Rodolfo Amedeo Lanciani.

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blackens in the light like argentic chlorid — a property which it also
according to the author — shares with thallous chlorid. When
suddenly heated it explodes with formation of thallous chlorid and
a gas, which is a mixture of ethylene and ethyl-hydrid so that we
have Tl(C2H5)2Cl— TlCl-fCaH^+CaHj.

By double decomposition with argentic sulphate and nitrate the
author obtained the sulphate, rTl(02H5)2]2S^4» aiid the nitrate
T1(C2H,)2N03 which crystallize in leaves and are soluble in
water, alcohol and ether. The author promises a further investi-
gation of this very interesting and theoretically important subject.
— BericJite der Deutschen ch^mischen GeseUschafty No. 1, 1 870, p. 9.

w. G.

7. Spectrum Analysis : Six Lectures delivered in 1868 be/ore the
Society of Apothecaries of London. By Henby E. Roscoe. Lon-
don. C. Macmillan & Co. — We are indebted to the kindness of the
author for a copy of this work, which presents the most complete
account of the history and development of spectral analysis to be
found in any language, if we except perhaps the German treatise
of Schellen and the Swedish wort oi Thalen.* The six lectures
form rather less than half the work. They are simply and agree-
ably written, not too popular, nor yet too abstruse for a popular
work in the best bense of the term. Their value is greatly increased
however, for the scientific reader, by the addition of numerous and
elaborate appendices including in many cases entire memoirs. Be-
sides the diagrams and figures which illustrate the lectures, the
work is enriched by an excefient lithographic reproduction of Kirch-
hofi's chart from A to G and of Angstr5m's and Thalen's chart from
G to H, and with chromo-lithographs of the spectra of several fixed
stars and nebulae. Kirchhoff 's and Huggins' tables are given in full.
The results of the analysis of the light of the sun's atmos])here
up to the date of the publication of the lectures are also given.

* Om Spektral analys. Upsala UnWergitets Arsckrift, 1866.



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890 Scientific Intelligence.

Finally there is an excellent bibliography of works and memoin
on the spectroscope and spectral analysis. That the work should
not in every respect deserve unqualined praise will seem natural
enooffh, yet we are not disposed to find fault with so rich a store
of information offered to us in so acceptable a form. w. o.

IL MINEBALOGY AKD GEOLOGY.

1. On the MegacUictylus polyzeliSts of JETitchcock; by E. D.
Cope. — This genus was named by Hitchcock in his Supplement to
the Ichnology of New England, p. 39, 1866 ; the bones have been
briefly described in his Ichnology on page 186. The remains were
found in a more or less fragmentary condition in the red sandstone
rocks of the Valley of the Connecticut, from the neighborhood of
Springfield, Massachusetts. They were found by William Smith,
while engaged in superintending some excavations made at the
armory, which required blasting.

The remains consist of four caudal and one dorsal vertebrae, the
greater part of the left fore foot, with distal portions of ulna and
radius ; the greater part of the leil femur, proxmial end of left tibia,
greater part of left fibula, tarsus and hind foot, including a tarsal
bone, perfect metatarsus, proximal end of a second metatarsus,
parts of the distal end of a third, and parts and impressions of four
phalanges.

These fragments demonstrate the former existence in the region
in question of a typical form of the suborder or order Symphypoda
{Compaognatha Huxley), and one nearer the birds than any other
hitherto found in America. Its pertinence to this order is shown
by the absence of the first series of tarsal bones, apparently, as
Gegenbaur has suggested, and as the structure of Lselaps proves,
in consequence of their confluence with the distal extremities of the
tibia and fibula. This important character is apparently assumed
early in life in the present genus, and in Compsognathus, and prob-
ably quite late, in Omithotarsus. In CompsognaSius the additional
peculiarity of the persistence of but two carpal bones is presented,
which, according to Gegenbaur, should correspond with those of the
first row of ordinary Reptilia, while those of the second have dbap-
peared. In Megadactylus those of the first series are present, viz :
the radiale and probably ulnare, and one of the second row, very
much reduced, opposite to the second metacarpus. There is space
for a second one of the second series, but it does not appear in the
matrix, while the ulnare is probably lost.

The bird-like tendencies of the Symphypoda have been indicated
above, and the very ornithic character of the bones of the pres-
ent form is also very marked. The walls of the long bones are
very thin, in some PJ^ces near their extremities almost as much so
as writing paper. The vertebrsB and ischia present the same thin
walls, llie structure of these walls is exceedingly dense.

