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OaUfomiana Ood.).

r. JfuUaaU Oonrad, Jour. A<»d. Nat Sd PhiL, yii, p. 260, PL 19, fig. IS, 1831 ;
Reeve, loon., PL xiii, fig. 49, 1863.

Chione Bttednda Carpenter, Rep. Brii. Aaaoa, 1863, pp. 669 and 620.

A fine series of this species is contained in the collection,
including about fifty fi-esh specimens with valves together, and
over a hundred odd valves of all sizes. These show considera-
ble variation and confirm the synonymy of Dr. Carpenter, as
given above.

In this species the shell, when adult, is thick and heavy,
generally wnite, or nearly so, externally and internally, except
that there is usually a deep purple stain posteriorly within, and
often two spots or short triangular radiating bands near the
apex, which is oflien purple or brown at tip. The form is some-
imat triangular ovate, with the umboes and beaks quite prom-
inent and recurved The lunule is sometimes brown, gene-
rally narrow and ribbed ; the ligamentary area is excavate,
smooth on the right valve, and often nearly so on the lefb,
though more commonly the concentric ribs extend around upon
it in the form of crowded, more or less prominent wrinkles or
slight folds ; it is generally tinged with light brown or purple,
on the right valve sometimes striped transversely with deep
brown.

The sculpture is quite variable in the prominence and dis-
tance between both the radiating and concentric ribs, especially
the latter. Over the umboes the radiating ribs are strong, and
either alternate with smaller ones, are arranged by twos or uirees,
or are nearly uniform for some distance ; posteriorly they be-
come obsolete or nearly so, and in lai^e specimens they grad-
ually £Eule out and disappear at 2 to 2'6 inches from the apez^
where the concentric ribs generally b^in to hecome strongei^,
crowded, and more recurved. The concentric ribs on the
umbomal region are generally 10 to 16 of an inch distant,
toward the apex closer, and toward the base closely crowded,
though not always so. The hinge is very strcmg, the teeth large,
and uie palial sinus very smaU.

Some of the larger specim^is give the following measuxe-
ments:



Length,


2-86


iaahei


1 2*66


2^6


2*60


Hei^^t,


2-86


(i


2tO


2'U


2-65


Breadth,


1-66


(1


1-60


ito


1-60



La Paz, — J. Pedersen. It appears to live buried in sand or
mud with only the posterior end exposed, which is therefore
more or lees worn and discolored in large qpeoiTBiFma



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224 A. R VerriU on SheUsfrom the Ghdfof (kdifamia.

Chione undcUeUa,

VtnM undatdOa Sowerby, Proc ZooL Soc. Load., iiif p. 22, 1836 ; Reeve, loon.,
xiv, PL 16, fig. 68.

V, nsglecta Gray, Voyage Blossom, p. 161, PL 41, fig. 8, 1839, (t P. P. C).

F. aimiUima Sowerby, Thes. Conch., xvi, p. 708; Reeve, Icon., fig. 44.

V. perdix VaL, Voyage, sur la f^egate la V^nus, PL 16, fig. 2, 1846.

V. aubrostrata Reeve, Icon., ziv, fig. 64, 1863, (non Lam.).

(f) V. baind(Ua(par8\ Reeve, loon., PL 22, fig. 106 •

C?iioM undakUa Desk, CataL Veneridie of Brit Mus., p. 141.

