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had been generally taken up from the bow oi the vessel, they had
been drawn in these two instances from abaft thepaddleSy and had
thus been subjected to such a violent agitation in contact with the
atmosphere, as would predminentlv favor their thorough aeration.

Hence, then, it may be affirmed that every disturbance of the
ocean-surface by atmospheric movement, from the gentlest ripple
to the most tremendous storm-wave, contributes, in proportion to
its amount, to the maintenance of animal life in its abyssal depths
—doing, in fact, for the aeration of the fluids of their inhabitants,
just what is done by the heavine and falling of our own chests for
the aeration of the blood which courses &ough our lungs. A
perpetual calm would be as fatal to their continued existence, as
the forcible stoppage of all respiratory movement would be to our
own. And thus universal stagnation would become universal
death. ♦ ♦ ♦

In conclusion, he referred to the systematic and energetic prose-
cution of deep-sea explorations by the United States Coast Survey
and bv the Swedish Government — ^the results of which appear to he
singularly accordant with those now briefly expounded, — as show-
ine that other maritime powers are stronglv interested in the
sumect j and expressed the earnest hope that the liberal assistance
of H. M. Government, which has alreiMiy enabled British Natural-
ists to obtain the lead in this inquiry, would be so continued as
to enable them to keep it in the future. In particular, he called
attention to the suggestion lately thrown out by M. Alex. Agassiz,
tiiat an arrangement might be made by our own Admiralty with
the Naval authorities of the United States ; by which a thorough
survey, physical and biological, of the North Atlantic should be
divided Detween the two countries ; so that British and American
explorers, prosecuting in a spirit of generous rivalry labors most
important to the science of the future, might meet and shake hands
on the mid-ocean.

9. Secretion of Sulphuric acid by certain Gasteropods. — ^During
the autumn of 1858, Professor Tboschbl succeeded in obtaining
in Messina two specimens of the gigantic gasteropod DoHtun gar
lea Lk., intending to remove the animal from its shell for preser-
vation. One of the moUusks threw out its enormous proboscis to
defend itself, and M. Troschel seized it for examination; when
immediately there was projected from this proboscis a drop of a
limpid liqmd which, falling upon the marble pavement of the room,
produced, much to his astonishment, an active effervescence. He
succeeded in collecting a portion of this liquid, and in proving it
to be a secretion of the salivary gland. A few months later, ttm
saliva was analyzed by Dr. JBcraeker of Bonn, who found in it
free sulphuric acid.

Shortly after, MM. Quoy and Gaimard, having discovered in
the genus Caseie^ a gland analogous to that of the Dolium^ suff-
gMted that possibly these gasteropods also secreted a similar fluid,
using it perhaps as a means of defense, but also to aid them in



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Botany and Zoology. 421

perforating bivalve shells. The Dolium saliva was subsequently
analyzed by W. Preyer, and Eeferstein published a description of
thesland.

This was the state of the question when Professor Panceri —
whose paper has just been published in the Memoirs of the Royal
Academy of Naples— undertook its investigation. He associated
Professor de Luca with him in the work, and to him we are indebt-
ed for new analyses of this remarkable secretion. These analyses
were comparative, made upon the saliva of two similar individuals.
The liquid was colorless, and slightly opaline from the presence of
a snlpho-nitrogenous orcanic substance precipitable by alcohol.
Its density was 1*025 in (I) and 1*030 in (II). The analysis gave:

I. II.

Free sulphuric acid, . . . . 3*42 3*30

Combined sulphuric acid, . . 0*20 0*15

Combined chlorhydric acid, . . . 0*58 0*60

Potassa, soda, magnesia, oxyd of iron, phos-

Wphates, organic matter and loss, . . 1*80 2*35

ater, 94-00 93 60



10000 100*00

The mollusks, their shells, and their glands were separately
weighed, with results as follows : —

I. II,

Mollusks, .... 1305 grams. 520 grams.

SheUs, 550 " 255 "

Glands, 150 " 80 «

2005 « 856 "

Hence the glands constitute from 7 to 9 per cent of the total
weight of the animal.

Moreover, M. Panceri found that on laying open the secretory
gland of a Dolium^ there was evolved, within a few moments, a
considerable (|uantity of gas, which, on examination, proved to be
pure carbonic acii One ^land, weighing approximately 45
^rams, yielded 206 cubic centimeters of Uiis gas. As to the secre-
tion of so acid a fluid from the alkaline blood of the moUusk, this
cannot surprise us, since it is entirely analogous to the secretion
of an acid gastric juice from a similarly alkaline blood in the
higher animals.