Prof. Copje next gives the special characters of the bones, which
are here omitted. He adds :



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Mineralogy and Otology. 891

That animals of this eenus made some of the tracks similar to
those of birds in the rea sandstones of the Valley of the Connecti-
cut there can be no doubt It furthermore explains some prob-
lematical impressions which are occasionally found with tnenu
Tracks of an animal resting in a plantigrade position, as indicated
by the moulds of two long parallel metatarsi, each terminated by
three toes, are accompanied by a peculiar, bilobate, transversely
oval mark on the midale line, some distance behind the heels.

Prof Hitchcock states that it appears to be the impression of a
short stiff tail. The present specimen shows clearly that it was
made by the obtuse extremities oi the ischia. The saurian s(]|uat-
ted down, resting on its styloid ischia as the third leg of a tnpod
of which the anterior pair was represented by the ninder legs.
Prof O. C. Marsh informs me that in the museum of Yale College,
a slab exhibiting impressions similar to the above shows the mi-
pressions of the anterior feet also, which were put to the ground in
the act of rising or sitting, or perhaps reachea to it while the ani-
mal was squatting, as do those of carnivorous Mammalia.

The tracks of many of the animals discovered by Hitchcock are
plantigrade. That they could not have walked like the planti-
grade mammal, is sufficiently evident from the length of the meta-
tarsal elements, which would necessitate a constant contraction of
the tibialis anticus muscle, or peculiar arrangement oi the tarsal
bones, for its support. The latter does not appear to have existed,
and the former is so very improbable, that, in connection with the
pneumatic structure of the bones, there is abundant reason to sup-
pose that they progressed by leaps, and assumed the plantigraae
position when at rest.

No portion of the cranium or dentition of this genus has been
preserved. The large stout hooked claws of the fore foot would
indicate a more or less carnivorous diet.

The existence of Symphypoda in the strata here indicated, with
the occurrence of a I'terosaurian in a similar situation in Pennsyl-
vania, points to the existence of the transition from Eeuper to Lias,
that is, from Triassic to Jurassic beds, in the red sandstones of
eastern United States. They have been heretofore regarded as
Triassic,* which the lower portions of them undoubtedly are, and
similar to the German Keuper in the presence of Labyrinthodonts,
Thecodonts and Dinosauria in both Pennsylvania and N. Carolina.

The remains here described were alluded to by ProC R Owen,
as those of a Saurian pointing to the Pterodactyles or Birds, pro-
viding the cavities of the bones were filled by marrow, and not by
cartilage. Prof Wyman regarded them as those of a reptile,
though the long bones might have been referred to a bird if con-
sidered alone. " While the bones from Springfield are as hollow
as those of the Pterodactyle, I do not find that they are those of
this animal ; there is no positive proof of the long fingers nor of

^ ffitohcook, in bis lohnolof^ (18'>8), holds that the beds containing the tracks
are lower JurassiCf either Oolitic or Lias; and Daoa, in his Gtoologj, (pp. 414. 443),
says that the so-called Triassic is probabl/ in part Jurassic. — Boa Aic. J. Sol



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892 Scientijic Intelligence.

the broad stemnm which these reptiles possessed. The existence
of the large toe in company with the small one is in favor of a
jumping animal" — From the Memoir of Prof. Cope on Extinct Rep-
tilia and Aves, Am^r, Phil. Soc,^ unpublished volume.

2. On the Elasmoeaurns platyurus of Cope ; by Dr. J. Leidt.
(Communicated by the Author). — At a meetingot the Academy
of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, March 8th, rro£ Leidy stated
that after an examination of the remains of the great marine sau-
rian, from the Cretaceous formation of Kansas, presented to the
Academy by Dr. T. H. Turner, U. S. A., and described by Prof
Cope under the name of Ela^moeaurue plaJtywrus^ he had arrived
at the conclusion that the animal belonged to the Enaliosaurians.
It was closely allied to Plesioeaurus ; the peculiar characteristics
of the different regions of the vertebral column, together with
those of the shoulder and pelvic girdles, and the fragments of the
skull and teeth, are decidealy Plesiosaurian.

Prof. Cope has fallen into the error of describing the skeleton
in a reversed position to the true one, and in that view has rep-
resented it in a restored condition in his recent " Synopsis of the
Extinct Batrachia, lieptilia, and Aves," published in the Transac-
tions of the American Philosophical Society. To explain the appa-
rently anomalous and reversea condition of the articular processes,
(zygapophyses) of the vertebrae, he considers that those ordinarily
existing in animals are substituted by the second set (zygosphene
and zygantrum) of serpents and iguanians.