A large series of this variable species was obtained, which
shows that several nominal species nave been based on charac-
ters that have no constancy. In its most normal condition it is
more swollen, less triangular above, with the anterior end less
produced, and the beaks much less prominent than the preced-
ing. The sculpture, though variable, is similar, but generally
the concentric ribs are closer and more regular. The lunule
and ligamentary area are similar, but the latter is perhaps gene-
rally rougher on the right valve or both. The hinge is scarcely
dirorent, though somewhat variable with age, but tne posterior
tooth is perhaps generally somewhat longer, and the inner edge
of the hinge-plate a little more sinuous. The palial sinus, as
in the preceding, is very small The color is quite variable. It
is rarely perfectly white ; more commonly externally buff or
light cream-yellow, with transverse, waved or zigzag irregular
stripes and radiating, often interrupted bands and irr^ular
patches and spots of orown, sometimes also of purplisL Some-
times the brown markings are very light and scarcely distinct,
the general color being buff; sometimes the markings are all
regmarly deeply angulated or zigzag lines, except on the umboes,
which are blotched with brown ; the apex is often bright brown
or purplish ; the broad radiating bands are frequently three or
four in number and very distinct ; many are merely mottled
and spotted. Internally there is generally at least a more or
less extended posterior purple stain; frequently the whole
interior is tingea with a rich reddish purple, deepest outside of
the palial line, with the hinge teeth bright red or lilac ; some-
times the interior is pure white. The lunule and ligamentary
area are usually stained or spotted with brown, the ktter oft«n
with regular transverse stripes on the left valve.

In the var, simillima the radiating ribs are much finer pos-
teriorly, fimbriating the concentric lamellae, but there is also
some appearance of this in the typical form, and some specimens
have this form of sculpture for an inch fix)m the apex, beyond
which it fades out and the lamellae are smoothish, or but slightly
wrinkled.



Leogtfa,


206 i


inoihes


. 1-96


1-90


1-80


Height,


1-96


<t


1-86


1-66


166


Breadth,


1-30


i(


1-30


106


110



La Paz, — J. Pedersen. With the preceding.



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A. R VerriU on Skdkjnm the Qvlfof California. 225

This species is very closely allied to O. mocinda^ and although
the ordinary adult specimens are quite different in form and
color, there are specimens which are, to a considerable extent,
intermediate. It is also nearly impossible to satisfiactorily sepa-
rate young specimens, half an inch in diameter or smaller.

Papyridea buMata Sw. var. Cah/omica, nov.

In form and color like the ordinary West Indian specimens,
but perhaps a little more elongated than the average Atlantic
form. Sculpture also similar in all respects, except that the
radiating ribs are more prominent in the middle ana especifidly
over the umboea The hinge shows some differences. In both
valves the anterior lateral tooth is less prominent, narrower,
and smaller, and the ligament plate is more prolonged and not
so squarely truncate, reaching to or beyond the center of the
posterior lateral tootL The color externally is generally yel-
lowish-white variously mottled and spotted witn purplish brown ;
internally white, more or less stained with purple ; one speci-
men is mottled with orange extemaUy, and stained within with
the same color, like some of the West Indian. The largest
specimen is 1*75 inches long and 1*88 higL

La Paz, — J. Pedersen. Ten specimens.

Cardita GuvierL

Broderip, Zo^ Soa, Proc. of Comm. of Scienoe, p. 56, 1832.
Oardm MicheUrd VaL, Voy. VAius, PL 22, fig. 6, 1846.
Actincboku Owneri Adams, G^enera Rea MoH, ii, p. 487, 1858.

Four large specimens of this rare and interesting species were
obtained. They vary but little in form, color, or sculpture*
In all the beaks are strongly recurved, umboes very prominent^
the posterior depression strongly marked, the ribs very stout,
flattened, transversely nodose, with deep square-cut grooves
between. The color is deep mahogany brown, varying in
shade ; within white.

Length, 2*50 indies. 2*10 2-15

Height, 2-46 " 220 216

Breadth, 2*25 *' 1*80 1-65

La Paz, — J. Pedersen. From pearl divera

Ckrdita crasaa.

Gray, Voyage of the Bloeeom, p. 152, PI. 42, fig. 4, 1839, (t P. P. Carpenter).
Aetmobokta cramu Adams, loc. dt, p. 487.

