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they contain land shells, as on the Mendips, or freshwater shells,
which occur in the veins of Alston, and are wide-spread elsewhere,
they are also fossil and of contemporaneous age with the other re-
mams. It is certain from this that the veins received their infilling
when within the influence of the ocean, and before their present
elevation, since which time, as I have before stated, I doubt if
there could be any material alteration in their contents. ♦ * *

It has now been established, without doubt, by the highest
chemical authorities, that many of our most important minerals
are present in minute quantities in the waters of the ocean. This
is admitted by those who believe in segregation, the difference
being that they think it was first deposited and afterward ex-
tracted from the parent rock, and redeposited in the veins, rather
than originally collected in the veins themselves.

As Regards the connection subsisting between the ocean and the
vein-fissures, I believe it will be recognized to be the case that, in
the great majority of instances, the different veins come directly
to the surface, and wherever a later rock has been deposited, which
is only in exceptional cases, covering up the mouth of the vein,
there will still be found a break in the sequence of the strata,
which might give almost unlimited time for the precipitation of
the minerals therein. Wherever systems of veins occur, it is prob-



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268 Scientific Intelligence,

able there will be found connected therewith an abnormal condi-
tion and considerable breaks in the deposition of the rocks. I
have shown this to be the case in connection with the Carbonif-
erous Limestone of the Mendip range, and its continuation through
South Wales, in which distncts it can be seen that those rocks
were, through enormous periods, exposed to the influence of the
ocean, possibly forming reef-like barriers around the edges of the
Carboniferous basin, the fissured veins and floor of this sea-bottom
receiving at some periods materials of Khsetic or of Lower or
Middle Lias, age, whilst an occasional capping of the beds of
Inferior Oolite, left in some Carboniferous limestone trough, now
and then cover up the mouths of the veins that had received all
their contents prior to its deposition. Some most instructive
examples are present in this district, in which it may be seen that
whilst there are on the walls of the vein the usual vertical conditions
of vein-stufii such as calc-spar, sulphate of barytes, Ac, with occa-
sional hematite iron-ore, calamine, and galena, the central portion
of the vein b unmistakably of Liassic or Rhsetic age. In all such
instances there are combined the elements of open fissures com-
municating with the ocean, and greater or less time in the reception
of their contents.

4. Additional note on Ela^mosauruB ; by E. D. Cope. — ^To my
preceding note on Elasmosaurus, I append the followine, in con-
sequence of the reading of another criticism by Prot Leidt, in
the Proceedings Acad. Nat. ScL Philad., January to April, 1870,
(issued in June). [See p. 139 of this volume. — Eds.].

In this Dr. Leidy agrees with my identification of Cimoliasaurus
and Discosaurus made in 1 868, regarding them as the same. But
he employs the name Discosaurus instead of Cimoliasaurus, to
which we object for three reasons : 1, in works written subsequent
to his determination, Cimoliasaurus had been exclusively used,
and has therefore obtained considerable currency ; 2, Discosaurus
was founded upon a miscellaneous collection of species, and not
defined ; 8, the name refers perhaps to an individual peculiarity of
one of the species, as suggested by Leidy, and conveys an
erroneous impression of there being a verteb^l disc characteristic
of the genus, whereas the peculiarity consists of a groove. The
name Cimoliasaurus is open to none of these objections.

He however unites with the above genus my Elasmosaurus,
although a few pages previously he considers them distinct, on
the same grounds that convinced me of the propriety of separat-
ing them, viz : the enormous neck with compressed vertebrta in
the one, and the short transverse cervicals of the other. J^o such
diflerence is displayed by the species of Plesiosaurus, though there
is considerable variation in the genus in this respect. H cannot
however be predicted, that no species combining tne characters of
the two will ever be found. All genera in paleontology stand open
to this risk.

The Cimoliasaurus grandis {Brimoaaunis Leidy) presents the
shortened cervicals of C. magnus and therefore is not an Elasmo-



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Oeology and Mineralogy. 269

saarus. The JEJ, orierUalis is ae yet but little known, and there
may be doubts as to which genus it represents. In a restored
figure of it which was given in an article in the American Natural-
ist (1868, p. 84), it is represented with a neck of the shorter type
of Cimoliasaurus. Whether the shorter or longer type of cervicals
belong to it will remain uncertain until more remams are found.
K it be a true Elasmosaurus, the figure will represent better a
Cimoliasaurus.

