Rodolfo Amedeo Lanciani.

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mella, whicn is moderately developed and fine spongy. The
coral has an open vermicular and quite porous texture, more
compact beneatn. In all the specimens there are several small
holes, like pin-holes, near the base of the corallites, often form-
ing a nearly complete circle around the base, which are, perhaps,
made by parasites.

The base of the larj^t specimen is "65 long ; '50 broad ; "45
high ; corallites 12 high ; '86 broad ; depth of cell '12 of an
inch. Burmah, — ^W. fl. DalL

Of this species there are eighteen specimens of various sizes.
It is remarkable as the second living species of this curious
genus, and still more so as furnishing another instance of fissi-
parity in the fiEunily of JEkpsammt^By — a feature not hitherto
recognized as normal in anv genus except Lobajpsammta of the
Eocene. Doubtless the other species divide in the same way,
for K Mtchelinii'E. and H. is described as having the cup shapea
like the figure 8, which is the form in this species just before
dividing, ff. Mtchelmii appears to differ not only m dividing
less fredy, but in its smaller cup and a different arrangement of



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A. R VerriU on New Oarals. 871

the septa, those of the three first cycles bemg described as about
equal, while in H. geminata those of the third cycle are very
smdL The columeUa in the latter appears to be much less de-
veloped*

Desmophyllum simplex^ sp. nov. Figure 2.

Corallum elongated, slender, turbinate above, rapidly enlarg-
ing to the edge of the cup ; lower half of column o
smooth and round, upper part, toward the cup,
somewhat angular with twelve thin, sharp, crest-
like costae, which become much elevated near the
summit ; sxirface finely mranulous. Cup distinctly
angular, usuaUv somewnat hexagonal, deep, very
open, with a tnin wall Septa m three cycles ;
those of the third cycle very small, thin, very
narrow, and but little elevated ; those of the first and second
broadly rounded at sununit and a little excurved, perpendicu-
lar within, thin, the sxirfaces finely granulated, the primaries
considerably the largest Six coraflites grow up togetner in an
irregular cluster, several of these uniting together at base. The
largest is '80 of an inch high ; *12 in diameter at middle ; the
cup -38 ; primary septa '14 broad ; height above edge of cup
•10 of an mcL

St Thomas, West Indies,— Mrs. R H. Bishop.

Hetebozoanthxjs, gen, nov.

Polyps creeping on the surface of sponges, etc., by thin, basal,
stolon-uke expansions of the base, from which the polyps arise
in linear series. The polyps are short, capable of contracting
nearly to a level with the oasal membrana Tentacles few, 12
to 24. Integument stiffened by foreign bodies imbedded in the
skin, such as sponge-spicula, eta

Besides the following, this genus appears to include several
other known species: H. SvnfUi {Oemmaria Swiftii D. and M.)
is parasitic upon a sponge in the West Indies; H. Aodnellce
(Schmidt sp.) on two species of AxinellOy Adriatic Sea.

Heterozoanlhus scandens, sp. nov.

Polyps small and low, connected by a narrow basal mem-
brane, which is a little wider than their bases and creeps over
and is partially imbedded in the sur&ce of a branching sponge,
rising to the tips of all the branches, some of which are eight
inches long, and forming irregular reticulations over the surface,
though at times ascending for two inches or more with a linear
series of polyps; rarely with double seriea The polyps are near

* ff. eupaammida (Gray sp.) from China, may be nearer this if distinot from
ttM former, to whidi Edwards and Haime refer it.



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872 A. E VerriU an New (hraU.

together, seldom more than their own diameter apart, and often
in contact ; in contraction they rise but little above the basal
membrane in the form of low, flattened warts, with a depression
at summit from which radiate 12 to 15 sulcations. Internal
lamellae 12. Integument firm, filled throughout with smaU,

f listening, white spicula, probably derived from the spong&
>iameter of contracted polyps "08 to 10 ; height "02 or "OS ;
breadth of basal membrane aoout 10 of an inch.
Sherbro Island, West Africa, — Prof A. Hurd.

