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gard to his scholars.

These are clearly enough Niederer's own opinions, and the
criticism is a fair one. It is only surprising that Pestalozzi
should have published the work in his own name.

It is to fill these gaps, to help the world to a clearer and
more complete understanding of the new doctrine, that the
author of the pamphlet thinks the publication of a journal to
be indispensable. He ends with a few words as to the sub-
jects to be treated in the journal, and asks all friends of
educational progress to contribute to its pages.

A second publication of 1807 bears the title, A Glance at
my Views and Essays in Education. This was first printed
in the Journal of Education, and then, without any material
alteration, in Getta's edition. In character it is quite different
from the first, and is obviously Pestalozzi's own work,
Niederer's hand being scarcely perceived.

The work fulfils the promise of its title, being a shortened
account, first of that idea of Pestalozzi's which, resulting
originally from his commiseration for the poor, ended in his
plans for educational reform, and then of the different
attempts he had made to carry these plans out. Pestalozzi
here shows clearly and forcibly that the chief cause of the
evils and dangers of society is the moral and intellectual



428 APPENDIX I.

poverty of the mass of men, and that the only means of
safety for modern civilization is the realization of his idea
of elementary education.

In speaking of the period of splendour of the Yverdun
institute, Pestalozzi recognizes and deplores its utter in-
sufficiency as a practical demonstration of the truth of his
doctrine. His gwat desire is to have a school for quite
young poor children, nor does he despair of being able to
found one in connection with the institute.

There then follow some quotations from a work with
which Pestalozzi was then (1807) occupied, but which was
never published. It was intended to replace or supplement
the books written at Burgdorf, especially How Gertrude
Teaches Tier Children, with some account of their author's
subsequent experiences and the progress of his practical
work. The book was in the form of letters to a friend, and
Pestalozzi gives extracts from several of the letters. Judging
from these extracts, the manuscript was already in a very
advanced stage and very interesting. We regret that we
cannot here give a more complete account of it, but we
would particularly recommend the extracts from the seventh
and eighth letters to all who can read German.

The book which contains these extracts, and which con-
sists of sixty-four pages, is not entirely free from tedious
repetitions ; and yet it is well worth reading, if only for the
true and fairly complete idea it gives of the views and work
of the author.

A third publication of the same period is entitled, Report
to Parents and the Public on the State and Organization
of Pestalozzi's Institute in the Tear 1807, and contains, in
forty-nine pages, an account of the establishment, which,
though not fully detailed, is complete in all essential points.
The main lines of the sketch are perfectly true, though in
parts it is a little over-coloured ; sometimes, too, it describes
what has been attempted rather than what has been really
done. The consequence was, that many of the statements it
contained were refuted by the adversaries of the new method,
who took a somewhat unfair advantage of the weapons with
which it furnished them. This was the first cause of that
long battle of words which proved so fatal to the institute.

It is well known that the man who always took the
most favourable view of things at the institute, and always



NIEDERERS COLLABORATION. 429

endeavoured to reassure Pestalozzi when the old man was
dissatisfied with his work, was Niederer ; and the illusions
which run through the Report to Parents are undoubtedly
his. Pestalozzi himself recognized them as illusions after-
wards, as we see in the notes he added to the second edition
in 1823, two of which run thus :

On page 4 : " What is said here is, speaking generally,
merely the effect of the great illusions we entertained at
that time, and which, kept up by favourable external cir-
cumstances, made us see things as we should have liked
them to be, and as, considering our principles, our wishes,
and our efforts, we thought they ought to be."

On page 24 : " In this passage, as in many others, I am not
so much giving expression to my own simple and primitive
views on education as to certain philosophical ideas which
were not my own, which had not ripened in my mind, and
which I did not perfectly understand. In spite of all our
good intentions, these ideas had disturbed not only myself
but several of my colleagues ; I may even go so far as to
say that it was they that led me astray and were the secret
cause of the misfortunes that finally overtook my establish-
ment."

The three short works we have just described were pub-
lished by Pestalozzi in the eleventh volume of Cotta's edi-
tion, under the general title of, Views and Experiences in
Connection with the Idea of Elementary Education, togethed
with Notices and Fragments concerning the Course anj>
History of the Enterprises of my Life. The whole was
preceded by a preface from which we quote the following
passage, referring to the Principles and Plan of a Journal,
published in 1807.