The discovery of a portion of the skull, as reported by Dr. Tur-
ner, in the vicinity of what Prof. Cope regards as the anterior
extremity of the skeleton, and which he considers as confirmatory
of the view he has taken of the latter. Prof. Leidy remarked, inde-
pendently of the many anatomical characteristics, is more than
compensated by the opposite end of the vertebral column termina-
ting in a coossified axis and atlas, this latter still retaining in its
cup the occipital condyle.

A comparison of caudal vertebrae of the Kansas saurian with
isolated specimens from the Cretaceous formations of Alabama,
Mississippi, and New Jersey, referred by Pro£ Leidy to a Ple-
siosaurian, under the name of Discoeaunts^ leads him to view
Elasmosaurue as identical with it. Such also appears originally
to have been the view of Prof Cope, in relation to a part of
the same skeleton which he referred to a species with the name
of XHscosaunce c(trinatu8.

The restored Discosaurus or Elasmoeaurue^ would repeat the
form usually given of Plesiosattrve, but the neck was of more
remarkable length than in the latter. It comprised the almost
incredible number of seventy-two cervicale, and measured almost
twenty-two feet in length, independent of the head. The imper-
fection of the rest of the vertebral column does not permit any-
thing like a positive estimate to be made of the comparative ex-
tent of the trunk and tail.

In the true view of Discosaurus or ElaemosauruBy Prof Copers
order of Streptosauridae fails to maintain its ground.



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Mineralogy and Oeohgy. 898

8. Omithcpsis^ a gigantic animal of the Fierodactyle kind from
the Wealden ; by H. G. Seelet (Ann. Mag. N. H., IV, v, 279).—
Tinder the above title Mn Seeley describes two vertebrsB in the
British Museum, one from Tilgate and the other from the Isle of
Wight, which " are of size and structure and texture such that
both might well have belonged to the same kind of organism,^'
and probably the same animal. One vertebra is from the lower
part of the neck, and the other from the back ; and when perfect
the former, from* the back to the front of the centrum, could
" scarcely have measured less than ten inches." " Seven such ver-
tebrae would have made the neck 4 to 6 feet lon^, and the animal
10 to 12 feet," while, according to the author, it may have been
two or three times as high. The vertebrae are constructed after
" the lightest and airiest plan" peculiar to Pterodactyls and birds ;
they have pneumatic foramina as in these species, and these
are very large, like those of the former species. The animal must
therefore have been decidedly omithoid ; and the gigantic ornithic
foot-prints of the Wealden, described by Mr. Beccles and Mr.
Tyler, may have been its tracks. The author closes his paper
with naming the species Omithopsis ITtdkeij after Dr. Hulke.

4. Volcanic action on Hawaii: copy of a letter from Rev.
Trrus Co an to Prof Chester S. Lyman, dated Jan. 24, 18T0. —
"Our volcanic craters have not made great demonstrations of
late, and yet are not quiet Slight shocks of earthquakes
often occur, sometimes one, two or three in a day. During the
first two weeks of the present month a good deal of steam and
smoke arose from MohuatoeoweOy the summit crater of Mauna
Loa. In Kilauea the action is fitful. Occasionally the fires rage
with much violence, and again they are sluggish. When I was
there in August, the old south lake, Halemaumau, was a hun-
dred feet deep, and four-fifths of a mile in diameter on the bot-
tom. On this floor there were eight fiery ovens and orifices
open. Since then there have been several vivid overflowings.
Tnese, with the slowly acting uplifting forces, have raised the
bottom of the crater some 76 feet, so that now the latest facts
are that the bottom is within 25 feet of the upper rim, and it
is supposed that the pit has been enlarged to more than a mile in
diameter. Lord Charles Hervey and Dr. Hans Berag, a Prussian
savan, have made two visits there within the past month. They
also rode on mules, in company with Judge Hitchcock of Hilo, to
the terminal crater of Mauna Loa, and looked into Mokuaweoweo.
There was no fire seen, but much steam. These gentlemen took a
newly discovered route, which proved much easier than any before
known. A cattle ranch has been established at Kapapala, and a
milk and butter station is situated a mile higher up the ridge of
the mountain. From this upper station the cattle have found
their way nearly to the summit, and the herdsmen in search of
them have found that mules could reach Wilkes's camp without
difficulty. Starting from Kapapala as a * base of supplies,' you
can go nearly to the summit the first day. On the second day you



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894 Scientific Intelligence.

can ascend to the top, spend several hoars, and retnm to camp to
sleep. On the third day you can reach Kapapala ranch before
night. It is also now probable that the same could be done from
Eilaaea as a base."