This species appears to be more common than the last It is
more pomted, witn the beaks less recurved ; the posterior de-
pression less marked ; the ribs fewer, less prominent, low and
rounded, with the interspaces, broad, shallow, concave, concen-
trically wrinkled. Color deep reddish brown ; sometimes with

Am. Jodb. Soi.— SicoiiD Sbbiss, Vol. XLIX, No. 148.— Maboh, 1870.
15



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226 A. R V&rriU an Shdbfrom tke Qvlfof CaUfomia.

triangular lateral, or posterior transverse spots of yelloi?y^, the
beaks white.



Lengtli, 1-90 inches.


1-96


•«6


Height, 2*20 "


210


•67


Breadth, 106 "


1-50


•60


Paz, with last, — J. Pedersen.







Loripes edentulotdeSj sp. nov.

Closely allied to L. edentula of the West Indies and Gulf of
Mexico.

It is subglobose, and much more swollen than L. edentulou
The apex is more prominent and curved, and the lunular region
more deeply excavated The ligament is shorter and its sup-
porting plate is not so stout, and its inner edge but little ele-
vated above the ligament groove.

Length 1'65 ; height 1-50 ; breadth 110.

La Jraz, — J. Pedersen. One specimen.

This is of special interest as another Gulf of Califomia shell
closely allied to a characteristic West Indian species. A large
series of specimens might, perhaps, connect the two forms, but
at present it seems necessary to keep them separate.

Xenophora rdbusia^ sp. nov.

Shell large, elevated, regularly conical Whorls seven or
more, overlapping, bearing large pebbles and fragments of shells
and corals intermingled, exposed siu&ces roughly corrugately
wrinkled,* much crowded. Base broad, concave, densely and
finely corrugated, spirally rudely costate by the lines of growth ;
yellowish brown. Aperture large, the inner lip and cdumella
with a thick, lustrous, deep brown callus, which extends into
the shell Umbilicus closed by the reflexed inner Up.

Height, 2-36 in^es. 1-90

BreAdth, 2''76 ** 2^20

Length of last whorl, ^86 '* 80

Near La Paz, — J. Pedersen. Two fresh specimena

One of the specimens bears some large fragments of a shell

that appears to oe Chiane undateUa, the sculpture and color being

preserved.

This genus appears to have been previously unknown on the

west coast

JBnasta Pioderseniiy sp. nov.

Shell small, rather slender, elongated; the spine r^ularly
conical, acute, about two thirds the length of the body whorl ;
each whorl much flattened below the suture and encircled by a
row of rounded tubercles ; the body whorl with low, rounded,
longitudinal costas below the tubercles. Whole surface finely
longitudinally sidcated or striated, on the upper whorls also
transversely striated. Aperture narrow, contracted above, the



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A. E. VerriU m SheUsfrom the Oul/of OaU/omia. 227

outer lip much thickened, the edge subreflexed, bearing at about
the uppa: third a stout tubercle, below which it is crenulately
toothed within ; contracted at base by another small tubercla
One specimen, probably immature, lacks the tubercles and
cpenulations ; columella with about seven plaits, the four lowest
largest Siphon narrow, a little prolonged and recurved, with
acute edges. Color fulvous brown, specked with bluish white,
with an interrupted band, or spots, of deep brown below the
suture, a pale band over the tuoercles and another, bordered
with brown, below the middle of the body whorL Length 1
inch ; breadth '50 ; length of body whorl '63 ; length of aper-
ture -68 ; breadth 12.

La Paz, — J. Pedersen. Five specimens.

This species is closely allied to the next, but is more slender,
with the spire more acute, smaller tubercles and costee, a more
prolonged and recurved siphon, and more contracted aperture.
The surfiwe is not smooth and the color is lighter.

Lyria {Enceta) CumvngiL

V<9Ma Owmkigii'BndL,, ZoaL Soc. Proc of Gomm. of Sdenee, 1832, p. 83.
Lyria (Enata) Ommgii Adams, Genera, p. 167, 1858.

