Rodolfo Amedeo Lanciani.

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changed into graphite. This would also eive a probability that
the vegetation implied was aquatic, or at least that it was accu-
mulated under water.

^' Dr. Hunt has, however, observed an indication of terrestrial
vegetation, or at least suba^rial decay, in the great beds of Lau-
rentian iron-ore. These, if formed in the same manner as more
modem deposits of this kind, would imply the reducing and sol-
vent action of substances produced in tne decay of ^ants. In
this case such great ore beds as that of Hull, on the Ottawa, 70
feet thick, or that near Newborough, 200 feet thick,f must repre-
sent a corresponding quantity of vegetable matter which has to-
tally disappeared. It may be added that similar demands on veg-
etable matter as a deoxycuzing agent are made by the beds and
veins of metallic sulphios of the Laurentian, though some of the
latter are no doubt of later date than the Laurentian rocks them-
selves."

He concludes as follows:

" We may sum up these facts and considerations in the following
statements: — ^First, that somewhat obscure traces of organic stmo-
turecanbe detected in the Laurentian graphite; secondly, that
the general arrangement and microscopic stmcture of the substance
corresponds with that of the carbonaceous and bituminous mat-
ters in marine formations of more modem date; thirdly, that if
the Laurentian graphite has been derived from vegetable matter,

* Granbj, Melbourne, OwPs Head, ibo., * Geology of Canada,' 1863, p. 699.
f Geology of Oanada, 1863.



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132 Scientific Intelligence.

it has only rmdergODe a metamorphosis similar in kind to that
which organic matter in metamorphosed sediment of later age has
experienced ; fourthly, that the association of the graphitic matter
with organic limestone, heds of iron ore, and metallic snlphids
ffreatly strengthens the probability of its vegetable origin ; fifthly,
uiat when we consider the immense thickness and extent of the
Eozoonal and graphitic limestones and iron-ore deposits of the
Lanrentian, if we admit the organic origin of the limestone and
graphite, we must be prepared to believe that the life of that early
period, though it may have existed under low forms, was most
copiously developed, and that it equalled, perhaps surpassed, in its
results, in the way of geological accumulation, that of any subse-
quent period,

"In conclusion, this subject opens up several interesting fields of
chemical, physiologjical and geological inquiry. One of these re-
lates to the conclusions stated by Dr. Hunt as to the probable ex-
istence of a large amount of carbonic acid in the Laurentian at-
mosphere, and of much carbonate of lime in the seas of that
period, and the possible relation of this to the abundance of cer-
tain low forms of plants and animals. Another is the comparison,
already instituted by Professor Huxley and Dr. Carpenter, between
the conditions of the Laurentian and those of the deeper parts of
the modem ocean. Another is the possible occurrence of other
forms of animal life than Eozoon and Annelids, which I have sta-
ted in my paper of 1864, after extensive microscopic study of the
Laurentian limestones, to be indicated by the occurrence of cal-
careous fragments, differing in structure from Eozoon^ but at pres-
ent of unknown nature. Another is the effort to bridge over, by
further discoveries similar to that of the Eozoon bavaricum of
Gtlmbel, the cap now existing between the life of the Lower-Lau-
rentian and that ot the Primordial Silurian or Cambrian period.
It is scarcely too much to say that these inquries open up a new
world of thought and investigation, and hold out the hope of
bringing us into the presence of the actual origin of orgamc life
on our planet, though this may perhaps be found to have been
Prelaurentian. I would here take the opportunity of stating that
in proposing the name Eozoon for the firsib fossil of the Laurentian,
ana in suggesting for the period the name ^£ozoio,' I have by no
means desired to exclude the possibility of forms of life which
may have been precursors of what is now to us the dawn of op-
sanic existence. Should remains of still older organisms be found
m those rocks now known to us only by pebbles in the Laurentian,
these names will at least serve to mark an important stage in
geological investigation.

