Rodolfo Amedeo Lanciani.

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the permanent preparation of drawer specimens, where the student
neeas a large series of individuals to determine the variations and
limits of species ; and for mounting small birds, at least as tem-
porary representatives, when neither the time nor the expense in-
volved in the old methods can be afforded.

The viscera are removed, to effect which neatly the legs are
pinned widely apart, and a paper several times folded is pinned
over the tail m tne direction whither the viscera are drawn out.
With proper care, the sex is readily observed. A wad of cotton
absorbs the fluids remaining in the cavity. The leg is then grasped
close to the body, and a knife or wire is introduced into the cavity
and run down into the flesh of the leg, working the instrument
around, but not so as to break the skin. For a small bird, five to
ten drops of the commercial fluid preparation of carbolic acid is
made to anoint the whole interior, and to penetrate the leg by
stretching and relaxing the same in proper position. The appli-
cation is repeated after the first drops are absorbed ; and a wad
of cotton, wet with the acid, may be left close under the breast-
bone next to the neck. The cavity is then filled with cotton and
the skin drawn back into place. The inside of the mouth is well
anointed, and a saturated wad of cotton pushed down the whole
length of the neck. The eyes are removed by a hooked wire in-
serted into the ball, the head being so held that the humors of the
eye will drop without soiling the lids. The moist lids are left as
open as possible, and the specimen placed in a cool cellar till the
next day, when the lids are dry enough to take their open shape.
Then a nail is inserted through the lids and pushed through the
bone at the back part of the orbit into the brain, and so worked
as to make a gooa opening. A tightly rolled bit of cotton, satu-
rated with the acid, is pushed into the brain and worked around
in it, care being taken not to wet the eyelids. If by chance the
feathers are wet, the acid can be removed by powdered chalk, re-
peatedly applied.

Specimens so prepared in warm weather, can be skinned a week
or two after, if Kept boxed in a cellar. No smell of decomposi-



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284 Scieniific IfUelligence,

tion is observed; the acid gpadually and completely penetrates the
pectoral muscles ; the skin is strong and the feathers not loosened.
For permanent preparation, the skin should be laid open from
the abaomen to the neck, the pectoral muscles removea and re-
placed by cotton, and the incision sewed up. The throat, neck
and orbits are also filled with cotton. The specimen should then
be suitably arranged, encircled by a slip of paper, and placed on
a bed of cotton. Before this, the flesh of the wings should be
laid open and arsenic applied in the usual manner.

For mounting, it only needs to run one wii-e through the foot,
tarsus, and so on through the neck to the forehead, and another
wire through the other foot to any point in the back or breast
where the end of the wire catches firmly. Papers or strings for
keeping the feathers in place should remam long. Some shrinking
about the head and neck will eyentually foUow in the case of
many birds, particularly those of the smallest size or of scanty, or
close, plumage ; but in other instances no shrinldngwhatever can
be noticed after more than a year of drying. The cabinet in
which they have been set up is made insect-proof by means of
pasted cloth and paper, putty and paint, fifteen inches passage
way being left in front of the shelves and the only access being
through a tight door at one end, fastened by a screw.

Travelers, who desire to collect a larse number of birds for
comparison, will find this method one of great advantase; and
the specimens will be better for study than skins, inasmuch as the
proportions will be better preserved Small mammals can be
Kept some days for skinning by a similar process, and an opening
into the brain may be made through the roof of the mouth, if
preferred A Fox Squirrel, so treated, was in good condition for
skinning after four day's preservation, in very warm weather.
Iowa College, July, 1870.

This with all similar methods of preparing permanent specimens,
without skinning, has been found to be of comparatively little
use in the damper air of the Eastern States, especially near the
coast, where all dried preparations are so liable to mould and de^
cay. — ^Eds.

8. A Synopsis oftJie Family Uht<midcB; by Isaac Lka, LL.D.,
Vice-Pres. Amer. FhiL Soc., Ao, 4th ed, very greatly enlarged
and improved 1 84 pp. 4to. Philadelphia, 18V0. (Henry C. Lea).
—Dr. Lea has given further completeness to his labors on the
UnionidflB by preparing and publisning this fourth edition of his
Synopsis. During the eighteen years tnat have elapsed since Uie
issue of the preceding edition, tne number of known species has
much increased, and various corrections of former determinations
have been made. The subject of the arrangement of the species
in genera is discussed in the earlier part of the volume, and then
tables are given, with very full synonymy and numerous annota-
tions. The table of geographical distnbution, which next follows,
is very much enlarged. The volume closes with an Index of all
the names of species and a statement of the place of publication
of each, and finally a long Bibliography.