The following list comprises those species of mollnsks which, like
the Dolium galeae secrete an acid saliva : —

Pbosobbanchs. Opisthobranchs.

Cassis sulcosa Lk. PUurobranchidium Meckdii Leuo.

Tritonium nodiferum Lk. Pleurobranchus tuherculatus Meek.
" hirsutum Fab. CoL " testitudinarifis Cautr. ,

^^ ctU€ieeum{cretaceumf)'Lk. " brevi/rons F\nL

** corrugatum Lk. Doris

Cassidaria echinophora Lk.



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422 Scientific InkUigence.

No trace of such a Beoietion has been detected in the genera Cari-
naria, Firola, Phyllirofi or in any of the numerous perforating Aoeph-
ala, such as the I^holas.

After describing minutely the anatomy of the secretinff organ,
in both the above divisions of gasteropods, M. Panceri closes his
paper with some remarks upon the origin and function of this
unique secretion. Has the sulphuric acid its origin in the oxyda-
tion of the sulphur of the alouminoid tissues, or does it result
from a decomposition of the sulphates found in sea-water? M.
Panceri is inchned to the latter hypothesis, since, as is well known,
the circulatory system of the gasteropods is so arranged at the
extremity of the body as to permit the water in which they live
to enter the blood in small quantity. With regard to the role
played by the acid in this secretion, M. Panceri considers it use-
nil solely for defense ; the habits of the gasteropods studied by
him forbidding the hypothesis that it is used to perforate hard
bodies. Two views may be taken of the decomposition which
produced this acid: 1st, it may take place solely for the purpose
of obtaining the acid, in which case the secretion and emission
will be but secondary and intermittent ; or 2d, its production may
be regular and continuous, the sulphuric acid like urea for exam-
ple, being an effete product resulting from the normal chemical
changes taking pla(^ in the body. — Zee MondeSy U, xxii, 451,
March 10, 1870.

10. On the diecovery of the sensitivenees to light possessed by
Unios; by William Sharswood. — In the March number of this
Journal for 1869, p. 280, Pro£ C. A. White has published an arti-
cle under the caption "Are Unios sensitive to light?" in which he
has recited some experiments by which he had bBen led to justly
believe " that no doubt is entertained that the posterior poftion of
this moUusk is keenly sensitive to light, but exactly what organs
are thus sensitive has not been ascertained." In the May number
of this Journal for 1860, another article on this subject is pre-
sented over the caption " Are Unios sensitive to light t by Isaac
Lea," in which are brought out Dr. Lea's prior observations estab-
lishmg the same fact ; referring to the Proceedings of the Academj^
of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, for 1857, to substantiate his
claim, and to a subsequent pubhcation in the Introduction to voL
vi of his " Observations on the Genus Unio." Now the fact is
that Mr. Lea was anticipated, by fourteen or fifteen TOars, in a few
lines, byProf S. S. Haldeman, in his " Fresh-water Univalve Mol-
lusca," PhysadsB, January, 1843, p. 8, where he says, *' In the other
fresh-water families described in this work, the power of vision, or
sensitiveness to the action of light, is rendered evident by inter-
cepting it with an opaque object, when they instantly retract;
and I have even observed the protruded branchial canal of Unio
radicUus (Gmelin) to be suddenly withdrawn, when subjected to
the«ame experiment." The following is another statement on the
subject by tte same author, published in the Iconographic Ency-
clopedia, Zoology, p. 69. (New York, 1860). "The extremity [of



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Botany and Zoology. 428

the siphons in Uniol scarcely extends beyond the shell ; it is pap-
illate, and provided with eyes which have the power of distin-
goisbing light from darkness, as the siphons are suddenly with-
drawn, when a shadow is cast npon them.''
Philadelphia, 24th and Sharawood Sts., March 9, 1870.

1 1. Report on the Invertebrata o/Masscushusetts^ published agree-
ably to an order of the Legislature. Second edition, comprising
the Mollusca ; by Augustus A. Gould, M.D., edited by W. G,
BiNNBY. Boston, 1870. — Like most revisions of antiquated
works, this is a somewhat unsatisfactory book. The difficulties
have even been much greater than usual, in this instance, on ac-
count of the death of the author at a time when the revision of the
original work was in a verv unsatisfactory and unfinished condi-
tion, which necessarily made the task of the editor laborious and
the resultino: work quite different, probably, from what either the
author or editor would have personally wished.