Our specimens are rather stout and solid, with large swollen
tubercles and costae, and a smooth polished sur&ce. The best
^ecimeu lacks the tubercle on the inside of the outer lip, which
is somewhat flaring and much thickened. The siphonal notch
is scarcely prolonged and not recurved. The color is dark and
rich brown, mottled and spotted with light bluish and flesh-color,
with submedian and tubercular interrupted paler bands on the
last whorl and an interrupted band of deep brown spots below
the suture on the spine ; interior salmon-color.

Length I'SS; breadth -75; length of body-whorl 'SS; aper-
ture •23 broad ; '82 of an inch long.

La Paz, — J. Pedersen. Three specimens.

Amon^ the other species of special interest are Codahia tigerina
(large and abundant), Lucma midaia Carpenter, L. eoccavaia Carp.,
in several vane ies, MactreUa exoleta^ Teuina Owmingii (abundant
aad fine), Baeta unduUUa (numerous valves), CyiithoclorUa plicata,
Pku:imanomta Owningii (three large snecimens), Oonella cedon-
weBt (many varieties of color), Gonits (like iextilis), Ch/prceapul-
chra Kiener (ten specimens), Cyprcea {Luponici) Sowerhyi and
L aSmginoea (both in considerable numbers), Cassis tenuis (finely
colored), ffarpa cretiaia (several varieties of color), Ckskdvlvs
patuUis, etc., all fix>]ii La Paz and vicinity.

Note to (hntnbutwns to Zoology^ No, V. — ^In the last number
of this Journal, page 99, thegeneric name, Oreaster, should be
substituted for Pentaceros. Tins change was made in the prool^
after obtaining the reference to Pentaceros in Cuv. and VaL, but
the correction was overlooked by the printer.



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228 OcruMs Report on Trans-Atlantic Longitude.



Art. XXYIL— Notice of Dr. Gould's Heport on the Trans-
Atlantic Longitude.*

Dr. Gould's able Report on the trans- Atlantic longitude has
at last been published. It is full three years, however, since the
field work to which it relates was finished, and more than two,
as we learn from a prefatory note, since the paper in its present
form (except the last chapter) was ready for the presa Astron-
omers have waited for it until patience was well nigh exhausted.
Yet, thankful now that it is at last within reach, they will
scarcely trouble themselves to press the question, why, or by
whom, it has been so lon^ withheld, or why it is now published
by the Smithsonian Institution, and not oy the Coast Survey
itself, under whose auspices the work was done. For ourselves,
waiving these, and like queries, as probably admitting of sat-
isfactory answers, or, at least, such as would free the author of
the Report from responsibility for the unexplained delay, we
turn rather to the more welcome task of examining the K^x)rt
itself, and laying some of its points before the readers of this
Journal

The paper fills a hundred quarto pages of the Smithsonian
Contributions, and is one of the most important yet published
on telegraphic longituda For not only was the undertaking to
which it relates among the most difficult and delicate, as well as
important, of its kind, but the party put upon it brought to their
tasK nearly the sum total of all the experience and practical skill
that had then been developed in this special field; their chief
having for fifteen years had exclusive charge of the longitude
operations of the United States Coast Survey, and his associates,
liJkewise, a long training in the same servica The Report may
be taken, therefore, as a good exemplification of the telegraphic
method in one of its latest and most difficult applications, and
at the same time, as but a sample of the vast store of similar
material that has been accumulating under the same hand fix>m
the entire longitude work of the Survey — material which em-
braced, before the war, no less than twenty-four independent
determinations in the Atlantic and Gulf States — ana which,
surely, ought not to be much longer lost to science.

The Telegraphic method, it is now well understood, is distinc-
tively American, and has had its chief development in the work
of our great national Survey. That Survey has, in fact, among
its many important contributions to science, given to the world

♦ The Trans- Atlantic Longitude, m determined by the Ooast Survey Expedition of
1866. A Report to the Superintendent of the U. S. Coast Survey. By Benjamin
Apthorp Gould, late assistant Washington City: published by the Sm l thsc m ian
Institution, 1869. New York: D. Appleton ft Co.