" This writing must not be looked upon as giving my own
personal view, but rather as expressing the views of the
friends I then had about me. The presumption and incom-
prehensible blindness that made us so miscalculate our
strength and means at that time, should be the more interest-
ing to the public that these fantastic dreams were the first
and chief cause of all the misfortune, humiliation, and sorrow
that have since fallen upon me and mine, and brought my
work within an ace of destruction."

The discourse delivered by Pestalozzi at the meeting of
the Society of Friends of Education at Lenzburg in 1809,



430 APPENDIX 1.



was printed shortly afterwards in the Weekly Journal, but
not before it had been revised and expanded by Niederer. In
1821 it appeared, with a preface, in Cotta's eighth volume,
where, although it had been considerably reduced for the
purpose by Pestalozzi, it runs to a hundred and eighty-seven
pages. The preface begins thus :

" This discourse, which differs materially from the one I
really pronounced in Lenzburg, and bears the plainest marks
of the foreign influence I was then under, shows clearly
enough the spirit that prevailed amongst us at that time.
We were carried away by a premature desire to explain our
whole doctrine and system by basing it upon a philosophical
principle which should embrace it in all its parts and all its
developments, and we entirely lost sight of the fact that our
practical work was still most defective and incomplete."

In the face of this statement, we cannot consider the
Lenzburg discourse, as we possess it to-day, to be the pure
expression of Pestalozzi's thought ; it is much rather the ex-
pression of Niederer's conception of it. This, however, does
not make it any the less interesting or less worth consider-
ing.

After referring to the many erroneous opinions that have
been formed of the method and the institute, and to the
official examination that he has just felt compelled to ask
of the Swiss Diet, Pestalozzi invites all friends of education
to come and judge for themselves. But as it is impossible
to thoroughly understand what is being done at Yverdun
without being acquainted with the fundamental principle of
the method and its various applications, he is anxious that
everybody should have as clear and complete a general no-
tion of his system as possible. He therefore proceeds to
draw up a statement of his method, characterizing it as ele-
mentary, organic, and genetic, and developing each of these
three points of view at considerable length.

A complete analysis of this work would take us too far,
besides obliging us to repeat much that we have said else-
where.



The eighteenth and last volume of Seyffarth's collection
contains some extracts from the Weekly Journal / Niederer's
work entitled : Pestalozzi's Enterprise in its Relation with



NIEDERERS COLLABORATION. 431

the Education of our Time ; and the main points of the long,
sad quarrel that followed the official inspection of the insti-
tute in 1809. Sundry smaller works of Pestalozzi's, the
manuscripts of which he had entrusted to Niederer, are also
here published for the first time. These are :

1. Pestalozzi Sketched by Himself.

This is the letter Pestalozzi addressed to Ith, when the
latter was appointed to inspect the institute of Burgdorf .

2. Epochs.

This is a historical sketch from a social and political point
of view, and is connected with An Inquiry into the Course
of Nature in the Development of the Human Race.

3. Religious Education: a Glance at Christ and His
Doctrine.

Pestalozzi here establishes the agreement between hia
views and the Saviour's teaching.

4. The Method.

This is the report presented by Pestalozzi to the Society
of the Friends of Education in 1800, and referred to by us in
its proper place.

5. Pestalozzi's New Year's Day Discourse for 1816.

In this discourse the old man's heart is seen to be divided
between grief for the loss of the wife who had always been
his good angel, and joy at seeing his work in safety. The
latter sentiment, however, was but the result of an illusion ;
for there is no doubt that he exaggerated the value and
bearing of the reforms carried out by Schmidt since his re-
turn. In this same discourse the thought that death is
drawing near stimulates his religious feelings, and he ex-
claims :

" Brothers and friends ! I hear God's voice saying : Your
grave is being prepared ; you are about to go down into it ;
your friends will place you there as they have lately placed
the companion of your life ; you are soon to enter into
eternal rest in the sight of your whole house, in the sight of
the men and children who are yours, and whom you will
leave behind. I see myself lying in my grave ; I see myself
entering into eternity, contemplating God, and praying to
Him in truth and holiness. But I awake. I have seen my
destiny. It is not in the transitory work of this earthly life;
it is purity and innocence ; it is the power of devotion of a
faithful life to the service of God and humanity; it is the



432 APPENDIX I.



imitation of Jesus Christ, through faith in Him crucified,
and for the glory of God the Father."

