 1833,
(t. P. P. Carpenter).

F. Imtcadon Sowerby, Proc. ZooL Soe. Lond., p. 43, 1836.

V, CaUfornimais Broderip, op. dt, p. 43 ; Reeve, loon*, PL zi, fig. 36, (ncn V,



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