Rodolfo Amedeo Lanciani.

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interval of time and then multiplied by the cosecant of the alti-
tude of the radiant, it will be seen that between 14'' 80" and
16** 24" the numbers were nearly uniform, and slightly decreas-
ing. The maximum, then, was either before or about 14** 80" ;
but the centfn- of the dense part must have been passed about
15 hours, as there was no sign of the shower at 18'' 15".



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H, A. Newton on the Meteors of November^ 1869. 251

Meteors observed at Port Said^ Nov. \Z1hy Alexcmdria mean time.



From
h m
10 40-0


To
h m
13 15-0


No. of
Meteors.




Elevation of
the Radiant.

16


14 30-0


14


40-0


16


36


14 620


15


2-6


16


40


15 8-0


15


19-7


16


43


16 24-0


16


33-6


16


46


15 38-5


16


52-6


16


60


16 690


16


7-4


16


64


16 120


16


24-0


16


57


16 26-0


16


38-0


6*


60


16 40-0


16


62-0


7


63


16 54-0


17


14-0


4


67



• Seven other meteors were observed, but they did not radiate
torn Leo.

From 11 orbits he determined «=151*^*0, ^=21°*5, measured
from the equinox of 1869. No single point satisfied all the
paths that were observed.

The conclusions of Mr. Tupman respecting the closing of
the shower are of course set aside by the observations in Italy
and England by those of Fredericton and Santa Barbara.

17. The duration of the whole shower was at least twelve
hour8,and it appears to have been somewhat fitful in its inten-
sity. Perhaps the apparent fitfulness may be due to the clouds,
though we think that that is not the only reason.

Thus after the time named by Mr. Tupman we have an in-
creasing display shown by Prof BeUucci's numbers. At Cul-
loden the report seems to carry this display on two hours longer.
The numbers seen at Fredericton and oanta Barbara show a
tolerablv uniform continuance for several hours longer. There
was httie trace of the display on the next morning.



SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE.

L PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY.

1. On Amrrhonia-chromiunh bases, — Cleve has communicated
to the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences a memoir on the ammo-
nia-chromium bases, which, though of not very recent date, has not,
we believe, been noticed either in German or in English journals.
The author sets out with the chlorid discovered by Fremy and
investigated to some extent by himself in a previous memoir. To
this he gives the formula, Cr^Clj, 4NH3, 2H0, and the name tetra-
min chrom-chlorid* It will be sufficient for our purpose to give

* During this observation it was more cloudy than before, but during the two
fo&owing ones it was mudi clearer.



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252 Scientific Intelligence.

the formulas of the various compounds with a general account of
their properties. The formulas of the salts described by C16ve
belonging to the tetramin series are as follows :

Chlorid, CrgClj, 4NH„ 2H0.

Chlorplatmate, CrgClj, 4NH8, 2HO+2PtClg.

Chlorhydrargyrate, CrgCls, 4NH3, 2HO+6HgCl.

Chlorobromid, Cr,ClBr„ 4NH3, 2HO.

Bromid, Cr^Brg, 4NH3, 2HO.

Bromochlorid, CrgBrCl,, 4NH3, 2H0.

Chloro-iodid, CrgCUg, 4NH3, 2H0.

lodid, Crglj, 4NH3, 2H0.

Chlorosulphate, CrjClOg, 4NH32SO3, 2H0.

Bromosulphate, Cr,BrOg, 4NH32SO3, 2H0.

Chlorochromate, CrgClO^, 4NH32Cr03, jcHO.

Chloronitrate, Cr,C10„ 4NHj, 2N06, 2H0.

All these salts are crystalline and easily soluble in water. They
have a carmine red or garnet red color and their solutions are
easily decomposed on heating, with separation of chromic oxyd
and evolution of ammonia. 'Die author calls attention to the very
noteworthy fact that they all contain 2 atoms of water (in the old
notation).

The second series of compounds described are the salts of hepta-
min-dichromium.