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AstroTwmy, 286

4. Commenaaliam among Animals. — Van Bbnedbn, at the
meeting of the Royal Academy of Belgium, on the fifth of March
last, continued his observations on commensalism, or the living
together of different species of animals. He first cited the follow-
ing facts which he had received from Mr. AL Agassiz. A species
of L^idonotus^ of California, is always found attached on an
Aateracanthion {A, ochraceua Brandt) near its mouth, on differ-
ent parts of the ambulacral rays, sometimes five of them on a sin-
gle mdividual. A small fish of the genus Clupea is often found
lodged in the folds of the fringes of a species of Pelagia {Dacty-
lometra quinquecirra AL Ag.) A species of Hin^mea lives
within the cavity of a Bero§ {Mnemiopsis Leydii) of Buzzard's
Bay, the BeroS never being seen without four or five of these
worms, and oft«n harboring seven or eight. Between the buccal
fringes of the large Medusa Cyanea arctica (as stated in the Sea-
side Studies^, a species sometimes 1^ feet in diameter, there
lives an Actmia {Biccidium of L. Ag.); three to five* of these
Actiniae reside commonly on each Cyanea. In an Aurelia of our
coasts, a large number of Crustacea of the family Hyperina are
often harbored. Another interesting fact is the commensalism of
the young Comatulse on the adult. The young of the species of
the coast of South Carolina attaches itself to the basal cirri, and
they live like a small colony of young PentacrinL A species of
Planaria, the P. angulata Mflller, lives always in free " commen-
sal '* on the under surface of the American limulus, near the base
of the tail

Van Beneden next speaks of the relation of the siliceous Hyalo-
nema to the associated polyps (a species of Polythoa\ and makes it
as a case of commensalism of polvps on a sponge. He adds the
fact that Mr. Oscar Schmidt has found in the Adriatic a Polythoa
living on a species of sponge of the genus Axinella. He closes
with repeating an opinion he had before expressed (in the Zool
MidiccUe^ published long since by him in connection with P, Qer-
vais) that sponges are only polyps of extreme simplicity, in which
the active part is reduced to a membranous tube without tentacles
about the orifice. — IjInstitiU^ July 20.

IV. ASTBONOMY.

1. Discovery of a new Asteroid^ the llUA/ by Dr. C. H, F.
Peters. From a communication by the author to one of the
editors, dated, Litchfield Observatory of Hamilton College, Clin-
ton, N. Y., Aug. 16, 1870. — ^I take pleasure in forwarding the first
observation made upon an asteroid, the 111th of the group, dis-
covered here night before last, viz :

1870. Aug. 14.112 38 31 H.0.m.t|A.R.=2l 25 20-21|DecL3=-i8 10 '6'4|]0Goinp.
" 15.| 9 6 40 " " I 2124 32-88| -13 12 29-6| 5 "

The planet was of about 11^ magnitude.



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286 Miscellaneous Intelligence.



V. MISCELLANEOUS SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE.

1. Nineteenth Meeting of the American Association for the
Advancement of Science^ held in Troy^ New York^ August 17-25,
1870. — The meeting of the American Association which has just
closed at Troy, was, in point of interest and value, one of the best
in its history. Owing to the continued illness of President Wil-
liam Chauvenet of St, Louis, the duties of President were per-
formed by the Vice President, Dr. T. Sterry Hunt, of Montreal
And in the absence of Professor C. F. Hartt of Ithaca, the Gene-
ral Secretary, now in Brazil, Professor F. W. Putnam of Salem
was elected to that office for the session. The attendance at the
meeting was good, the names enrolled upon the Treasurer's book
at the close of the session being about two hundred. The titles of

Sapera entered with the Permanent Secretary numbered one bun-
red and forty-three. And, though there was no one subject of
great general interest under discussion, as at Chicago and Salem,
yet the absolute value of the i)apers read at Troy was quite equal
to that of those presented at either of the meetings mentioned.

