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THE LIBRARY

OF

THE UNIVERSITY
OF CALIFORNIA

LOS ANGELES




PESTALOZZI:

HIS AIM AND WORK.



BY

BARON ROGER DE GUIMPS.

TRANSLATED FROM THE EDITION OF 1874,

BV

MARGARET CUTHBERTSON CROMBIE.
Abridged and Adapted for Students.



He was a man, take him for all in all,
I shall not look upon his like again."

HAMLET.




SYRACUSE, N. Y. :

C. W. BARDEEN, PUBLISHER.

1889.



Copjrritht, 1889, by C. W. BARDEEN.



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Ed. - Psych.
Library






TABLE OF CONTENTS.






CHAP. PAGE.

Preface. ... ... ... i.

Translator's Preface.... ... ... ... vii.

I. Pestalozzi's Childhood. ... ... ... i

II. Pestalozzi's Student Days. ... ... ... 4

III. Pestalozzi's Agricultural Scheme. ... ' ... 12

IV. How Pestalozzi Educated His Child. ... 19

V. The Refuge at Neuhof. 26

VI. Pestalozzi as an Author. ... ... ... 38

VII. Pestalozzi's Doctrine before 1798. ... ... 65

VIII. Pestalozzi, the Father of the Orphans at

Stans. ... ... ... ... ... 72

IX. Pestalozzi, a Schoolmaster at Berthoud. ... 27

X. Krusi, Pestalozzi's First Fellow Labourer, in

XI. Pestalozzi Head of the Instituteat Berthoud. 121

XII. Pestalozzi's Books and Method at Berthoud 142

XIII. The First Years at Yverdon. 161

XIX. Decline of the Institute. ... ... .... 176

XV. Agony of the Institute. ... ... ... 210

XVI. The Last Years of Pestalozzi. ... ... 236

XVII. Pestalozzi's Latest Writings 245



I H70 1 T7



VI TABLE OF CONTENTS.

CHAP. PAGE.

XVIII. Personal Recollections of the Author ... 261

XIX. Pestalozzi's Religion... ... ... ... 270

XX. The Philosophy of Pestalozzi. ... ... 277

XXI. The Elementary Method of Pestalozzi. ... 282

List of Pestalozzi's Works. ... ... ... 295

Appendix A. Observation of Children. ... 299

Appendix B. Pestalozzi's Letters to Greaves 300

Notes 303

Index 313



AUTHOR'S PREFACE.



" IN half a century the foundations of society shall
be shaken."

So, seventy years ago, said Pestalozzi : a man, who,
wishing to save the poor, " lived as a beggar among
beggars," in order to teach beggars how to become
men ; and after probing the intellectual and moral
misery which underlies our brilliant civilisation drew
thence the dreaded anticipation for the future of
humanity ; but at the same time prescribed the ,
remedy.

During his long life of eighty years he was absorbed
by one idea, namely, the regeneration and elevation of
the people by Elementary Education : this idea was his
ruling passion and dominated all other feelings ; he
loved the poor, the weak, and the ignorant in spite of
their vices which shocked him, and he strove to instruct
and make moral the masses before people had learned
to fear them. In his passionate love of humanity he
used all the means in his power to serve his fellow-
creatures. For their sake he tried to be a minister of

Tii



Vlii AUTHOR'S PREFACE.

the gospel, a lawyer, a farmer, a manufacturer ; and he
became an author, a journalist, and a schoolmaster.
He never allowed the neglect, ingratitude, or bad treat-
ment he received from others, nor considerations of
personal interest, to influence him in regard to his aim.
He was the boldest, the most original, and the simplest
of men.

Such was Pestalozzi. At another period of the world's
history he would have been canonized ; and the
Catholic Church has few saints who were purer or
greater.

His life was full of contrasts, eccentricities, awkward-
ness, and errors of judgment arising from his childlike
confidence in everybody ; and as his want of knowledge
of affairs led to the ruin of his undertakings the world
condemned Pestalozzi.

But posterity will justify him ; his memory is
venerated, his devotion admired, and to him is due the
reform of Elementary Education ; a reform begun but
far from being accomplished in spite of all the progress
already made.

Meanwhile Pestalozzi is little understood; people have
but a vague idea of the principles which actuated him,
and the aim he pursued so perseveringly during his
long career in spite of mistakes which many times
threatened to crush his indefatigable activity for ever.

His aim was always the same, but his idea developed
as he advanced in age and experience, and to the last
he was striving to complete and perfect it.