The formulas of the only observed members of this series are as
follows :

Double nitrate, 2(Crg03, ^^Oj), 7NH3+NH^O, N0j-|-9HO.
Oxalo-nitrate, 2(Cr,C3, NO^, (CgOj),), 7NH3+6HO.

The salts of the triamin series are as follows :
Oxalate, Crg03, 3C,0j, 3NH3, 3H0.

Double oxalate, 2(CrgOj, SCgO^, 3NH3)+NH^O, 2C3O3,
n04-3HO.

The salts of the heptamin and triamin series resemble those
of the tetramin series so closely as not to require special descrip-
tion. The nitrate of the heptamin series is obtained by the
action of nitrate of silver upon the chlorid of tetramin-chromium.
The oxalate of the triamin series is obtained by the action of
oxalic acid upon the same chlorid. Besides these three series the
author descnbes the following salts, which may obviously be
regarded as members of other and analogous groups.

Or.Oj, NO5, 2NH3 + 3HO.
CrgOj, C3O3, NH,+8H0.
2(0303), SO,, 2NH3+24nO.
It is, however, very doubtful whether these three substances were



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Phymcs and Chemistry. 268

obtained in a state <rf purity, as they were all amorphous and could
not be obtained crystallized. — Kongliga Svenska Vetenskaps-
Akctdemiens HandimgaT^ Ny Fdljd^ 1866, 1 vol, 2d half.

w. G.
[Note, — ^The compounds described by Cleve are of especial
interest when considered from an atomistic point of view. The
formulas of the triamin and tetramin series are of course to be
doubled and we should then have for the three chlorids the empiri-
cal formulas

BNHj, CrgCl, Hexamin-chromium chlorid.
7NH3, -GrjClj Heptamin-chromium chlorid.
8NHj, -CJrjCl, Octamin-chromium chlorid.

Adopting Blomstrand's view of the constitution of the analogous
platinum and cobalt compounds, these three bodies may be written
as follows:

-NH3-CI
-NH3-CI



<^.



r-NH,-a

-NH.-CP

[-NH,-Cl



€r.



-NH.-Cl
-NH.-a

-NH3-CI ^;*

-NH.-NH.-Ol, ^'»

.NH3-CI

-NH3-CI



-NH3-NH3-CI'

-NH3-CI

-NH3-CI



Cleve suggests that the heptamin series may be only double salts
of his tetramin and triamin compounds, and in view of the
unsymmetrical structure of the chlorid this seems at least probable.
It is also to be borne in mind that the want of symmetry is only
seen if we adopt Blomstrand's theoretical views, and does not appear
when the ammonia bases are formulated according to the principles
of variable atomicity supported by the writer.* The invariable
occurrence of two atoms of water in all the octamin compounds
is difficult to explain upon any theory. — w. G.l

2. On some new sulphur salts, — Sc^bidbb nas described some
new sulphur salts belonging to the same class with those which we
have already noticed. Potassio-platinous sulpho-platinate is easily
obtained bjr fusing 1 or 2 parts of platinum sponge with 6 parts of
pure potassic car^nate and six parts of sulphur, and treatmg the
cooled mass with water. The author gives to this salt the formula :

K,S,Pt"S,Pt"S, J^Pf'S,
and points oat its analogy to a copper salt described in a previoiM
paper. The new compound forms small, hard, sharp and distinctly
formed, sixHsided tabfes of a bine gray color and strong metallio
luster. The larger tables have a lidcush tint and in tmn layers
are translucent with a red brown color. The density of the salt
is 6*44. Dilute chlorhydric acid slowly dissolves out the potassium
without the slightest evolution of sulphuretted hydrc^en, the final
product of the reaction being sesqui-snlphid of platinum Pt^S, or
platinous sulpho platinate P&, I^g. This is a steel gray crystal-

* Hub Joomalf voL zBz, p. 108.



