Rodolfo Amedeo Lanciani.

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MiaceUaneous IntelUgenre, 26S

the sea coast, by magnetio telegraph and marine signals, of the ap-
proach and force of storms."

K the system authorized by this act should be prosecuted earn-
estly and &ithfully by the War Department, we anticipate that it
will result not only in an important addition to our knowledge of
the laws of storms, but will materially diminish the number and
severity of marine disasters. Systems of this kind are already in
operation in England, France, Holland, Italy, and other countries,
and are producing important results. Our Atlantic seaboard is
more favorably situated for receiving intelligence of approaching
storms, than the western coast of Europe, since a majority of our
violent storms have their origin on the land, and movmg eastward
may be telegraphed in advance to the principal conmiercial cities
of the Atlantic coast.

4. 17ie Sars JFtind* — We are glad to find that the appeal made
in our pages by Mr. Gwyn Jeffreys, on behalf of the family of
the late Professor Sars of Christiania, is being warmly seconded
in Paris by M. Alglave, the editor of the Revue des Cows Scien^
tijiqt$es. In the last number of the Revue Mr. Gwyn Jeffreys' ar-
ticle is reprinted in extenso^ and an announcement made that sub-
scriptions to the Sars Fund will be received at the office of that
journal. But M. Alglave has not waited for the publication of his
notice before beginning his good work ; he has already collected
the sum of 2,026 francs (81/.), and pablishes with the notice a first
subscription-list containing the names of many of the most emi«
nent naturalists in France. We have now the pleasure of giving
in our advertising columns a list of the contribations already prom-
ised to Mr. Gwyn Jeffreys. Sars belonged to the best type of sci-
entific men, the genuine lover of science, contented to work in ob*
scurity without thought of honors or reward. His family have a
special claim to help, inasmuch as the distress in which they are
left is not due to neglect or extravagance on the part of the lamen-
ted Professor, but is solely attributable to his having devoted him-
self to studies, which, notwithstanding the most self-denying la-
bors, did not enable him to make any provision for the future.
Those of our readers who have visited Norway, who know the
genuine unworldly ways of the Norwegians, and who have enjoy-
ed the enthusiastic welcome so readily given to the English, have
now a graceful opportunity of reciprocating the kindly feeling
shown them by the countrymen of Sars. — Nature^ Feb, 8.

6. The Family of the late Prof. Michael Sara. — In a notice
of Prof Sars, the editors state in the American Naturalist, Salem,
Mass., of March, 1869, that in view of the fact that American
Zodlogists are deeply indebted to Prof Sars for the light he has
thrown upon many of the lower animals, in the unrivalled inves-
tigation embodied in his publications, we feel it a duty to solicit
aid for his family. Any sum, however small, which may be sent
them will be welcomed, acknowledged and forwarded to his fam-
Uy through the Norwegian Minister.

* The death of this eminent zoologist of Norway, Mr. Sars, is mentioned in oar
January number, on page 144.



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284 MiaceOaneous InteUigenoe.

6. LigfUing Power for Buoys, Premittm for the yecMr IBll of-
fered by the Netherland Society for the Promotion of Industry. —
One of the greatest impediments to navigation is darkness in buoy-
ed waters. If it were possible to develop a lighting power in the
buoys, this difficulty would be greatly diminished, to the advan-
tage of navigation.

The Society offers, therefore, her gold medal (representing a
value of hundred fiftv florins, Neth. Cy.) and an award of three
hundred florins for the most practical means of investing buoys
with a lighting power, for service at night. ♦

Conditions. — 1. The answers must bear a distinctive mark, epi-
gram or motto, and be accompanied by a sealed envelope, contam-
in^ the competitor's name, and bearing outside the same mark,
epigram or motto as above.

2. The competitors are requested to communicate an intermedi-
ate address, in case of eventual correspondence.

3. The answers and any other accompanying writing must not
be in the competitor's own hand.

4. The successful answer becomes the property of the Society,
which reserves to itself the right of publication.

6. The Society takes no responsibility for eventual damage to
models or instruments, illustrative of the answers, and reserves to
itself the right of not returning them to the competitors.