The typography and illustrations of the book are excellent and
do credit both to the State and the editor, as well as to the artists.
The wood-cuts, of which there are 406, have nearly all been drawn
from nature by Mr. E. S. Morse, whose rare artistic talent and
thorough knowledge of the subject have enabled him to produce
figures that are unequaled in accuracy. The drawings have been
most faithfully reproduced by the engraver, Mr. Henry Marsh,
whose skill contributed so largely to the value of Harris' Report
on Insects. The accuracy and beauty of the cuts makes us regret
that a portion of the labor had not been expended upon the hinges
and interior parts of the bivalves, lingual dentition and opercula of
the Gasteropods, and other parts, which are of far greater import
tance than mere external views, no matter how accurate.

The*twelve plates are, with one exception, printed in colors and
illustrate well the Nudibranchs, Ascidians, Cephalopods and some
of the Pteropods. The Bryozoa and all the Kadiates and Articu-
lates are omitted from this edition, which was undoubtedly the
wisest course, for these groups, which were extremely imperfectly
represented in the first edition, have now been so numerously col-
lected and become so well known that at least another volume, the
size of the present, would be required to do them any justice. The
greatest improvement upon the text of the first edition is the part
relating to the Nudibranchs, which was elaborated by Dr. Gould
some time before his death. Several species not before described
or noticed are introduced, and all the species are well described
and illustrated with colored figures. The Ascidians, which were
very briefly and imperfectly treated in the first edition, now oc-
cupy 27 pages, and include 20 nominal species. Dr. Gould had
prepared nothing on this class and the editor has unfortunately
been obliged to compile the descriptions, many of them very brief
and almost worthless, in fact hardly meriting the name of descrip-
tions, which have been published in various other works. The fig-
ures are, however, mostly very good. Some, which were drawn
from life by Mr. Burkhardt, have been contributed by Prof. Agas-



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424 Sctent^ Intelligence,

siz, bat others have been drawn from alcoholic specimens and give
but a poor idea of the form and appearance of the animals when
living. In conseauence of compibng both bad descriptions and
good ones, several species of Ascidians appear under two different
names. Thus Cynthia placenta Packard is the same as Ascidia
eamea Ag., and is a true Cynthia ; C. gutta Stimpson is, perhaps,
the young of the same species, which is abundant and of larger
size in the Bav of Fundy. Molgtda arenata Stimpson is the same,
in all probability, as Ascidia psammophora Agassiz, but the fig-
ure of^ the latter is very poor and does not represent the normal
state of expansion. This species is abundant on certain sandy
bottoms near New Haven, and is a true MolgtUa. Ascidia oceUata
Agassiz appears to be the same as A. tenella Stimpson. The fig-
ure of the latter agrees exactly with numerous specimens, which
we obtained living abundantly from low-water to 50 fistthoms at
Eastport, Me., which are no doubt Stimpson's species. Bolteyiia
microcosmus Agassiz is probably only a reddish variety of B, cla-
vata ; we have often observed such variations among the many
hundreds of specimens of -B. clavata collected at Eastport, Me.,
where it is very abundant from low-water to 60 fathoms. Glan-
dtda moUis Binnev is not the species described by Stimpson under
that name, even if^it belongs to the genus Qlandula^ which is very
doubtful ; figure 328, at least, looks much more like a Cynthia or
an Ascidia, Perhaps two species are confounded together, but
neither can be O, moUiSj which is an abundant species at Eastport
and very constant in its characters, as described by Dr. Stimpson.
Although the names given by Agassiz to some of the species a Dove
mentioned are earlier than Stimpson's, no descriptions were given
by which the species could possibly be recognized, except perhaps
in the case of A, oceUcUa^ in which the ocell» are so promyient a
feature. Therefore the names given by Stimpson, and accompa-
nied by good descriptions, should be retained. But there are
quite a number of Ascidians, living on the New England coast,
which have been entirely omitted. The part relating to Conchife-
ra has been much improved and enlarged, and many additional
species introduced. All the species are beautifully illustrated by
external views, but no figures of the hinge or internal markings
are given, except in very few instances. The parts relating to
Pteropods and Cephalopods are mostly compiled from various
sources by the editor. It is to be regretted that more attention
was not bestowed upon the distribution of the species in depth
and geographically, tor a very large amount of information of this
kind has accumulated since the first edition, but often only the old
localities are mentioned, though Dr. Stimpson had given a far
fjreater amount of information of this kind, as long ago as 1861,
in his "Shells of New England," which has not even been incor-
porated into the present work.