In his second notice Leidy mentions his having reversed the
extremities of the vertebral series in the three Cimoliasauri des-
cribed by him.

5. JLias and Oolite of Australia. — ^Mr. Charles Mooke has
published an important paper on Australian Mesozoic Geology,
m the Quart. J. Geol. Society for 1870, describing beds of the age
of the Middle and Upper Lias and Lower Oolite from Western
Australia, and Oolitic or Lower Cretaceous from Queensland (at
Wollumbilla). Out of 50 species of Mollusks in Western Austra-
lia 20 are found to be identical with British species, viz :

Ammonites Aalensis^ var. Moorei Lycett, Tipper Lias ; A, radi-
ans Rein, Upper Lias; A, Walcottii Sow., Upper Lias; A, macro-
cephxdrjbs Schloth, Oolite; A, Brocchii Sow., Oolite; Nautilus
semistriatus D'Orb., Upper Lias ; Belemnites canaliculatus Mill,
Oolite ; Oresslt/a donaciformis Gold!, Upper Lias ; May cites lias-
sianus Quenst, Middle Lias ; CucuUcea oolonga Sow., Oolite ; Pho-
ladomya ovulum Ag., Oolite ; Avicula MUnsteri Goldf., Oolite ;
A. echinata Sow., Oolite ; Fecten cinctus Sow., Oolite ; JP. calvtis
Mttnst., Oolite ; Lima proboscidea Sow., Oolite ; L. punctata Sow.,
Oolite; Ostrea Marshii Sow., Oolite; RhynchoneUa variabilis
Schloth, Oolite ; CristeUaria cuUrata Montfort, Oolite. Lima pro-
boscidea and Ostrea Marshii appear to have been as abundant as
in the hills around Bath ; and Peden cinctus from Australia at-
tains the same large proportions as in this country. The Com
brash is apparently represented in Australia by Ammonites macro-
cephcUus and Avicula echinata, and the Middle Lias by the Mya
cites liassianus before mentioned.

The paper describes many new species.

6. Plants of the Coal formation of Langeac, Haute-Loire; by
Dr. H. B. Geinitz. — The plants mentioned in this paper as occur-
ring at Langeac and remarked upon are Calumites cannaformis
SchL, C, Cisti Bgt., C. Suckowi Bgt., Anmdaria longifolia Bgt.,
Cyatheites arborescens ScL, (7. dentatics Bgt, C, MiUoni Artis,
Alethopteris pteroides Bgt., Curdlocarpus emarginatus G6pp. & B.,
C. GnUbierij NoeggercUhia palmceformis Gdpp., Bhabaocarpus
ovalis G6pp. & F., Cordaites principalis Germ., Trigonocarpus
Nbeggerathi Stemb., T, ventricosus Gopp. & F. The several kinds
of fruit here described give special interest to the memoir. The
accompanying plate contains figures of several forms under six
species, two species of Cardiocarpus, one of Rhabdocarpus, one of
Cordaites, ana two of Trigonocarpus.



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270 Scientific Intelligence.

1. Sivatherium in Colorado. — Dr. Leidy refers a fragment of
a fossil from Colorado (received through Dr. Hayden from Dr.
Gehrung), with a query to a genus near Sivatherium, which he
calls Megiiceropa. He regards the fossil as corresponding to that
portion of the face which comprises " the upper part of the nose,
together with the forehead and anteiior horn coi-es." The animal
to which it belonged was nearly as large as the Sivatherium. The
distance between the center of the two horn cores is 10 j inches;
the length of the horn cores above the intervening space 6 inches ;
the breadth of the face where narrow below the horn cores *J\ in.
He names the species Megacerops Coloradensis. — /Voc Acad, ^Tai.
Scu Philad., 1870, p. 1.