3. On Laurentian Hocks in Kova Scotia: by T. Stebbt Hunt,
F.R.S. — ^The American Journal of Science for May, 1870, contains
a paper bj Prof H. Y. Hind on the Gteology of Nova Scotia, in
wmch it IS said that Dr. Honeyman, in the autumn of 1808, dis-
covered in the Arisaig district, ^* syenites, diorites, and crystalline
limestones, with serpentine, which ne then supposed to be of Lau-



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Geology. 183

rentian age, as be infonned me subsequently to tbe publication of
my preliminary report on the Nova Scotia Laurentian. Specimens
were sent to Montreal for examination, and instructions were given
by Dr. Hunt, who also shared Dr. Honeyman's opinion, to the lap-
idary, to prepare sections of the serpentmous rocK for microscopic
examination. By some mischance this was neglected, and the
specimens remained unexamined, and indeed forgotten until quite
recently, as Dr. Hunt informs me, under date of Feb. 3, 1870.
When submitted to the microscopic test the Eozoon Canadenae
was distinctlv seen, and Dr. Dawson has confirmed the observa-
tions." Prot Hind further says that the discovery of this fossil
" enables geologists to recognize the truth of Dr. Honeyman's opin-
ions, although, Dy accident, these opinions were not made known
or confirmed until after the publication of my report." He again
refers to " the just though tardy recognition of the correctness of
Dr. Honeymatfs views with reference to the age of the limestones
and diorites of Arisaig." Pages 354, 355.

Prof Hind has been deceived in this whole matter, and as he is
now, and has been for some months absent in England^ I feel called
upon, in the interest of truth, to state the facts in the case. In
the spring of 1869, Dr. Honeyman, previously employed as an
explorer by the Geological Survey of Canada, snowed me, in Mon-
treal, a series of specimens collected by him the autumn pre\'ious,
in the Arisaig district, and including besides syenites and diorites,
crystalline limestones, sometimes mixed with a pale green serpen-
tine. These were at once noticed by Mr. Murray of the Geologi-
cal Survey of Newfoundland, who was present, and myself, as
having a close lithological resemblance to the Laurentian rocks,
and we mentioned the fact to Dr. Honeyman ; while I at once sug-
gested to the lapidary of the Survey, who was in the room, that
9iey were so like the Eozoon-limestones of the Ottawa that
it would be well to prepare slices for examination. Meanwhile
Dr. Honeyman never made to myself. Sir William Logan, or Dr.
Dawson, any suggestions as to the geological age or relations of
the rocks in question, and in his official report, handed to Sir
William some days later, not only neglects to mention the name
of Laurentian, but forgets to make any allusion whatever to the
diorites, limestones and serpentines in question. Farther, in sum-
ming up his report, he concludes that the district examined by
him includes all the rocks between the coal-measures and the gold-
bearing slates, thus, by implication, excluding anything lower in
the geological series.

I see no reason to believe that the name of Laurentian, first
applied by me to these rocks from Arisaig, in Dr. Honeyman's
presence, conveyed to his mind, at the time, any notion of geologi-
cal age, position, or succession, or that he attached any importance
to the specimens in question, except as ornamental stones, xmtil
the appearance of Prot Hind's first notice called his attention to
the meaning of the term, and to the published descriptions of Lau-
rentian rocks. Were it otherwise, his total silence on the subject



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184 Scientific Intelligenoe,

from the autumn of 1868 to some time last winter, is simply incom-
prehensible.

To Pro£ Hind belongs the credit of haying declared that the
old granitoid rocks of the region are clearly stratified gneisses,
and at the base of the series in that region ; as they are well
known to be on the north side of the Bay of Fundy, where they
have been described as Laurentian, and examined by Dr. Daw-
son, Matthew and Bailey. I had, however, sought m vain for
Eozoon in the serpentine-limestones of New Brunswick, but on
the receipt of Prof Hind's preliminary notice, recalled the Arisaig
specimens, and recognized m them a form of Eozoon, which, how-
ever, according to Dr. Dawson, is specifically distinct from £ozoon
Canadense.