Alcyonabia.

Telesto Africarw^ sp. nov. Figure 8.

Corallum forming a cluster of long, rather slender, branched,
tubular stalks connected bv a creeping base. The stalks are
2 to 4 inches long, with eight longitudinal ridces or low costae.
The polyps are arranged irregularly along the sides of the
brancnes and main stalks, mostly at distances of 10 to "25 of
an inch apart, sometimes opposite, and in contraction are prom-
inent, tubular, and placed obliquely, sulcated with eight grooves.
Color when dried yellowish white. Diameter of stalks "OS to
•08 ; of polyp-tubes "05 ; length of polyp-tubes 10 to 12 of an
inch when contracted.
The walls of the stalks and branches consist of rather slender
^^^ rudely, irregularly, but sparingly

^' ^^ branched and spinulose spicula of

various forms (ng. 8, a), which are
closely interlaced, as in the other
species of the genus. Other forms
of long, very slender, more distantly
spinulose, often bent spicula are also
aoundant (fig. 3, b).

The stouter spinulose spicula
measure •252'°« by -OSe"*", 192 by
•060, 192 by -048 ; the long slender
spicula -528 by 024, 492 by -036,
•466 by -066, -432 by -036, -420 by
•036, -408 by -048, •366 by -048.
' Sherbro L, on the base of Muricea
granulosa^ — Prof A. Hurd.

This species is closely allied to 7!
fniticulosa Dana, of the Carolina
coasts, and, like that species, is en-
crusted by a parasitic sponge. But it is a more slender species
and the spicula are longer and more attenuated.

7! Riisei V., of St Thomas {Ctavularia Riisei D. and M.), is



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A. R VerrUl an New Cbrala. 878

also nearly allied. T. trichostemma V. (Dana sp.) and T, auran-
tiaca Lamx. have stouter and more warty spicula.

Muricea granulosdj sp. nov. Figure 4.

CoraUum rather slender, somewhat fan-shaped, branching
in a plane; branches and branchlets irregularly sub-pinnate;
branchlets slender, "5 to 1*5 inches long. Verruc» small,
crowded, prominent, somewhat nariform, opening upward, the
lower lip rounded, not prolonged. Coenenchyma eraniilous
with small, stout spicula. Color, when dried, dull yeUowish or
grayish brown. Height 6 inches ; breadth 4 ; diameter of trunk
•15; of branchlets "OB to '08; of verrucae "OS; height of verrucee
•02 of an inch.

The spicula (fig. 4) are yellowish white and quite small for
the genus ; the larger ones are elongated, often curved, coarsely
and roughly warted, stout spindles, jojl

tapering to acute ends ; short, stout, ^^

roughly warted, irregularly oblong
spicula with obtuse ends; and various
snort, stout, rough, club-shaped forms,
which are often as broad as long, with
large rough warts or spinules on the
larger eni With these are various
other forms of irregular spicula, with
many smaller, rather slender, more
regular, distantly and more evenly
warted spindles.

The larger rough spindles measure -648°*°* by 156°*", -504 by
•108 ; the oblong spicula '408 by -144, •896 by -168, -812 by "108,
•264 by 108, -264 by -156, -216 by -096; the larger clubs -896
by -156, -336 by -144, -288 by -182, -276 by -120, -264 by -084,
•192 by -108, -180 by "072 ; the largest of the slender spindles
•492 by -096, ^444 by -072, ^836 by -072.

Sherbro Island, — -rrof A. Hurd.

This species is remarkable for the small size and roughness of
the spicula and the form of the verrucse. Its branches are also
more slender than in most species.