8. Megalonyx Jeffersoni in Illinois. — A metacarpal bone of
this Megalonyx is announced by Dr. Leidy (Proc. Acaa. Nat. ScL,
1870, p. ld)as having been found in a ci*evice in the lead-bearing
rocks near Galena, 130 feet below the surface, along with a last
lower grinder of the extinct Ox, Bison antiquus. The Museum of
the Academy contains other bones from the same locality, being
remains of a large extinct Peccary, PUxtygonus compressuSy an ex-
tinct Raccoon, Procyon priscus, and a large insectivore, Anemo-
don Snyderi, all of which were prot)ably cotemponuies of the
Megalonyx.

9. Mineralogical Contributions of O, vom Hath (Pogg. Ann.
cxxxviii, 449). — Vom Rath describes and figures here crystals of
the following Vesuvian minerals : twins of Anorthite, crystals of
Oligoclase, Wollastonite, Orthite and Humite ; besides giving an
account of a new mineral from Laach which he names Ambfystegite^
and a description of certain twins of orthoclase.

Amblystegite occurs in small crystals of a brown to reddish-
brown color, a gray streak slightly greenish ; adamantine luster.
The crystals are orthorhombic; i-t: 1=135° 60', i4: 1-2=119** 26',
i-?:i-«=163° 47', a:i4=98° Gf. B.B. very fusible and thus differs
from humite and chrysolite. Composition,

gi49-8 3tl605 *e25-6 figltt Oa 016=98-30,
corresponding to the oxygen ratio for % S, Si, 12-81 : 2-36 : 26*56. Only
half a gram was here used. The mineral b so mixed with mag-
netic iron as to be separated with difficulty for analysis.

10. ZfOxmannite of NordenskiOld (J. f. pr. Ch., cvii, 491) ac-
cording to Hermann (ib. II, i, 447) is probably Vauquelinite ;
NordeiiskiSld made the crystals monoclinic with the inclination
of the vertical axis 69° 46'; G. = 6*77, H. = 3, color olive-gi'een ;
and obtained for the composition (mean of two analyses) —

P8-31 Or 15-91 :^b 61-16 Ou 1164 S'e 1*06 fi 110=99-18

Hermann observes that Berzelius probably analysed the same
mineral in his examination of the species he named Vauquolinite,
and that if the pure oxyd of chrome of Berzelius be taken as a
mixture of phosphoric and chromic acids, the two analyses closely
agree, as follows :



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Oeohgy and Mineralogy. 271

P Cr :^b Ou i'e fi

Berzeliu8, 8-31 16-85 60-87 10-80 1-10 l-10z=9803

Nordenskidld, a-31 16-91 61-16 11-64 1-06 1-10=99-18

both leading to the formula 2Cu» P+6fb*(3r+2fi.

11. Phosphorchromite. — Hermann (J. f. pr. Ch., IL, i, 460) thus
names a chromophosphate of lead and copper from Beresofsk. It
occurs concretionary, crystalline or massive within, with a black-
ish-green color, pistachio-green streak, H. =:3, <t. =:;6-80. An anal-
ysis afforded :

P 9-94 Or 10-13 ^b 68*33 Cu 736 te 280 fi 116=:99t2,
leading to the formula 3Cu« P + 5l^b« Or + 3fi.

Vanadiolite of Hermann (J. f. pr. Chem., ib. 446) occurs in
small crystals, partly in druses, of a dark or blackish-green color
and gray-green streak ; dark emerald-green color and transparent,
in small grains; of strong vitreous luster, with G. =:3-86. B.B.
melts on the edges to a black blebby slag. His analysis afforded

Si 15-61 V 44-86 3tl 110 J'e 1-40 Ag 2-61 Ca 34-43=100

and he regards it as a subvanadate combined with augite like the
Lavroffite of the same locality, Sltld&nka, near Lake Baikal. He
writes the formula 3ttgi + Oa« ( VO* + 2V0*).

12. Wolframite. — ^Descloizeaux suggested in 1850 (Ann. Ch.
Phys., HI, xxviii) that Wolfram was oblique rhombic in crystalli-
zation, after some measurements of crystals. He has recently
confirmed this conclusion (ib.,- IV, xix, 168, Feb. 1870) by both
optical and crystallographic observations. He finds the obliquity
90** 38', and the prismatic angle 100° 37'. His crystals were from
Bayewka, near Ekatherinenbourg, in the Urals, a variety which
afforded Mr. Koulibine,

W 74-32 J'e2-ll An 2090 Ca 1-30 Si 0-28=98-91,
agreeing nearly with Hubnerite, of Nevada. G.=7'367.