Montreal, June 7, 1870.

4. TTie Omithosanria : an elementary study of the bones of
Pterodactyles ; by H. 6. Seblbt of St. John^s College, Cambridge :
with twelve plates. 132 pp. 8vo, 1870. (Deighton. Bell & Co.,
Cambridge ; Bell & Dalby, London). Index to the lossil Remains
of Aves^ OmithosavHa^ and EeptUia^from the Secondary jystem
of strata^ arranged in the Woodwardian Museum of the Univer-
sity of Cambridge. By H. G. Seelby, of St John^s College,
Cambridge ; with a prefatory notice by the Rev. Adah Sedgwick,
LL.D., F.R.S., Wooawardian Professor and Senior Fellow of Trin-
ity College. — ^The author of these works, the assistant of Pro£
Sedgwick at Cambridge, states in his preface that they are por-
tions of the Catalogue of the Woodwardian Museum. This Mu-
seum, through the labors mainly of Prof Sedgwick, is rich in re-
mains of Reptilians frt)m the lower Cretaceous, and is xmsurpasfled
in those of the Cambridge upper Greensand, which has afforded
large numbers of bones of Omithosaurs (Pterosaurs). In the first
of these works the able author, Mr. Seeley, reviews briefly what
had before been done in connection with the subject of Pterosaurs,
discusses their classification and relations, gives the details with
regard to the various bones in the collections, and describes and
names the several species to which they belong. The author finds
that the pneumatic perforations in the bones (seen in the lower jaw,
the whole vertebral colomn, the bones of the fore limb, the scapula
and coracoid, the femur and tibia, etc.) are situated as in birds,
and indicate a similar system of air-circulation from the lungs,
and he argues that this implies the existence of a double heart as
in birds. He also points out a relation to birds in the form of the
brain, this organ having a very large cerebrum, and, as seen from
above, a very small cereoellum abutting against it and pressing to
either side the optic lobes (instead of having, as in ordinary Reptdes,
the cerebellum behind separated from the cerebrum by the part
called the optic lobes). Hence he concludes that the Omithosaurs
were hot-blooded, and makes of them a class of Vertebrates dis-
tinct from both Reptiles and Birds. The subject is illustrated
by twelve plates.



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Oeohgy. 185

5. Urat Annual Rqxyrt of the O&ologiocU Survey of Indiana^
made during the year 1869 ; by E. T. Cox, State Greologist, assisted
by Prof. Frank H. Bradley, Dr. Rufus Hammond, and Dr. G.
M. Lbyette. 240 pp. 8vo. Indianapolis, 1870. — ^This first annual
Report of the Geolo^cal Survey of Indiana, under Prol Cox,
consists of a General Report by the head of the survey, and spe-
cial Reports bv Prof. Bradley on Vermillion Co., and Dr. Hammond
on Franklin Cfo. Pro£ Cox has begun a good work with reference
to the coal formation, and has already proved that the number of
coal beds, and the subdivisions of the formation, as laid down by
Owen and others in Indiana and Kentucky, are wholly erroneous.
As one example he shows that the " Mahoning Sandstone '' and the
*' Anvil Rock Sandstone " are actually the same rock. Pro£ Cox
states that he is not yet prepared to present his own conclusions,
but he shall make it a special object, in the course of the Survey,
to ascertain the precise &cts on this important subject Much
valuable information is presented by him respecting the coal form-
ation and other rocks and products of Clay county. Prol Bradley
describes with considerable detail the Carboniferous rocks of Ver-
million county, mentioning many of their fossils, and giving some
account of the beds of iron ore and fire clav which they contain.
He says that in tbis county the '* boulder clay " has a depth near
Perrysville of about 100 feet before reaching the underlying quick-
sand ; and that in some places it is 125 feet thick. It contains
boulders of limestone and of metamorphic rocks, which are some-
times striated, besides occasional rolled masses of salena and na-
tive copper. There is much in the volume we might quote, with
interest to our readers, if space allowed. The report closes with
a list of the Mammals and Birds of Franklin Co. It is illustrated
by three maps, and a largeplate of sections.