Muricea vatricoaa Kdlliker {Ghrgania vatricosa VaL) from the
Bizagos Archipelago is the onlj^ African species recorded pre-
viously. Of that we have received authentic spicula through
Dr. Kolliker, from the original specimen. The spicula of M.
vcUricosa are much coarser and the corresponding forms are
about twice as large ; some of the larger spindles measure -840™™
by •180°^, ^780 by -240, ^744 by -204; oblong spicula ^696 by
•240, ^456 by -192 ; clubs ^660 by -156, ^456 by '180 ; the slender
spindles -720 by •108. The lower lip is also said to be pro-
longed in the form of a small horn.



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874 A. B. VerrUl on New Corals.

Leptogorgia rcbusta sp. nov.

Corallum consists of several stout prmcipal branches arising
from near the broadly expanded base; tnese main branches
fork at irregular distances, and the secondary branches are irreg-
ularly pinnate, with branchlets mostly alternate on opposite
sides, and -5 to 1*5 inches apart The branchlets are curved at
base, then ascend at an angle of about 45** ; they are rarely coa-
lescent, stout, rigid, obtuse, 1 to 8 inches long, a little com-
pressed, with a broad band of polyp-cells on each side, with
narrow, depressed, sterile median bands, often with a distinct
groova The polyp-cells are numerous, close, rather large,
oblong or oval, usually at the summit of large, low, rounded
vemicae, sometimes scarcely raised ; they form about 4 to 6
irregular alternating vertical rows on each side of the branch-
lets, and 8 to 12 on the main branches, and are usually separa-
ted by distances about equal to their own diameter. Coenen-
chyma moderately thick, finely granulous. Axis stout, round
or a little compressed, nearly smooth and brownish black in
the larger branches, the axils flattened ; in the branchlets firm
and rigid, tapering, dark reddish brown, slightly translucent ;
base thick, spreading, yellowish wood-brown.

Color of coenenchjrma dull dark yellow, tinged with purplish
brown on the verrucfie. Height 12 inches ; breadth 5 ; diame-
ter of main branches -22 to -25 ; of axis 12 to 15 ; diameter of
terminal branchlets 13 to 16 ; of their axis at base "(M to "05 ;
diameter of verrucsB -04 to -05 ; height -01 to -03 ; diameter of
cells -02 to -08 of an inch.

The spicula are small, bright yellow, intermingled with a few
more slender ones that are bnght purple; the latter mostly
come from the verrucae. Most of the yellow spicula are acute
double-spindles, regularly tapering to each end, with three or four
well separated whorls of warts on each half; some shorter and
stouter forms occur, with more crowded warts and obtuse ends.
The purple spicula are mostly slender, acute, sparingly warted
spinoles and double-spindles. Small, rounded, closely warted
oouble-heads occur sparingly.

The laiger yellow double-spindles measure "216°"" by •072'"",
-204 by -060, 180 by -072, 168 by -060, 168 by 066, 156 by
•048 ; the purple spicula -216 by -086, -204 by -018, 192 by
•080, 180 by ^024, 156 by ^030, 144 by -036.

Sherbro Island, — ^Prof A. Hurd. Two specimens attached to
the shell of an oyster, with L. sanguinolenta V.

This species somewhat resembles in mode of growth and gen-
eral appearance L. rigida V. from the Gulf of California, etc.,
but has even stouter branchea The spicula and verrucae are
very different The color of L. rigida is almost always uniform
dark purple.



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A. R Verria on New Oorah. 876

Leptogorgia dtchoiomoj sp. nov.

Corallxim tall, slender, sparingly dichotomously branched.
The trunk divides at about three inches fix)m the base into two
main branches ; these fork at about 1 and at 2*5 inches, and part
of the secondary branches divide again at about three inches
jBx)m their origin, but others remain undivided for 6 or 8 inches.
The branches and branchlets are long, rather slender, slightly
tapering, obtuse, flexuous, spreading at base, compressed or
somewSat quadrangular, with a narrow sterile band on each
side, and broad lateral bands of crowded polyp-cells. The cells
are rather large, oval, mostly raised on low, rounded, rather
large, often crowded verrucae, sometimes flat Ccenenchyma
moderately thick. Axis roimd, dark brown in the larger
branches, light yellowish and setaceous in the terminal branch-
lets. Color bright lemon-yellow, the cells mostly surrounded
by purplisL

Heignt 15 inches ; breadth 4 ; diameter of main branches '15 ;
their axis •09 ; diameter of branchlets 'll to 18 ; their axis at
base -05, in middle -02 to "08 ; diameter of verruc» "08 to "(M ;
height -01 to -02.