13. Namaqudlitej a new ore of Copper ; by Prof Church (J.
Ch. Soc, H, viii, 1). — Namaqualite is named after the region in
which it occurs, Namaqualand, S. Africa. It occurs in thin layers
of silky fibers, which alternate with chrysocolla and are sparingly
mixed with small crystals of '' magnesia mica." Color pale blue ;
H.=2-5 ; G.=2-49 ; isolated fibers transparent under the micro-
scope. In the closed tube yields much water and blackens ; at 100*>
C, or over sulphuric acid in vacuo, no Ipss of weight. Mean of
analyses :

Si Si du % Oa fi

2-26 15-29 44-74 3 42 201 32-38=10009.

The oxygen ratio for the protoxyds, alumina and water is 4 : 3 : 11.
Prof. Church remarks that its crystallized condition, and its definite
and constant composition show that it is a true species ; and the
presence of a sesquioxyd that it is related in composition to hydro-
talcite and pyroaurite.

14. Contributions to tJie Mineralogy of Victoria ; by G. H. S.
Ulbich, F.G.S. 82 pp. 8vo. Melbourne, 1870. (Reprinted from



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272 Scientific Intelligence,

tlie Report on the Mineral Statistics of Victoria for the year 1869,
presented to Parliament.) — These "contributions" contain detailed
descriptions of many species, with figures of crystals, and some
analyses, the latter by Mr. C. Newbery. The following are among
the new or more interesting species noted by Mr. Ulrich.

Maldonite^ or Bismuthic Gold, from the Nuggety i-eef, of the
Alliance Company, Maldon. It occurs in particles m the granite
veins affording "gold. It has a pinkish white color, but tarnishes
easily on exposure to a dull copper color, and ultimately to black.
Cleavage apparently cubic. H.= 1'6 — 2. Malleable and very
sectile. Formerly in larger pieces in the upper workings of the
Alliance Company's mine.

Native Bismuth, Bismuth Glance and Bismuthite occur in a
quartz vein at Linton, Ballarat district.

Selwynite of Ulrich (Dana's Min., p. 509*), a chrome-bearing
mineral, has been further examined. Mr. Newbery obtained in
new analyses —

gi £l €r Ag ffa d

47-26 35-28 7*82 2*42 — 5-67

48-42 34-72 6*94 2-11 203 4-88

48-23 38-16 614 121 3-12 290

the mean of which affords very nearly the oxygen ratio for ft, S,
Si, fl, 1 : 16 : 22 : 3^. Mr. Ulrich observes that the mineral is probably
an altered feldspathic mineral, and related to the Finite group, or
especially to gieseckite and dysyntribite. When polished it has
some resemblance to nephrite.

Talcosite is a new mineral occurring in thin seams in the selwy-
nite — the seams lamellar-columnar. Resembles talc in feel. H.=l ;
but transverse to lamination 1-6-2-0. G. z=:2*46-2-6. Color silver-
white, faint greenish or yellowish. Luster pearly. Scales flexible,
not elastic. B. B. exfoliates, whitens, gives off" water, and fuses
at 4 to a blebby enamel ; with cobalt solution a fine blue. A mean
of two analyses by Mr. C. Newbery —

Si 4904 ' 3fcl 45-98 Sr, S'e, fig, S'a, tr. fl 4-30=99-32,
giving the oxygen ratio of fi, Si, fl[=«5: 6: 1.

JSerschelite is found at a quarry of basalt near the river Yarra
at Richmond. Several interesting figures of its crystals are given.
It occurs with phillipsite, analcite and calcite. It is also found in
basalt at the shaft of the Ballarat and Clunes Gold-Mining Co.,
Clunes.

Struvite in crystals occurs in guano, in the Skipton Caves near
Ballarat. The depth of the guano is about 20 feet, and it has been
derived from the excrements of bats,

Tetrahedrite, Stibnite, Molybdenite, Brookite, Cassiterite, Schec-
lite. Sapphire, Topaz are among the other minerals of which men-
tion is made in the memoir.