6. Msek on Crinoids. — ^The views of Mr. Meek on the anatomy of
of the Paleozoic Crinoids, presented in a paper reprinted from the
Proceedings of the Academy of Nat. Sciences of Philadelphia, in voL
xlviii of tms Journal (at p. 23), are fully endorsed in a letter written
by Pro£ Sars of Norway, the profound investigator of species of
recent Crinoids, a few days only before his death. Pro£ Sars ob-
serves, judging from the photographs of the specimens which had
reached him, tnat Mr. Meek's conclusions seem to him to be pe]>
fectly founded, and to result with logical necessity from the inves-
tigations;" and that ^' they spread unexpected ught upon these
curious extinct Crinoids." Letters from Pro£ Wyvule Thomson, of
Belfast, and Dr. Lfltken, of Copenhagen, also approve entirely of
his conclusions.

7. The lifted and svbeided Bocks of America^ with their influr
ences on the oceanic^ (UmospheriCy and land currenU and the die-
tribtUion of JRaoes; by Gbo. Catlin. 228 pp., l2mo. London,
1870. (Trttbner & Co.)— The writer of this work, well known for
his travels among the American Indians, here treats of mountain
drainage, upheavals, metamorphism, making of mountain chains,
sinking of mountains, and of the Lidian nices of America. He



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186 Scientific Intelligence.

presents his geological views and ciiticisms with great positiveness,
which is consistent with the fact of his limited Knowledge of the
subject

8. Geological Survey of Zcm^o.— The State of Iowa has ordered
the printing of three thousand copies of the Report of the Greology
of tne State by Prof White. The work will consist of two royal
octavo volumes, in the style of Hall's Geology of Iowa and of the
Illinois Geological Report, and will be well illustrated. We regret
to have to add that the Legislature has discontinued the Survey.

ni. ZOOLOGY.

1. Die his jetizt hekannten Schildkr&ten^ u. d. bei Kelheim u.
Hannover neu aufgefunden aUeeten Arten dersdben ; von Dr.
G. A. Maack. Cambridge, Mass. (Cassel, 1869, — ^from H. von
Meyer's PalsBontographica). — ^This useful work, a 4 to of 146 pp.,
is contributed bv Dr. Maack, whose arrival in the United States
and occupation m the Museum of Comparative Zoology, we take
pleasure in noticing. It embraces a synopsis of the species of
extinct Testudinata, arranged in the order of geological succession,
rather than accor^g to structural affinity. The number thus
enumerated is 192, ot which 26 are assigned to the TestudinidaB,
114 to the Emydida?, including the Pleurodira ; 27 to the Triony-
chidffi, and 25 to the Cheloniidse. The species are not nearly all
described, but their enumeration forms an invaluable hand-book to
the student of the subject. The stratigraphical table given, adds
to its value. From it we perceive that the Tertiaries embrace the
majority of the species, and the Cretaceous and Jurassic periods
successively fewer. The upper Jurassic of Switzerland, Bavaria
and Hanover have furnished the oldest known Testidinata, unless
the Chelytherium of the Wtlrtembergian Trias belong to the order,
a point still doubtful. The nxmiber of Jurassic species known was
15, to which Dr. Maack adds 8, based on remains mostly from
Hanover, from a stratum of prior deposit to those of Switzerland
and Bavaria.

Before noticing the types of Cretaceous and Jurassic Tortoises,
it must be observed that the system of Strach which Dr. Maack
adopts, is a very defective one, and far behind the requirements of
modern zoology and paleontology. The structural features defin-
ing the suborders and families are overlooked in this. For ex-
ample, one of the primary divisions of the order, the Pleurodira,
is included among the Emydidse, whereas it embraces a series
of families distinguished by features quite similar to those defin-
ing the remaining families from each other.* In consequence
several conclusions are reached which require modification. The
genus PkUemys as adopted may be cited. It embraces 9 species
according to the present work, the genus Pleurostemum of Owen
being referred to it. This is done because the additional pair of
thoracic bones which characterizes it is found in a rudimental

* See Proa Acad. Nat Sci.. 1868, p. 282.