AUTHOR'S PREFACE. ix

The character of Pestalozzi is unique. It has been
said to resemble that of the eagle and the dove, the
lion and the lamb, the woman and the child, rather than

the man.

******

Germany adopted the principles of Pestalozzi after
the battle of Jena and organized her public instruction
to which she owes her present greatness. This
education not only makes people learned but strengthens
the capacity to appreciate and apply all instruction.
Gradually, however, the schools of Prussia have come
to neglect the doctrine of Pestalozzi, especially from the
moral point of view ; and it is said that they will not
develop men of such strong moral fibre as those of the
present age who are the result of the true Pestalozzian
training.

During the Easter holidays of 1872 there was a
Congress at Berlin of delegates from Teachers'
Societies of Brandenburg, oaxony, Hanover, and
Hesse-Nassau ; and it decided upon the formation of a
National Society of German Teachers whose centre
was fixed at Berlin.

On April 4th the deputies of the assembly were
received by the Minister of Worship and Public
Instruction, and they submitted three requests to him.

This was the third :

" Extension of the programme of teachers, and
organization of schools according to the pedagogic
principles of Pestalozzi which had formerly enjoyed



X TRANSLATOR S PREFACE.

much favour in Prussia, under the protection of
Queen Louise, Stein, William von Humboldt, Fichte,
&c., and had contributed so evidently to the regeneration
of the country."

Up to the present time France has profited only in
an indirect manner and in a feeble measure from the
works of Pestalozzi, the reformer of education.

Nevertheless their merit had been recognised by a
great number of the most distinguished persons of all
shades of opinion ; such as Mme. de Stael, George
Cuvier, &c.

But France has not organised her] elementary
education upon rational principles ; she has not yet
adopted the Natural Method.*

Every superior mind admits and deplores this, feeling
that it would be the true means of the regeneration she
needs now more than ever, and tries to lead her into this
way of safety.

Would that the book we are now publishing might
contribute to the success of these efforts.



TRANSLATOR S PREFACE. XI



TRANSLATOR'S PREFACE.



IN presenting this book to the public the Translator
begs to state that it is intended for junior students.
The material contained in the work has been used by
her for several years in the training of young teachers
in the History of Education.

Unlike the author of Levana, who was too busy
writing upon Education to be able to educate his own
son, the Translator is too actively engaged in the work
of teaching to find sufficient time to write. She has
always hoped to be able to expand and render the
translation more worthy of the original ; but, foreseeing
no greater leisure, and learning that there is need for
such a work at this time, she ventures to offer it in its
present form.

She would call attention to the Notes, at the same
time stating that their brevity will show that they are
merely suggestive ; and she would advise .those who are
studying the life of Pestalozzi to make themselves
acquainted with the I&ore important features of his
time the government and geography of Switzerland,
the French Revolution, the career of Napoleon, the



Xli TRANSLATOR S PREFACE

social and political state of England and its attitude
towards these events, the aspirations of France and
America, the condition of Prussia before and since its
adoption of a rational system of education ; also the
greatest names in German and Swiss literature.

Something of all this is required to understand the
relation of the master to his age ; for Pestalozzi was
first a philanthropist in the widest and best sense of
the word, and then an educator.

The great reformer of elementary education has been
too long taken at his own estimate a very humble one ;
whilst others, perhaps, have been unduly lauded.
Baron Roger de Guimps, one of Pestalozzi's most
illustrious disciples, has best interpreted the master's
Life, Aim, and Method.

Much of the beauty of a work is lost in translation,
and the Life of Pestalozzi by Baron Roger de Guimps
cannot fail to suffer. But if the reader of these pages
is led by them to study the original, this book will have
attained its end.

MARGT. C. CROMBIE.
LONDON, SEPT., 1888.



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF PESTALOZZL

SAEMMTLICHE WERKE, hrsg. L. "W. Seyffarth. 16 vols, 8vo.