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254 Scientific Intelligence,

line powder of density 6-62, which when heated in the air boms
like tinder and leaves pure sponsy platinum. Sodio-platinous sul-
pho-platinate has a precisely an^Hogous formula, sodium replacing
potassium. It is a crystalline powder of density 6 '27 and with a
color between blue-gray and reddish lead-gray. A re-examination
of the compound containing tin, platinum, potassium and sulphur,
describe^ in his previous paper, has led Schneider to the conclusion
that this body contains no oxygen, and that its true formula is

K,S, Pt"S, Pt"S, Pt"S )^Sn»-S„
in which the quadrivalent platinum is replaced by quadrivalent
tin. In addition to the sodium salt corresponding to the compound
last formulated, Schneider describes a disodium salt which has the
formula Na.S, Na,S, Pt"S, Pt"s j^Pt^^S^.

When freshly prepared, this salt forms thin brilliant light copper red
needles. It rapidly changes color in the air and becomes brown
and finally almost black. Water dissolves it with partial decom-
position, leaving a dark red crystalline powder of bisulphid of pla-
tinum. Schneider obtained by double decomposition silver and
thallium salts corresponding to the disodium compound. — Pogg.
Ann,, cxxxviii, 604. w. g.

3. Synthesis of Hydroxylamin, — By the action of tin and chlor-
hydric acid upon ethylic nitrate Lossen obtained the chlorhydrate
of a new base, NH^O, which he termed hydroxylamin. Ludwig
and Hein have succeeded in preparing this body by the direct
addition of nascent hydrogen to nitric oxyd, expressing the reaction
by the equation : NO+HaZzNH.O,

which is more correctly written 2N 04-3H3=r2NH30. The nitric
oxyd was prepared by the action of nitric acid upon ferrous sul-
phate and collected in a glass gasholder from which it was made
to pass through a series of flasks containing tin and boiling chlor-
hyaric acid. After separating the tin and ammonic chlorid the
chlorhydrate of hydroxylamin was obtained with all the properties
described by Lossen. — BericJUe der Deutschen Chem, OeseU^hqft^
2ter Jahrgang^ p. 671. w. g.

4, On a new group of double chloride belonging to theplcUinum
bases, — By adding solutions of various metallic chlorids strongly
acidulated with chlorhydric acid to a solution of the chlorid of
Reiset's first base, PtCfl, 2NH3 or 4NH3, PtCl,, PtCl^, Buckton
obtained a series of double chlorids embraced by the general form-
ula 4NH3, PtCL, PtClg. Thomson has found that a second series
of double chlorias of the same quantitative constitution but with
wholly different properties is obtained by adding an ammoniacal
solution of a metallic salt as copper, silver, nickel, 4&c., to a solution
of double chlorid of platinum and ammonium, PtCL, 2NH^CL
The new salts are crystalline and vary in color according to the
metal used ; they are insoluble or with difficulty soluble m water
and ammonia, but dissolve rather easily in dilute chlorhydric acid
and are precipitated from this solution by ammonia. iBuckton's
salts are soluble in water and insoluble in chlorhydric acid.

w. G.



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Physics and Chemistry. 255

6. A ^stem of instruction in Quantitative Chemical Analysis:
by Dr. C. R. Fbesenius, from the last English and German edi-
tions, edited by Prof. S. W. Johnson of Yale College. 8vo, pp.
631. New York: (John Wiley & Son). 1870. — In explanation of
the alterations made in this American edition we quote the follow-
ing from Prof Johnson's preface.

" In preparing this edition of Fresenius' Quantitative Chemical
Analysis, the editor has sought by various changes to adapt it to
the wants of the American student.

The foreign editions have attained such encyclopedic dimensions
as to occasion the beginner no little confusion and embarrassment.
For this reason the bulk of the work has been considerably re-
duced. A few processes which the editor's experience has con-
vinced him are untrustworthy, and many more that can well be
spared because they are tedious or unnecessary, have been omit-
ted.