Of the papers read in General session, that by Lieut. C. K Dut-
ton, XJ. S. A., upon the Chemistry of the Bessemer Process, de-
serves particular mention. It was an admirable analysis of the
process itself, and also of the successive stages which are noticed
m the conversion. An abstract of the paper, by Professor Barker,
is deferred to our next number.

The address of CoL J. W. Foster, the retiring President, was
delivered on Thursday evening in the First Presbyterian church.
It was upon ** The Latest Investigations in Geology and Archie-
ology, with special reference to the condition of Pre-historic man."

Among the various objects of interest in and about Trov, none
attracted more attention than the various Iron-works, llie pro-
prietors of the Burden, the Albany, and the Rensselaer Iron-works,
and of the Bessemer Steel-works provided special facilities for
their inspection. Mr. A. L. HoUey, to whose mechanical skill the
wonderful machinery of the latter establishment is due, was par-
ticularly attentive and courteous. The XJ.^S. Arsenal at Water-
vliet, the Rensselaer Institute at Troy, and many other places of
interest received also their share of attention.

Two excursions were made from Troy ; one to Albany bjr invi-
tation of the Albany Institute, the other to Saratoga by invita-
tion of the citizens of Troy. The time in Albany was divided
between the Dudley Observatory and the Geological HalL A
sumptuous entertainment at the State Library closed the day's
festivities. The Saratoga excursion occupied an entire day, dinner
bein^ served at Congress Hall at 4 p. m. The Association was the
redpient also of various private hospitalities.

The Association voted to hold its next meeting in Indianapolis,
Indiana, — in accordance with an invitation from that city — on the
17th of August, 1871. A committee was also appointed to arrange
for the following meeting in San Francisco in 1872, upon in vita-



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Miscellaneatia InteUtgence, 287

tion of the California Academy of Natural Sciences. The follow-
ing officers were elected for the next meeting :

I^resident, Prof Asa Gray, of Cambridge ; Vice-President, Prof.
George F. Barker, of New Haven ; General Secretary, Prof F. W.
Putnam of Salem ; Treasurer, Mr. Wm. S. Vaux, of Philadelphia.

The following is a list of the papers presented :

1. In General Session.

1. On the Chemistry of the Bessemer Prooess ; Olarenob E. Dutton.

2. Mrs. Willard^s Theory of CirculAiioa by Bespiration : Mrs. A. L. Phblps.
(Read by J. G. Morris.)

3. Last Winter's occupation of Moosilauke Mountain in New Hampshire;
J. H. Huntington.

2. In SscrnoN A.
MathenuUicSy Physics^ and Chemistry,

1. Some new applications of the Graphical Method ; Bdwabd 0. Piokerino.

2. On Dispersion and the possibility of attaining perfect Achromatism ; Edward

C. PiCKBRINO.

3. An Examination of the Doctrine of Atomicities ; F. W. Clarke.
4 The Isothermals of the Lake Region ; A. Winohell.

6. A Description of a new apparatus for illustrating the Precession of the
Equinoxes; Ja& Bushes.

6. The Magnetic Wells of Michigan ; A. Winohell.

7. To whom is due the credit of the most Important application of Steam as a
Motive Power ; Clinton Rooseyelt.

8. On Methods of illuminating optical Meteorology, particularly the formation
of Halos and Corons. according to the theory of Bravais ; Joseph Loterinq.

9. Researches in Electro-Magnetism ; Alfred M. Mater.

10. Abstract of a research on a simple method of measuring Electrical Conduo-
tivities by means of two equal and opposed Magneto-electric Currents or Waves ;
Alfred M. Mater.

11. Unpublished experiments of Prof. W. B. Rogers on the Influence exerted
by Ihe presence of Carbonic Add in gas, on its Illuminating Power ; Frbdeuiok

B. STDfPSON.

12. A Graphical Discussion of the various formul» proposed for the relation
between the quantity of light produced by the combustion of Illuminating Gas
and the volume of gas consumed ; Fredbriok E. Stimpson.