Most conchologists and naturalists generally will be surprised
at the extent to which obsolete ideas of classification are retained.
Thus we find the Brachiopods introduced between the Conchifers



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Botany and Zoology. 425

and Gasteropoda ! The Scakmdce between Idttorinidce and Ver-
metidoB ! In fact the arrangement of the families is very often un-
natural. We find, also, many singular inconsistencies in the gen-
era adopted, for in some families the modem views and modem
names are introduced to a considerable extent, while in othei-s,
where such changes were even more desirable, the old ideas and
the old genera are retained from the first edition, almost without
change. But by way of apology we find the following in the edi-
tor's preface : "Should any disappointment be felt that Dr. Gould
has not adopted in his work all tne improvements in classification,
Ac, which more recent investigations have suggested, it must be
remembered that this is not a new work. It is rather a reprint of
an old one, with such additions and improvements as Dr. Gould
considered absolutely necessary to its present usefulness." Also,
" upon assuming the charge of the publication and receiving the
manuscripts, drawings, notes, &c. of Dr. Gould, I endeavored to
learn thoroughly what plan he had made for revising the first edi-
tion, as I was directed to complete the work <w nearly as possible
in accordance with the views and wishes of the author. I believe
I have bepn able to arrive at a clear idea of his intentions, which,
according to my orders, I have most scrupulously endeavored to
carry out, irrespective of my own opinions. It is only in treating
the Pulmonijera that I have exercised my own judgment, and
here only to the extent that I believe Dr. Gould would have ap-

S roved." We do not exactly understand how it is that the editor
id not also exercise his own judgment in treating the Ascidians,
Pteropods, and Cephalopods, since he informs us that nothing had
been prepared by Dr. Gould relating to these classes. But we
fear the editor has in some cases done Dr. Gould injustice by not
introducing important and essential chan&;es, which he himself
would undoubtedly have adopted, had he lived to completely re-
vise the work. Thus there seems to be no reason why many gen-
era, now well established, should not have been adopted. For ex-
ample, JBurosalpinx established for " Buccinum dnereunij^ which
has nothing to do with Buccinum ; Phychatractes Stimpson for
** Mtsciolaria ligata^"* etc. Even among the jPiUmonifera, where
Mr. Binney is on his own familiar ground, there are many incon-
sistencies which we cannot suppose that Dr. Gould would have
approved of, and which can scarcely be in accordance with the ed-
itor's own judgment. Thus we find the ^^ Helix f harpa^'* Say
still retained under Say's name, although Mr. Morse has well elu-
cidated its anatomical and physiological peculiarities, showing
it to be viviparous and to have many other characters entitling
it at least to distinct generic rank, and has established the genus
Zodgenites for it, which certainly has stronger claims than some
other genera of the same family, which are adopted in this work ;
neither do we see suflicient reasons for retaining Selix striateUa^
H. labyrinthica^ H. asteriscuSy Jff.pulcheUa, etc. m the genus -He-
liXj when -ff arhorea^ H. electrina, H. chersina^ H. lineata, etc,
are separated as BTycUina. It would have appeared to us better
to have retained aU the species in the old " genus" Helix^ than to



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426 Scientific AUeUigenoe.

have produced such an unphilosophical mixture of old and new
ideas as we find in this case and others.

Finally we may remark that although this work will prove of
but little or no use for conveying correct ideas of classification, or
even of the character of genera, it will nevertheless be indispensa-
ble and of the utmost value in the determination of the species.

V.

12. Notes on American Cmstaceay No. 1, Ocypodoidea; by
SiDXEY L Smfth. 8vo, 64 pages, with 4 lithographic plates.
From the Transactions of the Connecticut Academy, Vol. II,
April, 1870. — This memoir includes a nearly complete monograph
of the American species of Gelasimus or " nddler-crabs," of which
21 species are now known from both coasts of America. Of these
14 are described at length in this paper, including 9 that are new,
and most of them are illustrated. In addition to these a number
of new genera and species are described, and of others, previously
known, more accurate and complete descriptions are given. One
new family, DisBodcictylidoB^ allied somewhat to the Pinnotheridm^
but differing from that and all other families of Ocypodoidea in
having a palate or endostome which is not divided by a median
ridge, separating th^ efferent passages. The plates are equal to, if
they do not surpass, any that have ever been published for this
class. Nearly all the figures are copied from photographs made
by the author. The following are new species :

&ela8imu8 heterophthalmtiSy G. heteropleurua^ G. prtnceps^ G.
armatuSy G. omcOus^ G. pugnax^ G. rapaat^ G. moraax^ G. gibbo-
«tM, Ca/rdio8oma crcusum^ Flseudothelphusa plana^ Opisthoceray
gen. nov., 0. G^lmanii^ EpUobocera armcUaj GlyptograpsuB^ gen.
no v., G, impressua, Sesarma sulcata^ 8. occidentalism K angustck^
Prionoplax ciliatus^ Mtnyplax politus^ GlyptoplaXy gen.* nov., G.
pugnaXj Pinnotheres Lithodomi^ Ostrcuiotheres politvs^ DissodaO'
tyiuSy fam. et gen. nov., Z>. nitidas.