The spicula are yellow, with some more slender purple ones,
as in the preceding species, but the average size is nearly twice
as great The most common forms are long, very acute, aouble-
spindles, with four or five loose whorls of rough warts on each
end ; others are shorter and stouter, with more crowded whorls
of warts. Some of the purple spicula are regular double-spin-
dles, like those first described, but others, fix)m the polyps, are
slender spinulose spindles ; some of the double-spindles are half
purple and half yellow.

The larger double-spindles measure -264™™ by •060, ^252 by
•072, -252 by -060, -240 by -066, -228 by -084, -228 by •OBO, -228
by -054, -216 by -072, -216 by -060, -204 by -072, -204 by -060,
•192 by -078 ; the purple polyp-spindles -228 by -024, -186 by
•080, -180 by -018, '168 by -030, -156 by -080, -144 by -015.

Sherbro faland, — ^Prof A. Hurd.

The new species herein described fix)m the west coast of
Africa are of peculiar interest, both as furnishing additional
evidence of the richness of that little explored region in Gorgo-
nacea, and as showing peculiar relations to the faunse of tne
West Indies and Pacific coasts of America. They were col-
lected by Mr. D. W. Burton, missionary, for the museum of
Knox College, and sent to me for examination by Professor
Hurd.



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876 W. Gibbs: Gmtributiana to Ohemistry.



Abt. XLTV. — OontribiUions to Chemistry from Ae Laboratory of
the Laiurence Scientific School No. 11 ; by Wolcott Gibbs,
M.D., Bumford Professor in Harvard University.

I. On a simple method of avoiding observations of tempercUure
and pressure in gas analyses.*

In absolute determinations of nitrc^en and other gases, accu-
rate observations of temperature and pressure are, in the ordi-
nary methods of analysis, necessary, and when made require
subsequent calculations which, when the analyses are numer-
ous, become rather tedious. By the following simple method
these observations may be altogether dispensed with, and the
true weight or the reduced volume of the observed gas obtained
at once by a single arithmetical operation. The volume of any
gas at the temperature 0° C. and pressure 760 may be deduced
firom its volume at the temperature t and pressure p by the famil-
iar expression :

V -V ^ h-h'-h"

"^^ *l+0-00367r 760 ^^

in which h is the observed height of the barometer (reduced to
0® C), h' the tension of the vapor of water at f when the gas is
moist and A'' the height of the column of mercury in the col-
lecting tube above the level of the mercury in the cistern. For
any other gas under precisely the same circumstances of temper-
ature and pressure we have the equation:

^ o-— ^ 1 i-|.o-0036n' 760 ^ '

Whence dividing the first equation by the second we have :

V V

or as a proportion Vj : V% : : V^^ : Y\ (4)

from which it appears that the reduced volume (vol at 0® and
760°*°) of the second gas may be found without observations of
temperature and pressure, provided th it the unreduced volume
be observed under the same circumstances of temperature and
pressure as the volume of the first gas, the reduced volume of
which has been previouslv determined. Let the first or stand-
ard gas be air ; then if the weight of one cubic centimeter of
dry air at 0° and 760°° be w the whole weight will be wY^
In like manner we shall have for the weight of the gas to be
measured w^'^ and since the weights do not change with the
temperature and pressure, we have finally :

wVjrw?, V':: wVo :w^Y\.
If now we suppose that the gas in the first tube, or standard
* Bead before the National Academy of Sdencea, Sept, 1869.