13. Aurora Borealis; L. Bradlbt.

14. Cosmogony; L. Bradlet.

15. The Northers of Texas ; Solomon Sia&

16. The Connection between Solar Spots, Terrestrial Magnetism, and the .\urora
Borealis ; Ellas Looin&

17. A Theory of the Constitution of the Corona of the Sun ; Simon Newoomr.

18. On the Assumption that Matter is Impenetrable ; H. F. Waluno.

19. Elasticity, a mode of Motion : H. F. Waluno.

20. The conditions of Stable Equilibrium in Atomic Orbits: H. F. Walling.

21. Spectroscopic examination of the Bessemer Flame ; J. M. Siluman.

22. Description of a new Meteorograph, for the automatic registration of Mete-
orological phenomena ; G. W. HOUOH.

23. Remarks on the total fluctuation of the Barometric Column; G. W. HouoH.

24. Relations existing between temperature, pre-isure, wind, and rain-fall, as
indicated by automatic registering instruments ; G. W. Houoh.

26. On the rate of the Dudley Observatory Sidereal Clock for two years ; G. W.
Hough.

26. On a new form of mercurial horizon, by which vibrations are extinguished ;
J. H. Lane. (Presented by J. E. Hilgard).

27. Description of Batchelder's Arctic Tide-Gauge : J. E. Hilgard.

28. On proposed improvements for Common Roads ; S. D. Tillman.

29. On a new Musical Notation ; S. D. Tillman.



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288 Miscellaneous InUJUgenoe.

30. On improyemeQto in InUud Nftvigation ; S. D. TnucAV.

31. On iiuproved faciiities for transmitting heat fhxn one fluid to another ; S. D.

TiLLHAN.

32. Gaseous and Liquid Rings ; B. N. HoBsroBD.

33 On the possibility of a Limit of Visible Magnitude ; F. A. P. Bibnabd.

34. On the brightness appearing on the limb of the Moon's Image, ia Photo-
graphs of Solar Eclipses ; P. A. P. Barnard.

36. On the testimony of ancient Eclipses in regard to the Uniformity of tiie
Earth's Rotation ; J. N. Stookwbll.

36. The Discovery of the force which originally imparted all their motiona to all
the stars ; Jaoob Ehkib.

37. On the Survey of the Northern Heavens instituted by the German Astro-
nomical Society ; T. H. Saffobd.

38. On a New Method of determining the Level-error of the axis of a Traoat
instrument; 0. A. YouNO.

39. On Solar Prominences and Spots observed 'with the Spectroscope during the
past year ; 0. A. Youno.

40. Some account of progress in tlie investigation of the laws of Winds ; J. H.

COPPIN.

41. Abstract of a paper on Temperature for twenty-five years; 0. W. Mobbi&

42. The solvent power of anhydrous liquid ammonia; Charlbs A. Sbblt.
(Read by Prof. Walling).

43. The inadequacy of the prevailing Baconian system by InduotioD, and the
fulla<7 of the too ezdusive use of the a priori method ; F. L. Capbk.

44. On an improved form of Solar Eyepiece ; S. P. Lakglbt.

45. The imiversal method of approzimatioQ ; Thomas Hill.

46. Note on the involute of a drde, and the ansdyuoal value of the hyperbolic
base ; Thomas Hill.

47. Molecular dassiflcation ; Gbo. F. Babkbr.

48. On the latest discoveries in regard to the manufacture of Ice by mechaoioal
power ; P. H. Vaxdeb Wetdb.

49. Further improvements in the method of transmittmg, audibly, musical melo-
dies by the electric telegraph wire ; P. H. Yaitder Wbtdb.

The following papers were read only by title : —

60. On Elasticity as a Feature in Physics; S. J. Wallaob.
51. On the Advancement of the Sdences; Cuntok Boosbvbi/t.

62. On the present aspects of Organic Physics; Hburt Habtbhornx.

63. Suggestions for systematizing chemical nomenclature ; A. M. EDWAXna

64. The relation between the bands of the Spectroscope and the musical scale;
P. H. Vandbb Wbtdb.

56. The most important result obtained from the reseaivbee during some years
of travel consists in the establishment of the following ^eory :

The law of gravity is not the motive power of cosmk} bodies; A. Habxl.
66. Gravitr is not the principal motive power on terrestrial bodies, but acting
very secondary ; A. Habbl.