Brandenburg, 1869-73 $6.40

WIE GERTRUD IHRE KINDER LEHRT. Hit einer Einleitung,
" J. H. Pestalozzi's Leben, Werke, und Grundsatze." Ein-
leitung vom Seminar-Director Schulrath Karl Riedel.
12mo, pp. 199. Wien, 1877 1.00

LEENHAUD UNO GERTRUD. Ein Buck fur das Volk. 24mo,

pp. 422. Leipzig 1.00

LEONARD AND GERTRUDE. Translated and abridged by Eva

Channing. 12mo, pp. 181. Boston, 1885 80

LEONARD ET GERTRUDE, ou les Moeurs Villageoises telles q 'on
les retrouve a la Ville et a la Cour. Histoire Morale tra-
duite de rallemande. Avec 12 estampes. 16mo, pp. 416.
Berlin, 1783

LETTERS ON EARLY EDUCATION. Addressed to J. P. Greaves,
Esq., by Peslalozzi. Translated from the German manu-
script. With a Memoir of Pestalozzi. Originally printed
in 1827. 16mo, pp. 217. London, 1850 2.50

LETTERS ON THE EDUCATION OP INFANCY, addressed to Moth-
ers. 12mo, pp. 51. Boston, 1830

BARNARD, Henry. Pestalozzi and Pestalozzianism, Life, Edu-
cational Principles, and Methods of John Henry Pestalozzi;
with Biographical Sketches of several of his Assistants and
Disciples. 8vo, pp. 468. Kew York, 1859 5.00

BIBER, E. Memoir of Pestalozzi, and his Plan of Education:
being an Account of his Life and Writings. 8vo. Lon-
don, 1831 ...

COCHIN, A. Pestalozzi: sa vie, ses oeuvres, et ses methodes.

12mo, pp. 146. Paris, 1880 50

DE GUIMPS, Roger. Pestalozzi, his Aim and Work. Trans-
lated from the Edition of 1874 by Margaret Cuthbertson

Crumbic. 12mo, pp. 320. Syracuse, 1889 1.50

(xiii)



XIV BIBLIOGRAPHY OF PESTALOZZI.



The same, "The Student's Pestalozzi," translated and



abridged by Russell. London, 1888 75

DIESTERWEG, Dr. Pestalozzi and the schools of Germany.

8vo, pp. 16 (From Barnard's Journal) Hartford 50

HOOSE, J. H. The Pestalozzian Series of Arithmetics. First-
Year Arithmetic. Teachers' Manual and First- Year Tcxt-
Book, for pupils in the first grade, first year, of public
schools. Based upon Pestalozzi's system of teaching Ele-
mentary Numbers. 16mo, pp. 217. Syracuse, ,1882 50

KAISER, Josef. Pestalozzi, oder der 12 Janner gefeiert von der

Lehrer-Gesellschaft in Wien. 8vo, pp. 32. Wien, 1863... 1.00

KRUESI, H. Pestalozzi: his life, work, and influence. 8vo,

pp. 248. Cincinnatti, 1875 1.40

NEEF, Joseph (formerly a Coadjutor of Pestalozzi, at his school
near Berne, in Switzerland). Sketch of a Plan and Method
of Education, founded on an Analysis of the Human Fac-
ulties and Natural Reason, suitable for the Offspring of a
Free People and for all Rational Beings. 16mo, pp. 168,
and folding plate. Philadelphia, 1808 3.00

ORPIIEN, Chas. Pestalozzi's System of Domestic Education,
etc. 16mo, pp. 192. Dublin, 1829

PHELPS, Wm. F. Pestalozzi (Chautauqua Text-Book, No. 12). .10
, VON RATJMER, Carl. The Life and Educational System of Pes
talozzi. 8vo, pp. 16, (incomplete). (From Barnard's Jour-
nal.) Hartford 50

REINER, C. Lessons on Number, as given in a Pestalozzian
School, Cheam, Surrey. The Master's Manual. 12mo,
pp.224. London, 1857 2.00

Lessons on Form; or an Introduction to Geometry. As

given in a Pestalozzian School, Cheam, Surrey. 12mo, pp.
215. London, 1837 2.00

SCHNEIDER, C. Rousseau and Pestalozzi. 8vo, pp. 86. Brom-

berg, 1867 50

VOGEL, A. Die Padagogik Peslalozzi's. Wortgetreue Auszu-
gen aus seinem Werken. 12mo, pp 138. Bemburg, 1882.

All of the above that are priced may be had of the publisher of
this volume.



PESTALOZZI.



ERRATA.



PAGE. LINE.

10 6 read " Nibelungen " for " Niebehmgen."

56 34 insert (after " shepherd ") who was blind of one

eye and deaf of one ear."
88 5 read " cord " for " string."

106 2 " protege "fa " protcgl."



CHAPTER I.



PESTALOZZI S CHILDHOOD.