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Method af avoiding observations of temperature. 877

gas is, for example, nitrogen, the volume remaining the same,
and that the gas to be measured is also nitrogen, we have

or simply V^:Y' :: w^Y^:w^Y\. (6)

The application of this formula in practice is as follows : A
graduated tube holding about 150 cubic centimeters is filled
with mercury and inverted into a mercury trough. Two thirds
or three fourths of the mercury are then displaced by air, care
being taken to allow the walls of the tube to be slightly moist,
so as to saturate the air. This tube may be called the compan-
ion tube ; the volume of air which it contains must be carerally
determined in the usual manner by five or six separate observa-
tions, taking into account, of course, all the circumstances of
temperature and pressure. The mean of the reduced volumes
is then to be found, and forms the constant quantity V©. The
gas to be measured is transferred from the receiver in which it
IS collected, into a (moist) eudiometer tube, which is then sus-
pended by the side of tne companion tube, and in the same
trough or cistern. Both tubes Deing supported by cords pass-
ing over pullies, it is easy to bring the level of the mercury in
the two tubes to an exact coincidenca The pressure on the gas
is then the same in each tube. The temperature is also the
same as the tubes hang side by side in the room set apart for
gas analyses, and are equally affected by any thermometric
change. It is then only necessary to read off the volumes of the
gas in the two tubes to have all the data necessary for calculating
tne weight of the gas to be measured. This calculation may be
effected in two ways, each of which will be found of use. Thus
proportion (4) reads in words : as the observed volume of the
air m the companion tube is to the observed volume of the gas
in the measunng tube, so is the reduced volume of the air in the
first — ^previously determined as above — to the reduced volume
of the gas to be measured. This method of course applies to
the reduction of any gaseous mixture whatever to the normal
pressure and temperature. In absolute nitrogen determina-
tions, however, proportion (5) gives the weight of the nitrogen
measured at once, smce the term WiYq is found by multiplying
the weight of 1 ac of nitrogen at 0° and 760°*™ by the reduced
volume of air in the companion tube, and is a constant which
can be used as long as the companion tube lasts. In practice, a
companion tube filled with mercury will last with a little care
for a very long time. Even when fiUed with water I have
found that excellent results may be obtained, and that the tube
win last for some weeks. WiUiamson and Russell, in their
processes for gas analysis, have employed a companion tube for
bringing a gas to be measured to a constant pressure, but the
apphcation made above is, I believe, whoUy new.



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878



W. GHbbs: Otmtribuiions to Chemistry.



2. On the application of SprengePa mercurial pump in analysis.

The first application of SprengeVs pump
in analysis is unquestionably due to Frank-
land, who, in a paper on the analysis of
potable waters, describes an advantageous
form of the apparatus, together with a
method of determining with it small quan-
tities of nitrogen. Frankland's paper came



/^ -^ 7////////////////////////




into my hands after I had myself made a
similar application of the pump, and had
executed several organic analyses by its
aid. As the instrument has now been
nearlv two years in use in my Laboratory,
I will here give the results of my experi-
ence. The pump I use differs in several par-
ticulars fix>m that of Frankland. Repeat-
ed jfractures of the glass soon showea the
necessity of making the tube as flexible as
possible. I therefore introduced into the
vertical or descent tube, three joints, and
substituted a T tube of iron for the glass
T, which I at first employed. The hori-
zontal branch of the pump is connected
directly with the combustion tube by
means of a good stopper of vulcanized
rubber previouslv wet and forced into
the tube as tightly as possible. The an-
nexed wood cut will give a correct idea
of the whole apparatus, and for any one
familiar with tne principle of the pump,
will need no explanation. The joints a
and h are made of good vulcanized rub-
ber tightly wound with iron wira Round
each of these is placed a larger tube of
vulcanized rubber tied above and below
and filled with mercury. The ends of the
iron T tube A are protected in a similar
manner, the glass tube being cemented
into the iron. The lower joint c is more
simple, and has no exterior tube. It con-