Those that are redescribed are as follows :

Gelasimus minax LeConte, G, hrevifrons Stimp., G, pugiiatcr
Latr., G. subcylindricus Stimp., G. Panamensis Stimp., Cardioso-
ma guanhumi Latr., (7. quadratum Sauss., EpUobocera Cubensis
Stimp., Dilocarcinus pictus Edw., Sesarma reticukUa Say, Eury*
plax nitidus Stimp., Pinnotheres margarUa Smith, Pinnaxoaes
Chilensis Smith. v.

13. Monografia delta Famiglia dei Pennattdarii ; per il Dott.
Sbbastiano Richiabdi. From Archivio per la Zoologia PAnato-
mia e la Fisiologia, Ser. II, vol. i, Turin, 1869, 8vo, with 14 folded
plates. — ^In this memoir the author has given descriptions of all
the genera and species of Pennatulacea hitherto discovered.
When the specimens have not been seen by the author he has
<]^uoted the original descriptions, but in other cases the descrip-
tions are quite detailed. The plates are very good and illustrate
a large number of species, including a considerable number of new
ones. One new genus, Sceptonidium^ is described, which is allied
to Virgularic^ It has short fleshypinnaa, with a wide naked
space behind ; the axis is angular. The only species is & masam*



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Botany and Zoology. 427

bicanum. He reunites the genus, LeioptUumy to PennatulOy but
recognizes most of the other generic divisions that have been pro-
posed. Of PenncUula he describes 1 species, inohiding one that is
new, P. Targioniiy locality unknown ; of Pteroides, 27 species,
including the following new ones : P. Grayi {=/*. grisea Esper),
locality unknown, P. Vogtii^ P. ComaHoB^ P, CUmaii^ Mediterra-
nean, P, Panceriiy locality unknown ; of 8arccf>tihb8 one, 9,granr
dU Gray ; of PtUoacwcus two, P, Chwmeyi and P. HmiomAS Gray ;
of Haliaceptrum one ; of Scytalium one ; of StyUxhda 5 species ;
8,finnmarchica (Sars sp.), 8. gracUia V., 8. elongata V., 8, mvl-
tiflora (Ener, sp.), 8, eUgans (Danielsen sp.) ; of Vtrgularia 8 spe-
cies, including two new ones, V, JLeuckartii^ North Sea, and FI
S6Uikeriiy Mozambique ; of lA/gua one species ; of CrlnUlum one ;
of Pt4nicidina 3 ; of &mbeUiUaria one ; of Kophobdemnon 3 ;
of lAtuaria 2 ; of Cavemtdaria 5, including G, Maimeii and C,
D^ippiiy two new species from unknown localities ; of Veretil-
lum 6 ; of ReniUa 3, JR. reniformis^ M, violacea Q. and G.j and R.
sitmata Gray, the last from the Philippines.

In the genus ReniUa the author is certainly at fault, owing no
doubt to Tack of specimens of some of our American species. To
R, reniformis he unites R. peUcUa V., J?. Dance V., and R. am^
thystina V., the last from the Panamian fauna, the others Atlantic.
Neither of these approach the true rtnifonmia of the Carolina
coasts, of which I have examined hundreds of specimens in all
states of preservation. The latter never grows so large as either
of the three, but has larger polyps and many other differences.
The three species referred to are all more nearly allied to R, viola-
cea than to R, reniformis. There can be no doubt but that these
three species are all distinct, one from another ; it is possible that
R. Dance may be identical with R, violacea^ though it does not
seem probable. The others are beyond doubt good species. To
R, violacea he unites R, pcUiUa v errilL Between the two forma
there are certain resemblances and they maj possibly prove to be
the same, but I have seen no Brazilian specimens that appear to be
identical with R, patula. In the Museum of Tale College and the
Museum of Comparative Zodlogy I have studied five distinct
American species, and admitting that one may be identical with
R, violacea^ no further reduction seems admissible. It seems
quite probable, however, that the number of species of Pteroides
mieht be considerably reduced by a careful study of all the origi-
nal specimens. A. E. V.

14. 17^ Butterflies of North America^ with colored drawings
and descriptions ; by Wm. H. Edwards. Part 5. Philadelphia,
Decern., 18(59. — Number five of this beautiful work has been con-
siderably delayed, on account of the plates, and was not actually
published until April. The plates are excellent, and well sustain
the character of the work. The following species are illustrated :
Argynnis Edwardsii ; Colias Mtrydice ; Idmenitis Lorguini ;



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