15. Lavroffite (Lawrowit), has been analyzed by Hermann (J. f.
pr. Ch., 1870, II, i, 444) and shown to be a vanadiferous diopside.

* Iq the analysis cited in the Mineralogy, fig 4*36, should be iSlg 4*56.



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Geology and Mineraltgy, 273

He obtained Si 63-66 3tl 2-26 f'e 2-48 % 16-00 Ca 2305 = 100, with 2-67
p. c. of hypovauadic acid.

16. On Seliaite^ a new native fluoride by Dr. Struver, Atti della
R. Accad. di Torino, iv, 1868, 36. — This mineral was detected on a
specimen of anhydrite from Geibroul^ in the State of Maggiore,
in Piedmont. On the anhydrite there were also crystailme sul-
phur, dolomite, and rare twins of albite. It is tetragonal in crys-
tallization, with I on 1 (ooP on P)zz:123® 30', and i-^ on i-3 (or

ooPoo' on ooP3) =161*' 34'. Cleavage parallel to I and i-i perfect.
H.=z5. G.=2-972 at 24° C. Fracture conchoidal. Luster vitreous.
Colorless. Transparent. Powder white.

It is insoluble in water ; also in acids, except concentrated sul-
phuric, which causes an evolution of fluohydnc acid. Small frag-
ments melt in the flame of a candle with intumescence. From the
similarity of its reactions to those of fluorite, the author concludes
as not improbable that the mineral is a monofluorid of magnesium,
which contains 38*71 of magnesia and 61 '29 of fluorine. In treat-
ing a small fragment of it with concentrated sulphuric acid, he
obtained for the proportion of magnesium 39*64 p. c. The small
amount of the mineral in hand prevented his making a complete
analysis. The species is named after the distinguished crystallog-
rapher, Quintino Sella.

17. Amhrodte, — C. TJ. Shbpard describes under this name, in
The Rural Carolinian, Feb., 1870, p. 311, a resin resembling amber,
from the phosphatic formation near Charleston, S.'C. It is yellow-
ish-brown externally, and clove-brown within; feeblj translucent;
sinks slowly in water ; and melts into a clear liquid at 460° F.,
after softening at a much lower temperature. It gives off much
succinic acid long before it melts, and a dense yellow oil is volatil-
ized on its fusion. It is very combustible, bums with a bright
yellowish-white light and pleasant odor, and leaves no ash behind.
The name is made from the two words amber and ro9in,

18. On the Gruanape Island Guano and its mineraU / by Pro£
C. TJ. Shepard, (ib. May, p. 469). — Guanape island is two miles
northeast of the Chincha islands. A mineral occurring in balls
and veins in the Ouanape Guano, having H. =1*6, G. =2 '3, and
resembling a little the red Cheshire rock-salt, but rhombic instead
of cubic in cleavage, is called Ghuanapite by the author. He found
it to consist of sulphate of potash 67*75, 8ul))hate of ammonia
27*88, oxalate of ammonia 8*75=99*38. It loses ammonia slightly
on exposure to the air.

Another substance from the Guano is named Gtcanoxalite, It
contains sulphate of potash 40*20, oxalate of ammonia 29*57, water
30*46 =100*23. It occurs as pseudomorphs of a bird's egg, hav-
ing the size and shape of that of a domestic duck. Color white
exteriorly, but from the presence of the altered shelL Within,
the material is foliated with a rhombic cleavage ; a cream-white
color ; somewhat pearly luster ; feeble translucence ; hardness be-
low 2, and G. =1*58. When heated it swells up, blackens, par-
tially fuses, gives off copious fumes of ammonia, and leaves a
white residue of sulphate of potash.



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274 Scientific Intelligence.

In the cavities of the spinal oolomn and the stomach of the re-
mains of birds from the Guano, yellow cirstals of the mineral
Taylorite occur, a species first noticed by W. J. Taylor in the gmmo
of the Chincha Islands. Alone with the Taylorite th^re are nu-
merous minute scaly crystals of Aphthitalite ; also oxalate of am-
monia, which Pro! Shepard names Oxamtnite, Oxalate of lime
is occasionally observed in crystals; also phosphate of ammonia
{phoepha/mmite of Shepard) in crvstals and lumps; and, as an
efflorescence from this mineral, biphosphate of ammonia (Bipho9-
phammite S.).