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On the application of SprengeCs Mercurial Pump. 879

sists of thick vulcanized rubber covered on the outside with a
vamish, suggested to me by Prof Crafts, and consisting of a
mixture ofpitch, gutta percha and wax melted together. A
strong steel screw clamp k serves to regulate the flow of the
mercury in the pump tube, the diameter of which is about 1^
millimeters. The mercury reservoir M consists simply of a
large green glass bottle, with the bottom cut off, inverted and
provided with a good stopper of vulcanized rubber, through
which the upper part of the pump tube passea

The use of this apparatus m absolute determinations of nitro-
gen is as foUows : The substance to be analyzed is mixed in a
rather short combustion tube with chromate of lead and a small
proportion, five or six grams, of chromate of suboxyd of mer-
CTirv. The anterior portion of the tube is then nearlv filled
with freshly reduced, finely divided metallic copper, in front of
which a few grams of carbonate of manganese is placed. The con-
nection with the pump being made, the apparatus is first tested
by running the pump for a few minutes and allowing the whole
to stand for a short time, to see if the level of the mercury in
the pump tube remains unchanged. The combustion tube is
then to be completely pumped out — an operation which requires
from five to ten minutes only — after which the carbonate of
manganese is to be cautiously neated until a sufficient quantity
of carbonic acid is evolved to completely fill the apparatus and
restore the equilibrium of pressure within and without The
combustion is then conducted in the usual manner, care being
taken to keep the column of metallic copper at a ftill red heat,
and to proceed slowly. When the combustion is finished, the
pump is again set in operation until a perfect vacuum is ob-
tain^ The receiver wnich I employ for collecting the gas, is
that of Simpson. It is first filled with mercury ; afterwards
about fifty cubic centimeters of a solution of caustic potash, of
density 1*2, are introduced to absorb the carbonic acid. The
nitrogen is then to be transferred to a eudiometer tube and
measured. The following analyses will serve to show the degree
of accuracy attainable by this process :

0*1380 gr. crystallized asparagin gave 21*98 e.c. nitrogen (moist) at

13**75 and VSO'O^^zs 18*69 per cent. The formula requires 18*66

per cent.
0*2910 gr. Bodic stryphnate gave 126*86 c.c. nitroffen at 18° C. and

559°'°=36*28 per cent, nitrogen. The formula Na(€4H2H5ea)

4-H2O requires 36*26 per cent.
0*8593 gr. potassic oxalurate gave 115 c.c. nitrogen at 6* 25 C. and

762*7°»°» =:16*50 per cent. The formula K^jHaNaO^ requires

16*47 per cent.
0*6730 gr. allantoin gave 189 c,c. nitrogen at — 1°C. and 761*6'""»

=35*40 per cent. The formula €4H0N4O, requires 35*40 per

cent.



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880 W. OSAs: OmLrihuUom to Chemistry.

In working with Sprengel's pump in the manner indicated,
many observations of practical value have been obtained. In
the nrst place it has been clearly shown that the products of
combustion executed in vacuo frequently diflFer in a remarkable
manner from those conducted under ordinary atmospheric pres-
sure. Thus ammonic nitrate at common pressures is decom-
posed by heat with simple resolution into nitrous oxyd and
water, feut in the nearly perfect vacuum produced by the mer-
curial pump, the reaction is entirely different, very large quan-
tities of red nitrous or hyponitric vapors being evolved. In
like manner Mr. Sharpies has observed that cupric oxalate,
which is usually decomposed by heat into carbonic acid and
metallic copper, in vacuo always yields more or less carbonic
oxyd. Gunpowder bums slowly and without explosion in
vacuo — ^an observation which, however, is by no means new —
but gun cotton explodes as violently as in air.

In my first experiments, in which I attempted to collect nitro-
gen by conducting the analysis without previously filling the



Online LibraryRodolfo Amedeo LancianiThe American journal of science and arts → online text (page 43 of 109)