6. Answers are requested post paid before the 30th of Septem-
ber, 1871, to the address of the General Secretary and Treasurer of
the Society, F. W. Van Eedek, Haarlem, the Netherlands.

7. Academy of Sciences^ Paris. — Mr. A. DesCloizeaux, the dis-
tinguished Crystallographer and Mineralogist, whose optical re-
searches in connection with crystals have done so much to ad-
vance the science of mineralogy, has been elected a member of the
Academy in place of the late Mr. d'Archiac; and Professor Mayer,
the eminent physicist, in place of the late Professor MatteuccL

OBITUABY.

Rev. Geoboe Jones, IT. S. N. — On the 22d of January, 1870, at
the Naval Asylum, in Philadelphia, died Rev. George Jones, long
connected with the United States Navy as a Professor and a Chap-
lain ; but better known in science for his important contiibutions
to our knowledge of the zodiacal light. His labors in this depart-
ment fill the third volume of the U. S. Japan Expedition, embracing
observations from April 2d, 1863, to April 23d, 1866, made chiefly
on board the U. S. steam frigate Mississippi, and are included on
340 charts, followed by Cassini's observations (10 in number) in
1686 and 1687. In hb Introduction to this volume, Mr. Jones ex-
presses his intention to spend a year at Quito, Ecuador, with
a view to compare and extend his zodiacal light observations from
that equatorial and lofty position. This purpose he executed in
the year 1866, adding greatly to the fullness of his researches upon
this wonderful phenomenon. A summary, by himself, of his obser-
vations in Ecuador was published, with three plates, in vol. xxiv
of this Journal, 1867, p. 374; but the great mass of data then col-



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Mitoellomeoua Bibliography. • 286

leoted remain still anpublished. Mr Jones was a patient and most
consciention:9 observer, and hb contributions in this department of
astronomy must ever form an important feature in any discussion
of the phenomenon, notwithstanding Prof. Piazzi Smyth's most ex-
traordmary and flippant assertion that Mr. Jones had never seen the
zodiacal light at all !

Mr. Jones was the author of Sketches of Naval Life, 2 vols., New
Haven, 1 829, and Excursions to Cairo, Jerusalem, ifec, one volume,
New York, 1 836, besides other works of a religious character. It
was largely owing to the asssiduity and patient tact of Mr. Jones
that the U. S. Naval Academy was created against the instructive
prejudices of most of the older naval commanders, a labor for
which he never sought credit or fame, but not the less worthy of
being remembered and recorded to his lasting honor. Mr. Jones
graduated at Tale College in 1828, and was a tutor there from
1828 to 1830.

VL MISCELLANEOUS BIBLIOGRAPHY.

1. TVansacHons of the Chicago Academy of Science^ VoL I,
Part n, 1869. Large 8vo, with steel enffravinjg and fourteen
plates. — The first volume of Transactions of the Chicago Academy,
now completed, does great honor to the society and to the enlight-
ened liberality of those gentlemen who have furnished the means
of illustrating it with so many beautiful plates. The first article
is a biographical sketch of Dr. Robert Kennicott, the late Director
of the Academy, with portrait and interesting extracts from the
diaries, written during his well-known arctic explorations. The
article on the Antiquity of Man in North America, by Dr. J. W.
Foster, is of special interest at this time, and contains a summary
of all the evioences hitherto obtained upon the subject. It is
illustrated by six plates. The "List of the birds of Alaska, with
biographical notes," bv Wm. BL Dall and H. M. Bannister,
and ItpoC Spencer F. Baird's descriptive list of the " Additions
to the Bird-Fauna of North America made hj the Scientific Corps
of the Russo-American Telegraph Fxpedition,'' illustrated by
excellent colored plates of all the species, are very valuable con-
tributions to American Ornithology. In the former 212 species of
Alaska birds are enumerated, with valuable notes on their habits
and distribution. Mr. S. H. Scudder enumerates 46 species of
butterflies collected by J. A. Allen in Iowa, several of which are
described as new. y.