6. OeologiccU Map of Canada and the Northern United States/
by Sir W. E. Logan. — We have at length the pleasure of an-
nouncing the appearance of this important and long looked-for con-
tribution to American geology. Although it bears the date of 1866,
its publication has, for some reason, been delayed until 1869. A
first copy was shown by Dr. Hunt at the meeting of the American
Association at Salem, last summer, and it is only within a few
weeks, as we are informed, that the Geological Survey of Canada
has been able to procure a small number oi colored copies for dis-
tribution, one of which is now before us. The legend of the map
informs us that the geological details for Canada, comprising the
former provinces of upper and Lower Canada (now Ontario and
Quebecjare furnished by the Geological Survey under the direction
of Sir William E. Logan. He has himself compiled the geology
of the various states of the Union under the supervision of Profl
Hall from various sources which are mentionea in detail in the
preface to the Atlas of the Geology of Canada ; (published in 1 865)
where he tells ua that this portion of the work was done "with the
approval of Prof. James Hall, who has freely placed all his materialn
at the disposal of the compiler, and aided by his intimate personal
knowledge of the geology of a greater part of the region repre-
sented." For the geology of the provmce of New Brunswick,
Nova Scotia and Newfoundland, also, the most authentic printed
and manuscript maps were consulted, as described in the Atlas
just referred to.

An indispensable preliminary to a work of this kind was a cor-
rect topographical map, and such a one for Canada had to be slow-
ly and laboriously constructed. The sources of information for this
purpose are given at length in the preface already quoted. A se-
ries of longitude determinations was made, by electric telegraph,
of various points from Chicago to Quebec ana Halifax, and both
of the latter stations were directly compared with Cambridge. In
the absence of a regular trigonometrical survey of the provinces,
the U. S. boundary surveys, the lake surveys of the TJ. S. Topograph-
ical Engineers, and the hydrographical surveys of the British Admi-
ralty were available for the course of the St. Lawrence and the Brit-
ish shores, while those of the U. S. Coast Survey were followed for
the United States. For the interior of the provinces, in addition
to the surveys already existing, great numbers of topographical
surveys have been made by the officers of the Geological Survey
during the past twenty-five years. From all this material, de-
scribed in the Atlas, pp. 8-16, it has been possible to make a far
more accurate delineation of the geography of the British prov-
inces than has hitherto been attained, and the same remark will
apply to the coastal region of the United States, since we believe
that this is the fii-st time the beautiful and accurate work of



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Mineralogy and Qeohgy, 896

our own Coast Survey has ever been reproduced in a complete
form for our shores from the St. Croix to the Chesapeake. The
construction of the map was intrusted to Mr. Robert Barlow,
formerly of the British Ordnance Survey, and now chief topog-
rapher to the Survey of Canada. It has been engraved on steel by
Ramboz and Jacobs of Paris, under the superintendence of Mr.
Gustave Bossange, and is remarkable for the beauty of its execu-
tion. The geological lines having been traced upon the plate,
they were placed in the hands of Mr. Stanford, the well known
map publisher of London, under whose direction the printing and
hand coloring of the map have been executed. The Atlas already
referred to contains a small colored geological map, on the scale of
125 miles to the inch, which is a reduction of that now before us,
and bears the date of 1864. Changes and additions to the geolo-

fy have, however, been made in the large map, on which it has
een possible also to give the subdivisions of the Quebec group in
Eastern Canada, which the small scale of the first map did not
allow.

The present map is on the scale of twenty-five miles to the inch,
and measures eight feet frpm east to west by three and a half
feet from north to south; extending southward to latitude 37°, and
westward to lonejitude 100°. Its northern limits include the lakes
Manitoba and Winnipeg, James's Bay, Newfoundland, and the ad-
jacent Labrador coast, while to the south it takes in Kanzas and
northern Virginia.