57. Past and Future Astronomy; Joseph Trbat.

68. Demonstration of the Perturbation of Uranus, which discovered Neptane ;
JosBPH Trbat.

69. Universal Mathematical Demonntration of the impossibility' of Gravity, or
the Attraction of Matter as Matter ; Josbph Treat.

60. Corollaries of the Milky Way ; Joseph Treat.

61. An account of an Experiment upon the Physiological Actkn of Nitrons
Oxyd; F. W. Olarkb.

62. Acid reaction of Tribasic Phosphate of lame ; B. K. Hobbiord.

3. In Section B.
Geology and NaJbiral JERstory.

1. On the Early Stages of Disdna; B. 8. Mobsb.

2. On the Organization of ^e Braohiopoda, (Disdna and Lingula); S. S.
Mobsb.



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Miaodloneous IniM§ence. 289

3. The Braohiopoda m a Subdivision of the Anniikta ; E. S. Morse.

4. Observations on Seedling Compass-plants (Silphium laoiniatuoi) ; Tnoa Hill.
6. The Development of Limulus PolyphemuH ; A. S. Paokabd, Jr.

6. The Terrace Epoch in Michigan ; A. Winohbll.

7. Oil the Relation of Organic Life of the several continents to the Physical
Character of those laud areas ; N. S. Shaler.

8. On the character of the observations neoess^^ry to interpret the record of the
last Glacial Period ; N. 8. Shalbb.

9. Oti a method of collecting certain Geological facts adopted by the Social
Science Association; N. S. Shalbr.

10. Notes on the Condors and Humming birds of the Equatorial Andes; Jambs
Oeton.

11. On the evidence of a Gladal Epoch at the Equator; Jambs Orton.

12. On the Homdogies of the Cranial Bones of the Primary Types of the Rep-
tQes ; Edward D. Cope.

13. On the Reptiles of tiie Triasdc formations of the United States; Edwabd
D. Cope.

14. On the existence of two classes of male flowers m the common sweet chest-
nut, and the influence of nutrition on tlie sex; Thomas Meehak.

15. On objections to Darwin's theory of Fertilization through Insect agency;
Thomas Mbbhan.

16. On the law of fasdated branches, and its relation to the law of sex in
plants; Thomas Meehan.

17. The supposed Elevation and Depression of the ContineDt during the Glacial
period; J. B. Pebbt.

18. The Boulder-Trains of Berkshire county, Mass. ; J. B. Pbbry.

19. The Development and Old Age of the Tetrabmnchiate Cephalopods; Al-
pHBus Hyatt.

20. The Genetic Relation^ of the Arietes; Alpheus Htatt.

21. The porphyries of Marblehead; Alpheus Htatt.

22. Geology and Topography of the White Mountains, N. H. : C. H. Hitchcock.

23. Description of a new Trilobite from New Jersey; C. H. Hitohoock

24. The Distribution of Maritime Plants a proof of Oceanic Submergence in the
Champlaii) Period; C. H. HrroHCOOK.

25. On the young of Orthagoriscus; P. W. Putnam.

26. 0^ the salt deposits of Western Ontario; T. Stbbry Hunt.

27. On Iron Sand Ores ; T. Stbrrt Hunt.

28. Notes on Granitic Rocks; T. Steret Hunt.

29. On the oil-b('aring limestone of Clucago; T. Stebby Hunt.

30. On the Lignites of West America, their Distribution and Economic Value ;
J. S Newberry.

31. On the Sequence and Chronology of the Drift Phenomena in the Missisappi
VaUey; J. S. Newberry.

32. On some new relics and traces of the Mound Builders; J. S. Newbebby.

33. On the relation of the Onedonta Sandstone and Montrose Sandstone of Yan-
uxem to the Hamilton and Chemung Groups; James Hall.

34. Notice of the Fossil Plants of the Hamilton and Chemung Groups, with
reference to the source of the sediments of these Formations ; Jambs Hall.

35. Note upon the Rocks of the Huronian System on the Peninsula of Michi-
gan ; Jambs Hall.

36. Kemarks on the occurrence of the g^nus Dithyrocaria in the Hamilton and
Chemimg Rocks of New York ; Jambs Hall.

37. On the Geology of the Delta, and the Mudliimps of the Passes of the Miss-
issippi L Geologi^ Structure of the upper Delta plain, n. The lower Delta,
and the Mudlumps of the Passes; £. W. Hilgabd. (Read by J. R. Walker.)