The section on Organic Analysis has been reduced from sixty to
thirty pages, mainly by the omission of processes which from their
antiquity or inferiority are more curious than useful The chap-
ters on Acidimetry and Alkalimetry have been likewise greatly
condensed, and all that especially relates to Soils and Ashes of
Plants has been lefl out. The recent appearance of an excellent
special treatise on ** Agricultural Chemical Analysis " by Profes-
sor Caldwell, of Cornell University, justifies the last named omis-
sion.

On the other hand, some important matter has been added.
Bunsen's invaluable new methods of treating precipitates are de-
scribed in his own (translated) words. Various new methods of
estimation and separation are incorporated in their proper places.

The additions wnich have been made to the methods of examin-
ing ores, it is believed, adapt the work to meet all the ordinary
requirements of the metallurgical and mining student. "

The editor acknowledges his indebtedness to Dr. Wolcott Gibbs,
Dr. J. Lawrence Smith, Mr. O. D. Allen and others for important
contributions and descriptions of new methods. We are confident
that this excellent wort will be of great service in advancing
the study of analytical chemistry in this country, and that its
publication will be welcomed by all teachei's and students of quan-
titative chemical analysis.

6. Effects of the Sun^s Heat on a Sand Sill. — Extract from a let-
ter of Geo. Davidson, Esq., of the Coast Survey, dated U. S. Coast
Sur^^ey Station, San Buenaventura, Cal, January 23d, 1870, (com-
municated for this Journal, by Mr. D. B. Smith, of Germantown,
Pa.) — I have had a very curious experience at this station. It is
on the edge of a Randy, steep bluff, seventy feet above the low flat
margin that extends 300 yards to the sea beach. At the station,

I haS an 1 8 inch theodolite, with three reading microscopes, and
was engaged in determining the azimuth of the principal lines of
the trianffulation from the station San Buenaventura. This in-
volved observations from sunrise to 10 a. m., and from 3^ p. m. to

II p. M. Imagine my surprise when I found that the heat of the



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256 Scientific IntcUigenoe.

san poaring all the p. m. upon the southwest face of this bluff so
expanded it that the level showed changes as great as 46" ! Then
in the evening contraction began, and continued until the level at
sunrise exhibited changes of 46" the other way. Here teas a
change of V 30" certairuy due to changes of temperature ; our low-
est temperature was about 40**; our greatest about 79* in the
shade, sav 100° in the sun.

But this is not all : I was dismayed to find that in cooling du-
ring the evening, the tongue of the bluif upon which the station is
situated, twisted irregidarly in azimuth as much as 18" in three
hours. This, of course, vitiated all ray results, and I continued a
full series simply as an experiment, for I could not change my posi-
tion for an eccentric one without many drawbacks. I did change
my latitude instrument and transit from their positions near the
station, and where the same phenomena were exhibited by them«
At 102 yards from the edge of the bluif they are as steady as a
rock, and I have nothing out the excessive undulations of the
heated air to contend with.

7. On the existence of Ammonium in the Ammoniacal AmcUr
aam^ and on a new Test for the presence of Nascent Hydrogen '
Dy Ai^BERT H, Gallatin, M. D., of New York. — Berzelius and
De Pontin in 1808, usinff the voltaic current as Davy had done,
endeavored to do as mncn for the ammoniacal compounds as he
had done for those of the fixed alkalies. They made what is known
as the ammoniacal amalgam. That ammonium exists in this body
has never been demonstrated, notwithstanding that its constituents
in their proper proportions were always found escaping from the
amalgam : that does not prove thea they were united ; on the con-
trary, 2 vols, of NH3 and 1 voL of H are the products. Moreover,
if it were ammonium, it had never been maae to unite with anv
other metal than mercury. I have endeavored to overcome both
of these objections.