2. Guide to the Study of Inlets ; by A. S. Packard, Jr., M. D.
8yo, 702 pages, with eleven plates and 650 wood-cuts. Salem,
Mass., 1869. Naturalist's Book Agency. — This excellent work,
published in ten numbers, is now completed. It is really an
admirable manual of entomology by an author thoroughly versed
in the science, and who is at the same time an original investigator.
On this account it has a much higher character than a mere com-
pilation, which is too seldom the case with scientific manuals and
text books. The work is well illustrated, and followed by a



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286 MiaoeUaneous BibUography.

glossaiy and foil index. The stmctore and clasBification of inseets
are fully discussed, as far as the families and the prominent genera
and species in each fjamily are described. It mcludes also fidl
directions for collecting and preserring insects, and various other
useful information on transformations, habits, distribution, geo-
logical history, etc., as well as descriptions of new species and
ffenera in some of the orders. It embraces the Ara4^nida and
myriapoda as well as the Hezapod insects, which is quite unusual
in treatises on entomology. v.

3. Theory of Existence : Part L Devoted to the enunciation
of the laws which determine the motions that result from the
collision of ponderable bodies; by Eltas Dbxter. 166 pp. 8vo,
with 5 plates. 1869. New York. (Edward Dexter, 564 Broadway).
— The laws enunciated in this singular book, beginning with the
first paragraph defining velocity, are, with few exceptions, entirely
at variance with the received principles of mechanics, so that in
the concluding sections, which are devoted to the refutation of
Newton's Laws of Motion, th^ author finds it easy to show by
reference to the earlier part of his own book, that the views of
Newton are quite erroneous. The age is prolific in such waste
efforts by the " advance men " of the times.

4. A Practical TVea^ise on MetaUwrgy adapted from the Uut
London edition of Projeesor KerPa Metallurgy, V ol. iii ; Steely
Fuel^ Supplement; illustrated with 145 wood engravings; by
William Cbookbs, F.R.S., and Ernst R5hrio, Ph.D., M.E. 820
pp. 8vo. New York, 1870. (John Wiley & Son.) — ^This volume
IS a most valuable addition to our previous literature upon the im-
portant subjects of which it treats, and it is not too much to say
that the metallurgical student will seek in vain, elsewhere, for such
a comprehensive summary of recent progress in this department
of knowledge. The arrangement of the materials is excellent and
the subjects are dincussed with all desirable fnlness ; thus the Bess-
emer steel process covers 80 pages ; while proper notice is taken
of all other methods, even to the Ellershausen process, Bes'semer's
new system of high pressure, hot blast ftimaces, and Siemen's
process of producing steel direct from the ores. The table of con-
tents covers 21 pa^es, and exhibits clearly the great range of
interesting topics which fills the volume. Full references to origi-
nal memoirs in all languages bearing on steel and fuel add value
to the work. This is altogether the most important contribution
of the three volumes, of which it is the last as well as best.

5. Lithology of the Seas of the Old World ; by M. Delbssb. —
Of this work by M. Delesse we have seen only the chart. In the
work the author, as is stated in a resum6 received from him, takes
up the lakes and seas of the old world in succession, describes their
several features, or peculiarities, the character or the shores and
bottom, and the relative amount of life distributed over the seve-
ral parts. The subject is one of great interest and if thoroughly
carried out, would make a very important contribution to the sci-
ences of geology and physical geography. The map is an exceed-
ingly beautifrl example of engraving and coloring.



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MideeUaneous Bibliography. 287

6. " NcUure.^^ — ^This soientifio weekl jr, pnblished by MacMillan A
Co., London,* the first number of which was noticed in our last
Tolame (p. 451) sustains well the promises made in its prospectus.
It is popular in the character of many of its articles, and well fur*
nished with the scientific news of the day, besides reviews of new
works. It is not in any proper sense a special or^an of Darwin-
ism, which the first number seemed to suggest. Illustrations are
often given when the subjects require it. The number for Decem-
ber contains a map of a part of Africa, presenting a view of the
recent discoveries and Livingstone's route, which would be conven-
ient to readers of Livingstone's letter in the last number of this
Journal, and that for Jan. 20th has a map of the polar regions, and
the routes of the recent exploring parties in that direction.