38. Apatite Deposits of Lamark Co., Ontario, Canada; Gobdon BiA)OMB.

39. On some new generic forms of Brachiopoda, with remarks on some pohits
of their structure ; W. H. Dall.

40. On the order Docoglosea of Troec^I ; W. H. Dall.

41. On the nature of the foliage of Pines, etc. ; a criticism; A. Gbay.

42. On the local Glaciers of the White Mountains ; L. Aqassiz. (Read by J. B.
Perry.)



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290 MiacdUmeous IrUeJUgenoe.

43. Notes on <he relative age of the Niagara and ao-called Lower HeldCTbeig
series ; A. H. Wobthen.

44. Probable Origin of the South Carolina Phosphates; W. 0. Kkbb.

45. On some points in the Stratigraphy and surfaoe Qeology ot North Carcdina ;
W. C. Kerb.

46. A point in Djnamical QwAofj\ W. 0. Kebb.

47. Laya-ducu in Washington Territory; B. W. Ratmokd.

48. The Salt Marsh at Silver Peak, Southern Nevada; R. W. Ratmoitd.

49. On Abnormal Yertebrse of the Elephuit; Sanbobn Tbnnbt.

60. On a new locality of Kyanite ; Sanbobn Tbnkbt.

61. On some points in the Geology of Eastern Mass.; Sanbobn Thnnbt.

62. Brief Notices on Hoosac Mountain and Tunnel; James Htatt.

63. On the Relations of the orders of Mammals; Thxodobe Gill.

64. On the subdivisions of the Branch MoUusca; Thbodobb Gill.

The following papers were read by title only : —

65. Sketch of the researches made during seven years' travel through the five
states of Central Americ:^, part of New Granada, the Republic of Ecuador and
Peru ; then on the Island of Ghincha, and the Galapagos Archipelago ; M. A.
Habel.

66. On the occurrence of native iron, not meteoric; H. B. Nason.

57. On the composition of the American Opium ; H. B. Nasov.

58. On parallel stri® m quartz crystals ; L. Fbuohtwanqeb.

59. Geol' >gy of the Cotton woods Mining District of the Utah Territory ; P. A
Chadboubne.

60. The Geysers of Iceland and California; P. A. Chadboubne.

61. Guano, the origin of the Apatite of Rideau, Canada; E. N. Hobsfobd.

62. Fre-h Water Pond Overlying a Salt Water Pond in Middlesex county,

K N. HOBSFORD.

63. Evidence of glaci>U action in the placer and gulch gold of California ; K N.
Hobsfobd.

64. Lakes and Lake Regions ; S. J. Wallace.

4. In Sub-Sbction C.

Microscopy,

1. Microscopic Circuits of Generation: a. Of Zymotic Fungus; 6. Of the (nom-
inal) Genera of Fresh Water Algse, as development-phases of BryaocsBf etc. ; c. Of
Vorticello-Planarians; T. C. Hiloabd. (Read by J. E. Hilgard.)

2. On a new form of Binocular Microscope ; F. A. P. Babnabd.

3. On the Structure of the scale of Podura plumbea; F. A. P. Babkabd.

4. On the Illumination of Binocular Microscopes, widi proposal for a new Di*-
phragm-5)top ; R. H. Ward.

5. Remarks on Stereoscopic vision as applied to the Microscope ; R. EL Wajux
6 Some remarks on Nobert's lines, with particular reference to Dr. Woodward's

photographs; R. H. Wabd.

7. Some remarks on a Pocket Microscope and Telescope combined; JoeiAH

CUBTIS.

8. Some remarks on two deposits of Diatomaceous earths recently thrown up
by the Sea; Edwin Bioknbll.

9. Remarks on a method of producing very low power with Ihe microse o pe,
with demonstration ; Edwin Bioknell.

5. In Sub-Section E.
Archaeology and Ethnology.

1. Observations of the stone used by the Indians within the limits of Massa-
chusetts in the manufacture of their implements, with some remarics on the pro-
cess of manufacture ; James J. H. Gbegobt.



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