If the hydrogen escaping from the mercury tocher with the
ammonia can t^ shown to oe in the nascent state, it would be evi-
dence that it had just been in chemical combination with the
ammonia, in other words, that metallic ammonium (NH4) existed
in the amalgam. Some pellets of sodium were placed in contact
with some particles of the transparent variety of phosphorus,
wrapped in bibulous paper and plunged beneath the sonace of
water. A red glow was seen; and the nascent hydrogen from
the decomposing water came into contact with the phosphorus,
babbles or phosphid of hydrogen were formed. Occasionally one
would flame as it came into contact with the atmosphere, placing
the nature of the reaction beyond doubt. As phosphid of hydro-

fen cannot be formed by direct synthesis if ordmary free hydrogen
e employed, this becomes a test for the presence of that gas in
its nascent state. The hydrogen escaping from the ammoniacal
amalgam was now tested by this process. A sodium-amalgam
dipp^ beneath a solution of cblorid of ammonium was employed ;
and it became necessarv to wait until the sodium was exhausted,
that results might not De vitiated by the nascent hydrogen esoap-



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Physics and Chemistry, 257

ing from the water. At the proper time the decomposing amal-
gam was covered with fragments of transparent phosphorus, when
many babbles of inflammable phosphid were obtained* The
hydrogen must then have been in the nascent state and just escap-
ing from the ammonium. — Phil, Mag,^ xxxviii, 67.

8. Ofi the Existence of an Alloy of Ammonium and JBismtUh^
and on another new Test for the presence of Nascent Hydrogen:
by Albebt H. Gallatin, M. D., of New Yort — ^Anmionium had
never yet been seen united with any other metal than mercury.
Mercury being the only metal fluid at ordinary temperatures, should
another alloy be formed it would be solid. Some bismuth was
melted in a' porcelain dish and alloyed with sodium by dropping a
piece of that metal on the clear surface of the fluid bismuth.
Chlorid of ammonium was then dusted on the fluid alloy, and then
water added in a fine quick stream. The bismuth swells, appears
pasty and porous, and then congeals. Abundance of hyarogen
escapes from the water, and the ammoniacal odor is set free. This
body must now be dried. If it be placed near the ear a distinct
crackling noise will be heard, a phenomenon which endures for
some days. To ascertain if this be ammonium escaping from the
bismuth, the body was placed beneath the surface ol water, when
bubbles of hydrogen escaped, easily to be collected and recognized;
the ammonia, if any, must have been absorbed by the water. To
test for this red litmus-paper was placed in the liquid. Wherever
the currents from the bismuth struck it a blue spot became visible.
On dissolving sulphate of copper in distilled water and placing
the well-dried bismuth therein, the characteristic flocculi of ammo-
nio-sulphate of copper appeared at once.

It remains to show that the hydrogen escaping is in the nascent
state. There was not enough of it to test with phosphorus. The
bismuth compound, when placed in a solution of sulphate of cop-
per, becomes rapidly coated with metallic copper. Now bismuth
unalloyed will not precipitate copper from its sulphate. To test if
the precipitation oi the metallic copper was due to the presence of
nascent hydrogen, an alloy of bismuth and sodium was made and
dipped in a solution of sulphate of copper. It instantly became
coated with that metal, owmg to the nascent hydrogen escaping
from the water. The hydrogen was therefore escaping in the nas-
cent state frx>m the bismuth and ammonia, and therefore it was a
true alloy of bismuth and ammonium. If the temperature of this
alloy be raised, it will rapidly decompose with a crackling noise.
On one occasion it exploded, sharply scattering the metal The
loud crackling noise produced by tnis substance may be heard for
many days after it is made. That there is no mere surface-action
in the case of the meremial and bismuth alloys of ammonium, is
shown by the pores which are formed by the escaping gases in
both cases. In the amalgam these pores may be seen produced
by the escaping ammonium long after the water has exhausted the
sodium. In the mereurial body the pores are evanescent ; in the
case of bismnth they remain, and may be examined at leisura
Am. Jodb. Soi.— Bboord Bkbibs, Vol. XLIX, No. 14S.— Habob, 1S70.
17



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258 Scientific Intelligence,

These are different phenomena from those displayed hy spongy
platinum when it forces hydrogen and oxygen to combine.