7. Paris Universal JExposition^ 1867 ; Reports of the United
SUUes Commis$ioners, — We have already made mention of some
of the more important of these Reports, and have offered the titles
of all which have appeared up to this time, and copies of which
have reached us by the courtesy of the editor. Professor Wm. P.
Blaks, who has carried these documents through the press in a
manner creditable to the occasion.

Machinery and Processes of the Industrial Arts, and Apparatus
©f the Exact Sciences ; by Fredsbick A. P. Babnabd, lLd. pp.
669. Plates.

Examination of the Telegraphic Apparatus, and the Processes in
Telegraphy ; bjr Sahusl F. B. Mobss, LL.D. pp. 166. Plates.

The Froduction of Iron and Steel in its Economic and Social
Relations ; by Abram S. HEwrrr. pp. 188. Plates.

Report upon the Precious Metals : being statistical notices of
the principal gold and silver-producing regions of the world, repre^
sented at the Faris Universal Exposition ; by William P. Blake.
pp. 669.

The Progress and Condition of Industrial Chemistry; by J.
Lawbence Smith, pp. 146. Plates.

General Survey of^ the Exhibition, with a Report on the Char-
acter and Condition of the United States Section, pp. 824.

The Manufacture of Beet Sugar and Alcohol, and the Cultiva-
tion of Sugar Beet; by Henbt F. Q. D'Aligny. pp. 90. Plates.

Report on Corals ; by Samuel B. Ruoolbs and 6. S. Hazabd.
pp. 26.

Report upon Cotton ; by E. R. Mubgb, with a Supplemental
Report by B. F. Noursb. pp. 116.

Report upon Buildings, Building Materials and Methods of
Building ; by James H. Bowbv. pp. 96.

Report npon Wool and Manufacturers of Wool; by E. R«
MiTDGE, assisted by John L. Hayes, pp. 148.

Preparation of Food. Pressed or Agglomerated food. Culture
and Products of the Vina Photogramis and Photographic Appa-
ratus. Outline of the History of the Atlantic Cable. Scnool
Houses and the Means of Promoting" Popular Education.

* The sobscriptioQ price for " Nature " is fonrpenoe ; or for America, m annotm-
ced bj the house of Maomfllan ft Oo., 63 Sleeker 8t, "New. York, 12 cents a num-
ber, and $6.00 a year.



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288 Misodlaneous Bibliography,

Report on Silk and Silk Manufacturers ; by Eliot C. Cowdik.
pp. 61.

Repoit on Instruments and Apparatus of Medical Surgery and
Hygiene ; by Thomas W. Evans, M.D. pp. 70.

lleport on the Fine Arts, and the Fine Arts applied to the
Useful Arts ; by Frank Lbslib, S. F. B. Mobsb and Thomas W.
Evans, pp. 43. Plates.

Report on B6ton-Coignet : its fabrication and uses. Report on
asphalt and bitumen, and their application to streets, roads, build-
ings, &c. ; by Arthur Bbckwith. pp. 21, and 81 plates.

Report upon Steam Engineering, as illustrated by the Paris
Universal Exposition, 1867 ; by William S. Auchincloss. pp. 72.

Report on the Munitions of War ; by Chas. B. Norton and W.
J. Valbntinb. pp. 218.

In addition to the foregoing reports, there are yet to come
others on the following subjects : Mining ; Clothing ; Engineer-
ing Works ; Education; The history of the Organization and
Progress of the Exhibition ; mcXxxAxng tiUes^ list of r^orts^ aitUhorSj
tables of weights and measures^ etc. The whole series will be bound
in six volumes of some 600-700 pages each.