1. Influence of home. I 3. Influenceof visitstothecountry.

2. Influence of School. I 4. Pestaloz/i wishes to be a village

pastor.



i. In 1567, Antoine Pestalozzi and his wife, an Italian
couple from Chiavenna, settled in Zurich, having been
exiled from their country for having adopted the Reformed
faith.

Zurich had been the scene of Zwingli's labours and the
Reformation had been firmly established there in 1522.

From these refugees was descended Andre Pestalozzi,
pastor of Hongg, near Zurich.

The son of Andre was called Jean-Baptiste. He was a
good surgeon and oculist in Zurich. His wife's name was
Suzanne Hotz, sister of a clever doctor at Richtersweil,
and niece of General Hotz. Henry Pestalozzi, the son of
Jean-Baptiste, and the subject of our study, was born on
January i2th, 1746, at the sign of the Black Horn (every
nouse had a sign). When he was five years old his father
died, leaving little provision for the family, which consisted
of the widow and three little children. The elder boy soon
died, and t'le daughter was married in course of time to a
merchant in Leipsic, and continued throughout her life to
correspond with her brother. Madame Pestalozzi was an
admirable mother, devoting her whole thoughts and energies
to the education of her children. Her limited means
required the strictest economy to be observed in the hoiise.



2 PESTALOZZI'S

but her efforts were aided by the devotion of a faithful
servant named Babeli or Barbara, in whom " did well
appear the constant service of the antique world." This
faithful creature, a simple peasant girl, had promised her
master when he was dying that she would never forsake
her mistress ; she kept her word, and throughout her whole
life her conduct was marked by the greatest patience,
devotion, and good sense. She had a share in the up-
bringing of the little Henry, who speaks of her in the most
affectionate and grateful terms. He attributes her fidelity
and the dignity of her character to her piety and simple
elevated faith. Her economy made the most of their
slender means. For example, she deferred going to market
till late when the prices were lower as the market-people
were tired and wanting to go home ; and she was most
careful in regard to the dresses of the children, encouraging
them to stay indoors as much as possible in order to save
their best clothes, as the family maintained a good position
in spite of poverty. Henry tells us that they had 'fine
clothes which they wore on Sunday and changed when
they returned home ; and, when visitors were expected,
their only room was arranged by tasteful hands as a little
drawing room. They found a way to help the needy,
and the gifts they gave at the New Year and at other times
were out of all proportion to their means. This could only
be done at the cost of great self-denial on the part of all
members of the family, and the spirit of unselfishness thus
fostered became second nature to them.

An incident is related of Henry at this time. One
day having a -little pocket money given him he went to
spend it upon sweets that tempted him in the shop of a
rich bon-bon merchant named Schulthess, who lived at the
sign of the Plough. The merchant's daughter, Anna, who
was present, told Henry that he might do something better
with his money, and he took her advice. This story is
interesting and characteristic. The same little girl, years
after, became his wife and best friend through life.

Henry was a mother's child ; the atmosphere of his home
was peaceful and affectionate and in it were practised



CHILDHOOD. 3

unostentatiously many acts of self-sacrifice. The curbing
of the desire for play outside with other boys must alone
have cost the boy many a struggle between inclination and
duty. In the midst of his sedentary life his imagination
had full play. He listened eagerly to stories and reading,
never forgetting a word and thinking over ah 1 he heard ;
imagining himself in the place of his heroes, and altering
and re-arranging the circumstances. But the good in-
fluences under which he lived were not sufficient to develop
all sides of a manly character. The close confinement to
the house, the want of opportunities of roughing it with
boys of his own age encouraged his natural weakness and
left him timid, clumsy, restless and impressionable ; and his
-coliaborateur Niederer has well said that " In Pestalozzi
there was as much of the woman as the man."

2. Pestalozzi was deeply conscious of these defects
which he never was able to correct. He says he was
deficient in sustained attention, reflection, circumspection
and forethought, as well as in vigour and skill in muscular
exercises. His views of life and the world, taken from his
mother's parlour were necessarily limited. The want of
practice in boyish sports made him awkward and helpless
when he went to school. But although his schoolfellows
took advantage of and laughed at him, calling him Harry
Oddity of Foolstown, they liked him for his good nature
and obliging disposition. He gave some signs of ability at
school, but his work was usually so bad his writing and
spelling especially that his master took him for a dunce.

The influence of his home was never forgotten by
Pestalozzi ; and to him the mother ever was the ideal
educator. Surrounded as he was by good influences he
took home as his standard, and believing that all people
were like-minded with his family, he trusted everybody ;
when he went out into the world he was often mistaken
and deceived.