The geological ftubdivisions adopted on this map are — 1. Lauren-
tian, 2. Labradorian for Upper Laurentian), 8. Huronian; while for
the paleozoic series tiie names and divisions of the New York sur-
vey are essentially adopted, a? follows : 4. Potsdam formation, 5.
Calciferous, 7. Chazy, 8. Birdseye and Black River, 9. Trenton, 10.
Utica, 11. Hudson Kiver, 12. Medina and Oneida, 13. Clinton, 14.
Niagara, 16. Guelph, 16. Onondaga or Salina, 17. Lower Helder-
berg, 18. Corniferous and Oriskany, 19. Hamilton, 20. Chemung
and Portage, 21. Old Red sandstone, 22. Lower Carboniferous
limestone, 23. Bonaventure (conglomerate), 24. Coal measures, 26.
Upper Carboniferous limestone, 26. Permian, 27. Trias, 28. Cre-
taceous, 29. Tertiary. In the eastern basin, as is well known, the
geological survey of Canada admits the existence of a Quebec group,
which is regarded as equivalent of the Calciferous and Chazy for-
mations and is divided into three parts in ascending order, viz :
the Levis, Lauzon and Sillery formations, lliese are represented
on the map before us ; the Levis being colored like the Calcifer-
ous, and the Sillery like the Chas^y, while the Lauzon (6), is distin-
guished by a separate color. Add to this two colors for intrusive
rocks, one for granites and the other for diorites and dolerites,
and we have not less than thirty-one geological divisions, indicated
on the map by as many colora.' The system of coloring adopted
by Sir William Logan is essentially that of the Survey of Great
Britain, with such modifications as were required to adapt it to our
American geology, and has the merit of bringing into distinct view



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896 Scientific IrUelligeTvce,

the great geological divisions without offending the eye by crude
and harsh contrasts.

With the exception of the reduction of this in the Atlas, it is
believed that no geological map has appeared which presents to
the student a connected view of so great an ai*ea of the continent.
It extends from the Cretaceous and Tertiary rocks of New Jersey,
to those of Nebraska and Dakota, and shows at a glance by far
the greater part of the wide paleozoic basin of North America. It
may at first seem strange that a map designed primarily to display
the geology of Canada should be made so comprehensive; but it will
be seen that the proposed limits of the New Dominion extend even
farther westward than this map, while the southern point of the
province of Ontario stretches as far as northern Pennsylvania, or
below the 42nd parallel. A clear understanding of the geology
of the upper St. Lawrence basin, was, moreover, not possible
without a delineation of the great coal fields adjacent, whose rela-
tion to Canada, it should be added, is not less important com-
mercially than geologically. These coal fields now furnish large
supplies of fuel to the middle and western portions of the Domin-
ion, which, in return, is sending to the coal regions rich ores from
its inexhaustible mines of iron, — the commencement of a commerce
which must grow in importance, and bind more closely these prov-
inces to our great republic.

On the other hand, we cannot fail to be struck with the extent of
the Acadian coal basin, including large portions of Nova Scotia,
and New Brunswick, and part of Newtoundland. Out of it, in
fact, the Gulf of St. Lawrence has been excavated ; and this wide
maritime area, with its thick seams of superior bituminous coal, con-
tiguous to safe harbors, and not far removed from the great manu-
facturing districts of New England, must every year increase in
importance alike to the provinces and to the TJnion. We are
tempted to dwell still farther on the great commercial questions
raised by the inspection of this geological map, which the geogra-
pher, the merchant, and the statesman may consult with equal
advantage; but we must confine ourselves to its geological
aspects.

For that part of the United States which lies between the Missis-
sippi and the longitude of the Hudson, the geological lines are now
so well defined tnat, except for some parts of the Appalachian belt,
no subsequent researches will probably necessitate any considerable
change in the map. The geological structure of the provinces
of Ontario and Quebec, south of the great Laurentian region
which stretches along the north side of the St. Lawrence basin,
has been wrought out with an accuracy rarely surpassed, and re-
quires a map on a much larger scale to exhibit it in detail. We
have lately seen such a map, about to be published by the Geolog-
ical Survey of Canada, which, extending irom a little west of Mon-
treal to a little east of Quebec, includes the region between that
portion of the St. Lawrence and the frontier of the United States.
It is engraved on a scale of four miles to the inch, and geologi-



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Mineralogy and Qeohgy. 897

oally colored to exhibit in detail the complicated structure of the
Canadian extension of the Appalachians, tlie so-called Notre Darae
range. Its publication is delayed by the want of topographical
details for some portions, but the map will soon appear, and it is



Online LibraryRodolfo Amedeo LancianiThe American journal of science and arts → online text (page 45 of 109)