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GoulcTs Report on Trans-AUantic Longitude. 229

the best methods yet devised of detennining both latitude and
longitude — Talcott's for the one, and the Telegraphic for the
other; the fonner, devised in 1834, giving us in a single
night's work with the zenith telescope, or a transit instrument
used as such, the latitude to a small fraction of a second, and
the latter, the longitude, also, for the first time in the history of
geodesy, with corresponding fecility and precision — a fewility
and precision, taken together, wholly unattainable by other
methods, and in the case of longitude especially, unapproacha-
ble even, particularly in extended operations.

It was not till some years after the telegraphic method had
been well elaborated here, and in successful use, that it received
much attention abroad ; and even then, the modes of practice
recommended as original, by even eminent astronomers, partic-
ularly in France, were only such as had been long employed in
our Coast Survev, or superseded by better, and had been pub-
lished to the world repeatedly, and through various channels.

Almost simultaneously with the invention of the tel^raph
must have occurred to astronomers the idea of using it m de-
termining longitudes. It was natural enough, therefore, that
Arago should, in 1837, as is said, have suggested such a use of
it to Morse. But the first actual experiment, so fer as we know,
was made, on the Baltimore and Washington line, in 1844, by
comparison of chronometers at the two termini The experi-
ment was conducted by Captain Wilkes.

The method had, before this, engaged the attention of Prof
Bache, and he, quick to discern its advantages, in November,
1845, ordered its use in the longitude work of the Coast Sur-
vey-^then in charge of the eminent astronomer, S. C. Walker ;
who, the next year, made a successful trial of it on the line be-
tween Philadelphia and Washington. From 1848, on, it was the
method employed systematically in all determinations between
points in the United States. Mr. Walker tried both the method
of clock-signals, used in the experiment between Baltimore and
Washington, and also the superior one of star-signals, used in
the Coast Survey practice, almost exclusively, from the first
Dr. Gould succeeded Mr. Walker in 1861 ; and in the widely
extended operations of the next ten years, brought the method
to a veiy high degree of efficiency, and, \^ith his aids, acquired
that thorough mastery of the subject, which so well fitted both
him and them for the difficult task, the history and results of
which are set before us in this Report

Dr. Gould's paper contains twelve chapters : 1, Origin of the
Coast Survey Expedition; 2, Previous determinations of the
trans- Atlantic longitude ; 3, History of the Expedition ; 4, Ob-
servations at Valencia ; 5, Observations at Newfoundland ; 6,
Observations at Calais ; 7, Longitude-signals between Foilhom-



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280 OoMs Report on Trana-Atiantic Longitude,

mcFum and Heart's Content; 8, Longitude-signals between
Heart's Content and Calais ; 9, Personal error in noting signals ;
10, Personal equation in determining time ; 11, Pinal result for
longitude ; 12, Transmission-time of the signala

The expedition had for its object a more exact determination
of American longitudes, as reckoned from a European zero, than
had yet been made. It was important, for the purposes of the
Coast Survey, and of astronomical science, that the trans- Atlantic
longitude should correspond in precision with those determined
telegraphically within our own borders. The previous determi-
nations of that longitude whether by moon-culminations, by
eclipses and occultations, or by chronometers, differed very
widely from each other. The range of difference was no less
than five or six seconds in time. We tate for comparison, the
longitude from Greenwich, of the Naval obser\'atory at Wash-
ington. This depends mainly on that of Cambridge, and tlus
again, in part, on that of New York, Philadelphia, and other
places. Between these pointy the longitude has been measured
telegraphically. That between Washington and Cambridge was
found bv Walker, in 1848-9, to be 28°* 41« 54, and has never
been re-aetermined ; but the link between New York and Jer-
sey City was determined only geodetically, and that between
Jersey City and Washington by simple clock-comparisons in-
stead of the better method of star-signals ; while anotner geodetic
link was that of 12* '44, between the Naval observatory and the
Seaton station in Washington, to which all the telegraphic longi-
tudes of the Coast Survey are referred. On account of these cir-
cumstances, and the omission, besides, in these earlier determina-
tions, of many of the refinements and precautions since introdu-
ced, it seems highly desirable, as Dr. Gould suggests, that the
longitude between New York and Washington, which he regards
as the only weak link in our whole chain of telegraphic longi-
tudes, should be carefully re-determined. Walker s value, how-
ever, as here given, is presumed to be very near the truth.
Using the above quantities. Dr. Gould finds for the determina-
tions of the longitude of the Naval observatory from Greenwich,
which have appeared best entitled to confidence in recent years,
the following : —