PBOOEEDmos Akebioan PHnx)SOPHiOAL Soc., Vol XI.— p. 119, Prodromus of a
study of the Fresh Water Algs of Eastern North Amenca; H. G. Wood^ Jr. — p.
147, Seventh Contribution to the Herpetology of Tropioal America; K D. Copt. — p.
171, Synopsis of the Extinct Mammalia of the Cave Formations in the United States,
with observations on some Mjriapoda found in and near the same ; K D. Cope. —
p. 195, Some Suggestions on the maintaining forces of Cosmical motion; W, H.
Lowrie.^^. 202, Tidal Rain-fall; P. E, Oha8e.—p. 204, Abstract of Results of
Measurements and Examinations of the Photographs of the Total Eclipse of Aug.
7, 1869; A. ifayer.— p. 209, Profile of Recent Flood in the Schuylkill; J. C. Orea-
aon, — p. 213, Indian Relics from New Jersey; O. R Wood. — ^p. 215, Comets uid
Meteors; D. Ki/rkwood, — p. 220, Search for a Normal Cause of tiie RecessioQ of
Cosmical Nodes; W, K Lowrie, — 226, Medical Activity of the Hemp Plant as
grown in North America; K C. Wood, Jr. — p. 233, Silver Coins; W. E. DuBois. —
p. 235, Coal Borings in the Wilkesbarre Basin ; P. W. Sheerer.— p. 237, Supposed
Laurentian Fossil ; R J. Roscoe. — ^p. 237, Experiment on the Revival of Peach Trees ;
G. B. Wood— p. 240, Second Addition to the History of the Fishes of the Creta-
ceous of the United States; E. D. Copt,

Peoceedikgs Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., VoL XTIT.—p. 139, MoUuscan Fauna of
New Haven, part II, Acephala and Bryozoa; O. K Perkins, — ^p. 167, Occurrence
of the Remains of Tarandua rangifer Gray, at Big Bone Lick, Kentucky; N. S.
SfuUer. — ^p. 169, American Lepidoptera, II, Phalsenidse; C. S. Mi/not — ^p. 172. Na-
tive Carbonate of Magnesia from California; C. T. Jackson. — ^p. 172, Remarks oq
the Relations of the Rocks in the vicinity of Boston; K & Shaler. — ^p. 17S, Notes
on the Mammals of Iowa ; J. A. AUen.

Annals Lyc. Nat. Hist, op New York. VoL IX, Na 8. — ^p. 237, Catalogue of
Birds from Puna Island, Gulf of Guayaquil, in the Museum of the Smithsonian Insti-
tution, collected by J. F. Reeve ; O. N. Lawrence. (Continued.)— p. 238, Additional
Notes on the Geographical Distribution of Land Shells in the West Indies ; 2! Bkmd.
— ^p. 242, Note on Lov^n's Article on **Leskia mirabilis, Gray;" A. AgaseisL — ^p.
246, Observations on a Collection of Chalchihultls from Centitil America; K O.
Squier. — ^p. 265, Characters of some New South American Birds, with Notes do
other rare or littie known Species; O. Ni Lawrence. — ^p. 276, On tiie names i^
plied to Pisidium, a genus of Corbiculads ; T. Prime. — p. 280, I^ of the Species
of Mollusca found in the vicinity of North Conway, New Hampshire ; T, Prime,



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THE

AMERICAN

JOURNAL OF SCIENCE AND ARTS.

[SECOND SERIES.]



Abt. XXTX. — On a method of 'prroducmg^ hy the Electric sparky
figures similar to those o/Limtenberg; by Eli W. Blaks, Jr.

Lichtknberg's figures, discovered in 1777, are a result of
the attraction of an electrmed surface for light particles of elec-
trified or unelectrified dust Prof Rood has shown that figures
entirely similar in fonn are produced, when the spark is allowed
to fall on the sensitized collodion film of an ordinary photo-
graphic plate, and the latent image is developed in the usual
way.