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Zoology, 187

condition in Platemys BoioerhanJcii^ and JPlatemys BuUocMi of
Owen presents the intermar^inal sonta of Pleuroatemum^ and
because of the general resemblance in specific charactere between
the latter and the Fl concinnum. To ns, however, the genns
Pleurostemum appears to be Cryptodire not Pleurodire, as it lacks
the integular scutum of the latter suborder, and to represent a
peculiar family of that group characterized by the possession of
ten instead of eight sternal bones. Platemys MttUocktiy P. Bower-
bankii and Emya Icevia Ow. and Bell appear on the other hand
to be Pleurodira, and to be referable to two families of that sub-
order. The PI BuHockiiy on account of its five pairs of sternal
bones, to the Stemothaeridae, and on account of its intermarginal
scuta, to a new genus which I have called Bigerrhum, The last
two, in their rudimental fifth pair of stemals resemble many
Pleurodira, and cannot be distinguished from the genus Podoc-
nemis now living in the Amazon. The P, sulcatus Leidy is
near to Podocnemis also, but represents a distinct genus, character-
istic of the Cretaceous, which 1 call Taphrosphys; there are six
species in North America. After these deductions the only Pla-
temydes that remain are P, ManteUii and P. Bixonii of Owen,

The new forms described by Maack are of much interest, BKs
Chdonidea Wttei is one of the group found in both Jurassic and
Cretaceous strata in Europe and North America, which combines
Chdydroid and Chelonioid characters so as to render it difficult
to be assured as to which group they truly represent. The charac-
ters of the carapace in most, and of the plastron in many, are
those of the latter, while those of the limos, the crucial test in
this case, are those of the former. Two of the North American
genera add one or two costal bones, a character of importance and
one not hitherto met with in the order ; these may be regarded as
the type of a peculiar family with the name of the PropleuridcB^
includmg the genera Osteopygis and Propleura. The family with
eight costals mcludes Chdonidea Maack, which seems to be near
Chelonemys Jourd , as he has placed it, — with Platychelys, Hydro-
pelta, Idiochdys and some other European forms which, with UcUa-
pleura and Lytoloma from North America, are nearer Chdyd/ra^
and I cannot at present find characters which distinguish them as
a family fit)m the existing forms. In Stylemys Maack, the second
new genus introduced into the present work, the sternum is with-
out lontanelles, and resembles entirely that of Adocus from the
American Cretaceous, while the carapace and femur are of the
type of Osteopygis, Until ftirther investigated it should remain
as an Emydoid^ as placed by Dr. Maack. Two species are de-
scribed, 8, lAndenensis and 8, Sannoverani^, The use of the name
8tylemy8 is SifauxpaSy since it must probably be used for a genus
of EmydidoB described by Leidy from the Miocene and Pliocene of
Nebraska and Dakota. True^ it was originally established on
untenable characters, and reumted by its proposer with Testudo.
But I have been able to point out (T^rans. Amer. PhiL Soc, 1869,
123) that the species so originally named are really Mnydidce



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188 Scienlific IrUeUtgenoe.

haviug Testadinine oharacters, and reqairing a diBtinct generic
name, for which St^lemj/s should perhaps be Mopted. Dr. Maack
will therefore be necessitated to mid another for that which he do-
scribes.

This and other rectifications relating to North American species
not having been published prior to Dr. Maack's work, he was
unable to take, advantage of them. I therefore append the fol-
lowing list as supplementary to it.

PoenojoGBNE SPBona
BmydidcB,
Cistudo ewrypygia Cope. Emyapetrolei Leidy.

PUOOSm AND MiOOENB SpBOIBS.

EmydidcB.
Stylemys Nebrdscenais Leidy. 8. Niobrarerms Leidy.