1. From JSclipses and Occultations. — The value adopted in the
volume of Observations for 1846 is 5** 8°* 14«*64. Peirce, in
1845, from occultations observed by Bond from 1839 to 1841,
gave 5^ 8° 13' '9. Walker, from all available observations be-
tween 1767 and 1842, obtained 5^ 8°* 14»16, a value subse-
quently reduced to 13" '85, by change in the adopted longitude
of Philadelphia, Cambridge, and Washington. A correction of
the lunar parallax, deduced by Airy, Walker and others, from
various observations, required a still further diminution of all



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W861,






1318




h.


m.


t.


1843-45


6


8


10-01


1838-44






9-3


1838-42






1004


1845






9-60


1846-60






11-6 ±0-4


1862-3






9-8



Qculda Beport on TriXM-AtUmtic Longiiude, 281

American longitudes ; so that we have at present from eclipses
and occultations :

Walker, corrected value from observations before 1843, 5** 8", 11»*14
Peirce, from eclipse of 1851, July 28, 11*57

Peirce, from emersions of Pleiades, 1889, Sept. 26, 11*45

Peirce, " " "

2. From Moon Oidminations : —

Walker, from Cambridge obs*ti<
Loomis, " Hudson "

Gilliss, « Capitol Hill «

Walker, " Washington "
Newcomb, " " "

Newcomb, " " *•

Walker considered 9^'9Q as the most probable value from
moon-culminations, and Newcomb assimM 11""1 as that indi-
cated by the Washington observations m)m 1846 to 1863, inclu-
siva

8. From chronometers transported between Boston and Liverpool

h. m. t.

Mean from 373 previous to 1849, 5 8 12'46

Bond's discussion of 175, expedition of 1849, 11 '14

Walker's « " " ** 12-00

Bond's " " " " 12-20zfcl-20

Bond's " of 52, 6 trips, expedition of 1855, 13-43=fc019

The new tel^raphic determination of the longitude between
Liverpool and Greenwich adds 0"'06 to all these values.

The discordance of the most elaborate and trustworthy
results oljtained by the old methods is thus seen to exceed four
seconds. The value employed by the Coast Survey from 1852
to 1859 was 5^ 8^ ll'-2 ; since 1859 it has been 5*^ 8" 11"'8.

This great uncertainty of the trans- Atlantic longitude — from
3(J to 60 times greater than that of our Coast Survey determi-
nations — ^required that the earliest opportunity presented by the
successful laying of an ocean cable should be seized for determin-
ing this longitude telegraphically, and with all possible precision.
Measures were early taken to use, for this purpose, the cable of
1858, and, again, that of 1865; but, of course, in vain. In
1866, however, the cable of that year, and the recovered cable
of the year before, afforded the desired opportunity. The expe-
dition, organized under authority of tne Coast Survey, was
directed by Dr. Gould, and composed of oflScers of the survey,
who were among the most skilled in longitude work. Messrs.
Gould and Mosman went to Valencia, Ireland, Messrs. Dean and
Goodfellow to Heart's Content, Newfoundland, and Messrs.
Davidson and Chandler to Calais, Maine ; for, the complete solu-



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282 QorMa Report on Trans-Atlantic Longitmde.

tion of the problem in hand, required the determination of three



Online LibraryRodolfo Amedeo LancianiThe American journal of science and arts → online text (page 27 of 109)