IIL BOTANY AND ZOOLOGY.

1. Miscellaneous Botanical Notices and Observations.

The Code of Botanical Nomenclature^ as digested by M. Alpb.
DeCandolle and adopted by the International Oonmress at Paris
in 1867, while on the whole approved by botanists, has been vari-
ously criticised in certain particulars, some writers naturally
objecting to one article, some to another. To the more important
of these criticisms DeCandolle made reply at a meeting of the
Botanical Society of France on the 26th of February, 1869. The
number of the Bulletin which contains his communication was
issued, we believe, at the beginning of the present year. M, De-
Candolle intimates that he passes by the still controverted question
as to the proper mode of citing the authority for species where
they have been transferred to another than the original genus, as
being one upon which further discussion could hardly be more
than iteration. He merely remarks that the more experience we
have of the working of the system of double citation of authors,
whether with or without parenthesis, the more crave do the incon-
veniences appear. Since we cannot readily make a brief abstract
of the several points which he does discuss, we will now notice
only those upon which this Journal ventured to differ frt>m M.
DeCandolle and the Congress. The chief serious objection was
raised upon article 50, which prescribed the mode in which unpub-
lished names, taken up by an author, should be subsequently cited.
We remarked that : " For instance, there may be no necessity for
taking up one of Commerson's names affixed by him to his plants
in herbaria ; but if taken up, simple verity would seem to require
this botanist^s name to be cited. We should feel bound to write
^Flacou/rtia Commerson,' although published by L'Heritier or
Jussieu, who probably supplied the character. The rule as pro-
posed would apply to names communicated with manuscript char-
acters by one botanist to another, as well as to named specimens.
Now, no botanist is bound to do the work of publication for
another ; but if he chooses to do so, the maxim guifacitper alias^
etc., must [conversely] feirly apply, and succeeding writers should
not be required to take the godratner for the &ther. If we rightly
understand the editor, he proposes that we should write Eul^hus^
I^ptocauliSy and Trepocarpus DC, although the elder DeCandolle,



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Botany and Zoology. 275

accepting these names with the specimens from Nnttall, scrupu-
lously attributes them to ' Nutt. in litt.' To us, all such names,
which the elder DeCandolle has, at his own discretion, published
for Nuttall, are of NuU. in DC. Prodr. <fec."

To which M. DeCandolle now rejoins : . . . . " But see the incon-
venience which results. All the catalogues or dictionaries, and all
indexes have I/eptocatUis Nutt. So we search the works of Nutt-
all, and perhaps even the small papers scattered in the journals,
and lose much time and pains; for Nuttall never published this
name. It may be that he would not have desired to publish it if
he had exammed the question subsequently. The date of the
genus is that of the publication ; and the publication is really the
one essential thing; for what are the most important discoveries
if not published? In writing Leptoeaulis DC. ex Nutt, litt. the

Erimitive author is equally indicated ; but then one will see in the
ooks Deptocatdia DC, and any one will readily find in the works
of DeCandoUe the origin of the genus and the date of publication."
We are disposed to add that the information sought would be
as readily found when written ^"^ Leptoeaulis Nutt in DC.^'* and
that this more strictly as well as more tersely represents the fact
than ^^Leptoeaulis DiJ.ex Nutt. litt.^^ The full reference is ^^ lepto-
eaulis Nutt. in DC. Prodr. 4, p. 107 ;" and the question is, whether
in mere enumeration this is to be abbreviated into *'^ Leptoeaulis
Nutty'* or '^Leptoeaulis DC.^^ Either way, the work, as well as
volume and page, has to be looked up, and the trouble of finding
the origin of the name in the pages of the Prodromus may proba-
bly be far less than if Nuttall had published it directly in one of
his various scattered papers. But let us in our turn test the new
rule by the results which would ensue from its consistent applica-
tion. To the first volume of the Flora of North America Nuttall
contributed a large number of new species and genera, which were
published for him by the authors of that work ; but for which, if
cited according to the new rule, they would seem to have incurred



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