Appendix, — Continuation of the investigation at the laboratory
of the Royal Mint, London, by the land permission of Mr.
Roberts : —

The alloy was dried in vacuo over sulphuric acid. It Iras then
heated in vacuo by means of a Sprengel pump, when it decomposed,
and the resulting gas was collected over mercury. It was found
to have twenty-seven times the volume of the original solid.
Analysis of the gas proved it to contain nitrogen and hydrogen.
The results of a further examination will shortly be given. — I^hil.
Mag., IV, xxxviii, 68. June 23, 1869.

II. MINERALOGY JOH) GEOLOGY.

1. Preliminary Field Report of the U, S. Geological Survey of
Colorado and New Mexico, conducted, under the authority of Hon.
J. D. Cox, Secretary of the Interior, by F. V. Hayden, U. S.
Geologist. 156 pp. 8vo. Washington, 1869. — ^Prof. Hayden, in this
expedition of the year just past, was over his old field again, in
which he has done so much by his observations and collections to
promote the progress of American geology and paleontology. His
explorations, however, were continued farther west, to and* among
the heights of the summit His route was from Cheyenne, where
he commenced his labors, to Denver ; from Denver to the silver
mines at Georgetown, the gold mines of Central City, and thence to
the Middle Park ; then back to Denver, and southward to Colo-
rado City, Soda Springs, Canon City, Spanish Peaks, Raton Hills,
Fort Union, Mora Valley, and Santa F6 ; thence up the Rio
Grande, through the San Luis valley. Poncho Pass, Arkansas Val-
ley, through the South Park to Denver again. Prof. Hayden re-
marks that " the coal formation along the base of the mountains
was studied with great interest. With these coal beds are asso-
ciated valuable deposits of brown iron ora The coal and iron de-
posits of the Raton Hills extend from the Spanish Peaks to Max-
well's, and the supply of both is quite inexhaustible and of excel-
lent (jnality. The future influence of these two important minerals
at this locality, on the success of a Pacific Railroad, cannot be
over-estimated. It is believed that the coal and iron mines of the
Raton Hills will be of far more value to the country than all the
mines of precious metals in that district.

The next locality for coal was at the Placiere Mountains. In
one locality here, the coal has been changed into anthracite by the
eruption of a basaltic dike, the igneous material of which had
poured over the coal strata. Vast quantities of brown iron ore are
associated with this coal, and magnetic iron ore is found in the
gneissoid rocks of the mountain. The ^old mines here are very
rich and are now wrought upon a true scientific plan."

As this Report consists of field notes, the geological facts are
present as they were observed along the principal routes; and we
shall wait for a systematic review of the results from the author



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Mineralogy and Geology. 269

before presenting them, and cite in this place only some of the par-
agraphs from his account of the trip to the famous " Middle Part."

Our route to the Middle Park was through the Berthoud Pass,
from the valley of Clear Creek. The range of mountains in which
the pass is located is composed of gneissic rocks — as are all the
ranges in the mining districts. The ascent was very steep on the
south side, up to the region of perpetual snow ; but the descent on
the north side is quite gradual.

Great quantities of loose materials from the basis rocks are scat'
tered thickly over the summits, of every variety of the metamor-
phic class. Most of the peaks are well rounded, and covered with
soil and vegetation. Grass and flowers grow far up above the lim-
its of arborescent vegetation. As we ascend, the pines, spruces and
cedars dwindle down in size, until they become recumbent and
trail on the ground. Some of the highest peaks are very sharp,
and covered with loose rocks, as if only the usual atmospheric in-
fluences had ever affected them. Their sides are often massive
escarpments of rocks down which an infinite quantity of fragments
have fallen, making a vast amount of debris at the base. Of
course their rocky sides are entirely free from vegetation, and
the oxyd of iron gives them a rusty reddish appearance. One
mountain at the head of Clear Creek is called Red Mountain, from
the fact that the rocks have a bright red color in the distance.
The evidences of the outpouring of igneous rocks in this moun-



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