3. From the time that he was nine years old he spent
his holidays with his grandfather, the minister at Hongg, a
beautiful country place near Zurich. Here he visited the
sick and the poor, and came to learn something of the



4 PESTALOZZI S

locality, which is diversified with fields, and vineyards and
fine orchards. The manse which adjoins the church was
surrounded by gardens which rose in terraces, and from the
dining room window there was a charming view of the
valley of the Limmat. Here Henry passed many happy
days and his love of nature was aroused.

4. Here, too, he saw much in the state of the people
that touched him with compassion ; and from this time he
looked forward to becoming a village pastor like his grand-
father.



CHAPTER II.



PESTALOZZl's STUDENT DAYS



5. The Academy of Zurich in the

eighteenth century.

6. Its spirit and influence upon



Pestalozzi.



7. Pestalozzi gives up the ministry

for law.

8. He gives up the law and burns

his MSS.



9. Sole remnant of his early writings : Agis.



5. Zurich in the middle of the last century was famous
for its schools. The higher education there was remark-
able for its elevation, and originality. The philosophy of
Wolff, who preached a return to nature, had given the
students a three-fold enthusiasm, for simplicity of manners,
revival of literature, and public liberty.

Pestalozzi shared in this enthusiasm which led him,
unfortunately, into many youthful enterprises which
retarded his finding his vocation. Theology, medicine
and law were taught at the College of the Humanities.



STUDENT DAYS. 5

Students entered at the age of fifteen. Amongst the many
eminent men of Zurich were three famous professors :
Zimmermann, who was professor of Theology ; Breitinger,
of Greek and Hebrew ; and Bodmer, of History and
Political Economy. Zimmermann had introduced a milder
discipline into the College than had prevailed before ;
Breitinger treated his students like his children ; and
Zurich owes to Bodmer, who was professor there for nearly
fifty years, the men of talent who were so numerous. His
teaching had reference chiefly to History and the institu-
tions of Switzerland ; and he inspired in his hearers' minds
a strong love of justice and liberty. He criticised the
manners and social organization of the time and urged his
listeners to struggle against them and seek to restore the
ancient virtues. He preached the reducing of our needs,
"plain living and high thinking," and that true happiness
was only to be found in simple home-life. His views can
be gleaned from the following passage from the Dialogues of
the Dead :

' What did you do when on earth ? "

' I sought for happiness."

' Did you find it I' "

' Alas, too late."

' Where did you seek it ? "

'In Persia, India, Japan and the uttermost parts of the earth."

NVhere did you find it ? "

' In my own village, it was in my father's house, whilst I had gone to
search for it thousands of miles away. I found it on my return after
countless dangers. My father had it in his heart, without stirring a step
to seek it. I only saw it and I died."

Bodmer also taught his students modern literature, making
them acquainted with the chief works of English authors
especially. He and Breitinger shared in making Zurich
with Leipsic the starting point of the movement which
gave Germany her fine literature.

Klopstock was the guest of Bodmer who had been the
first to appreciate the merit of his Messiah. He was
followed by Wieland and Kleist. The laoc wrote to Gleim,
" Zurich is indeed a wonderful place, not only on account of



O PESTALOZZI S

its magnificent position but also for the men who are
here. Whilst in the city of Berlin there are hardly three or
four men of genius and taste, in little Zurich there are
twenty or thirty."

6. The influence of such men led the students to have a
contempt for riches and luxury, and to exalt intellectual
and spiritual pleasure, simplicity of life and manners, and
the constant pursuit of justice and truth. For a long time
Pestalozzi and his friends wished to lie on the ground in
their clothes, and to live on vegetarian diet.

This was the spirit of the Academy which Pestalozzi
entered at the age of fifteen. His elementary education
had prepared him for it badly, yet he distinguished himself
and made rapid progress. While yet very young, he
translated a harangue of Demosthenes which was much
admired by good judges and was put into print.

This is what he says himself later on about his academical
studies :

" The spirit of the public teaching in my native town,
admirable as it was from a scientific point of view, led us
to lose sight of the realities of life. The flower of our
youth, not excepting Lavater, indulged in dreams.

" Our only wish was to live for freedom, beneficence,
sacrifice and patriotism ; but the means of developing the
practical power to attain these were lacking. We despised
all external appearances such as riches, honour, and
consideration ; and we were taught to believe that by



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