TrionychidcB,
Trionyx lima Cope. T, JSuiei Cope.

ChelaniidcB,
Pu^ppigerus grcmdasmts Leidy.

EooEinB Species.

TrionychidoB^
f Trionyx pevmatua Cope.

f CkdoniidcB.
Jjembonax polemicus Cope. Puppigerus parviscutattis Cope.

OBETAOEOUS SPBOIE&

EmydidoB,
Mnys turgidus Cope. Adociis agUU Cope.

JK petrosua Cope. A. pravus Leidy.

KjflrTmis Leidy. A, Vyomingensia Leidj.

K Stevemoni Leidy. A. pectoralis Cope. {Pieuroster-

Adocus heatua Leidy. num olim.)

ChelydridcB,

Lytoloma Jeanesii Cope. OcUapleura repanda Cope.

i. angvsta Cope. PerUresiics omatus Leidy.

PropleuridcB.
Midastes pkayops Cope. OsteopygU platylormia Cope.

PropUura aopita Leidy. O. chelydrinua Cope.

Osteopygis emargin^xtvs Cope.

Trionychidas.
THonyx ficUophilua Cope. JHonyx gvUoitm Leidy.

T, priscus Leidy.

PodocnemididcB,
Bothremys Cookii Leidy. Taphrosphya Lealianua Cope.

Taphroaphya molopa Cope. T. atrenuua Cope.
T, a^lmtua Leidy. 7! nodoaua Cope.

T. longinuchua Cope.



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Zoology. 189

Thirty-eight species. PuppigeruB embraces all of the Chelones
described by Owen and Bell ttom Sheppey. To Ijgtcloma perhaps
belong the two Chelones described and figured by Fauj^ and
Cuvier from the Cretaceous of Maestricht named CA. cretacea by
Ee&rstein and CK Mit0<mi by Maack. b. d. g.

2. On I>i8C0Baurit8 and Us <mie8 J \}jJ)r, 3. ToBXDY. (ProcAcad.
Nat. Sci Philad., 1870, p. 18).— On the 5th of April, Dr. Leidy
made remarks on Discosaums and its allies, additional to those
published at p. 392 of the last volume of this Journal ; and in the
course of it discusses the relations of Cimoliasaurus^ as origin^y
established, to DUcosaurm. On this point he observes:

^^ In the &:st place, by comparison with the skeleton of the E^ansas
saurian, we observe that the position in the column assigned to
the vertebral bodies of Cimoliasaurtu was incorrect, and this
probably contributed to mislead Pro£ Cope in his examination of
the skeleton of the Kansas saurian.

" The vertebral specimens referred to Cimoliaaaurus consisted of
two sets of specimens, from two different individuals, both from
the greensana of Burlington Co., N. J, They are described in
^ Cretaceous Reptiles,' page 25, and characteristic ones presented
in plates v and vi.

*' The eleven vertebr® considered as lumbar, and represented by
figs. 17-19, pL V, and 16-18, pL vi, are evidently cervicals. Those
considered as dorsals on page 26, and represented in figs. 18-16,
pL V, are at least in part posterior cervicals. Of the fourteen ver-
tebrae referred to on page 27 as dorsals and Ixmibars, those de-
scribed and represented in figs. 1-5, pL vi, are alone dorsals, while
the others described and represented in fiss. 6-9 are posterior, and
those of figs. 10-18 more anterior cervicaw.

"The cervicals of Cimoliasaiurua are so different in their propor-
tions from those of the Kansas saurian that there can be no ques-
tion as to the distinction of the two animals, at least as species.

" Do all the remains originally referred to Discosaurua oelong to
this genus as distinct from CimoUasat^rua f I suspect that those
from New Jersey belong to the latter. The animals indicated by
all the fossils wnich have been under consideration are Plesiosau*
roid, and, as in recognized species of PleaiosauruSj there is much
variability in the number, proportions, and other characters of the
cervicals without a correspondrng extent of variation in other parts
of the vertebral column, we wotdd be prepared to find in CimoUor



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