The method I have to describe consists in throwing the dis-
charge upon the surface of a fusible non-conducting body. If
the Dody be near its fusing point the figure appears at once, —
if cold, a latent image exists which may be " developed " by
heat

The non-conductinff surface is prepared by coating a plate of
metal with an even film of pitch, rieces of sheet-tin, 8 inches
square, coated with films of pitch of a thickness varying be-
tween 0*01 and 0*02 in., were used in most of my experiments.
The pitch was the ordinary commercial article, fireed from sand,
Augments of bark, &c, by being melted and strained through
a muslin bag. Shellac, rosin. Burgundy-pitch, bees-wax and
Canada balsam were in turn tried as substitutes for pitch, but
with unsatisfactory resxdta

A simple apparatus for holding the plate during the dis-
chaige, is represented in fig. 1. llie upright B supports the
insulating arm C, — ^a rod of glass, which may be turned in its
bearing, out is prevented firom moving longitudinally. The
arm C holds» the wire D. This wire slides up and down with
Am. Joub. Scl-^boohd Ssnns, V0L.XLIX, Na 147.— Mat, 187a
19



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290 R W. Blake, Jr., on a method of producing

considerable friction so as to retain any position given to it It
is graduated to tenths of an inch, and terminates, at one end,

in a sharp point — at the other, in a
metal ball \ inch in diameter. Di-
rectly beneath D is a similar wire,
E, passing through the board A,
and held Dy friction. Around E,
at the comers of a three-inch square,
are disposed four insulating posts,
upon which the prepared plate is
laid.

In experimenting, merely to
obtain the figures, the arm C is
turned so as to bring the wire D into a horizontal position, —
the prej)ared plate is laid upon the insulating posts (for the +
figure with the pitch side uppermost). The wire E is made to
touch the plate below, and is put in connection with the earth.
D is then made vertical, and is adjusted to the desired striking
distance. ' An insulated connection being made between D and
a charged prime conductor, the + spark passes over to the pitch.
The - figure is obtained when the pitch side is beneath, D in
contact with the plate, and E depressed to the proper stnking
distance. The discharge having taken place, D is again made
horizontal, and the plate may oe removed for development
This process consists in gradually warming the plate over a
lamp. The metal side must be presented to the lamp, as the
digntest touch of a flame on the excited pitch instantly dissi-
pates the electricity. At a certain temperature, (in my experi-
ments about 60° (?.,) the figure will begin to appear, and in a
few seconds the development is completed. Tne plate being
now allowed to cool, the figure becomes permanent If the plate
be overheated the figure is destroyed. It may be instantly ob-
literated by exposure for a second to the naked flame, and
the plate may then be used again. The proper temperature for
devwopment is some degrees below the r^ fusing point of
thepitch used.

Tne figures, obtained as described, are formed by depressions
and elevations of the excited surface. The depressions would
appear to be the true figures, as they correspona exactly in form
to those obtained by Lichtenberg. The plate may be dusted
before development ; the form thus revealed will be reproduced in
depressions upon warming. The depth and sharpness of these
depressions vary with the quantity of electricity, and the thick-
ness of Ihe film of prtcL The thmner the film, the sharper the
lines. The exact depth of the depressions below the general level
is very dif&cult to measure, owing to the elevations produced.
In films of OOIS in. thickness, the deepest lines ar^ about 0"005.



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Mgwres by the Electric Spark, 291

When cold, the pitch is sufficiently hard to allow of several
impressions being taken from it in printing ink. The wood-cuts
given below were made from such impressions, transferred to a
block, and then engraved. The white portions therefore repre-
sent depressions. The " ground," representing the levd surface
of the pitch, was lightened by ruling, so as to bring out the ex-
terior ring of the n^ative figure.

Fricthrud Ehclfriciiy.
Disdiarge frcm haJis, — The positive spark produces the fig-
2. 3. ure of a star (2 suad 8).

Sometimes the rays di-
verge almost from the
center, but generally the



Online LibraryRodolfo Amedeo LancianiThe American journal of science and arts → online text (page 34 of 109)