6. Pestalozzi's New Year's Day Discourse for 1817.

Here the old man examines his past. He has undertaken
work out of all proportion to his strength, and would have
failed but for God's assistance. As it is, his work remains
defective and incomplete because some have not done what
they could to bring God's blessing upon it. Pestalozzi him-
self is one of these, and this is the reason that his seventy-
one years have not been sufficient. There is now no longer
a moment to lose ; the new year must not be like so many
past years ; it must not find the former man, but a new man,
stripped of his errors, his weaknesses, and his negligences,
and regenerated by the love of God and faith in Jesus
Christ. He concludes thus :

" What must I do to become such a new man ? How am
I to complete, establish, and sanctify the work of my short
life on earth ?

" Seeking to understand the real aim of my life, the real
motive of that work which took such entire possession of me
that I found no rest iu anything else, I seem to hear an in-
ternal voice saying that it was the need to free man from the
sensual domination of his animal nature, and raise him above
the view of this world to a clear and divine view of the
spiritual essence of his being. . . . But what am I, that I
should dare to lay my hand to this sublime task ? Am I not
like a child who, admiring the heavens, should deem it pos-
sible to place the sun upon his head, take the moon into his
hands, and make a crown for his forehead of the stars ? . . .

" That which I long for and seek after, that which is holy,
unchanging, and eternal in the aim of my life, is in no way
mine ; it is humanity's and God's. What am I, what are we
all, in such work as this ? A nothing that passes with the
moment, like the insect of a day.

" But though the outward structure of our work should
crumble, it is not humanity's, not God's work that disappears.
It is merely the hammer, a stone, a grain of sand falling from
God's building, where we have foolishly and ignorantly striven
to fix it."



APPENDIX II.

A 1JST OF PESTALOZZl'S WORKS IN CHRONOLOGICAL ORDFK. 1



1765. Agis.

1776. An appeal to the friends and benefactors of humanity to support an
institution intended to provide education and work for poor country
children.

1777. Three letters on the education of poor children. A few words on
the most degraded portion of humanity. An appeal to the charitable
to come to its assistance.

1778. An account of the educational establishment for poor children at
Neuhof.

1780. The Evening Hour of a Hermit.

1781. Leonard and Gertrude (vol. i.). Note on the sumptuary laws.

1782. Christopher and Eliza The Swiss News, a weekly newspaper (2 vols.)
* The Education of Children in the Home. Incomplete, never pub-
lished by Pestalozzi, and only to be found in Niederer's Notes on
Pestalozzi, published at Aix-la-Chapelle, in 1828 and 1829.

1783. Leonard and Gertrude (vol. ii.). On Legislation and Infanticide.
1785. Leonard and Gertrude (vol. iii.).

1787. Leonard and Gertrude (vol. iv.).

1792. On the Causes of the French Revolution. Never published by
Pestalozzi.

1797. Fables (2 vols.). An Inquiry into the Course of Nature in the
Development of the Human Race.

1798. Political Pamphlets on the Swiss Revolution : A Word to the Legis-
lative Councils of Helvetia ; On Tithes ; Awake, People of Helvetia ;
To my Country; To the People of Helvetia; Appeal to the Inhabi-
tants of the old Democratic Cantons ; On the Present and Future of
Humanity.

1799. Letter to Gessner on the work at Stanz.

1800. Memoir presented to the Society of Friends of Education. Never
publisbed by Pestalozzi, and only to be found hi Niederer's Notes on
Pestalozzi, and in the eighteenth and last volume of Seyffarth's
edition.

1801. How to Teach Spelling and Reading. How Gertrude Teaches her
Children. Epochs; a historical sketch, from a social and political
point of view. In Seyffarth's last volume. Religious Education; a
Glance at Christ and His Doctrine. In Seyffarth's last volume.

1 Those marked with an asterisk are not included in Seyffarth's edition.



434 APPENDIX II.



1802. Views on certain points to which the legislators of Switzerland
should particularly direct their attention Pestalozzi sketched by
himself ; a note addressed to Ith. In Seyffarth's last volume.

1803. * The Book for Mothers. Written in great part by Krusi. * Sense-
impressing Exercises on Number. Compiled by Krusi and Buss.
* Sense-impressing Exercises on Size and Form. Compiled hy Krusi
and Buss. The Natural Schoolmaster. Never published by Pes-
talozzi.

1807. On the Principles and Plan of a Journal announced in 1807.
Revised and in part written by Niederer. A Glance at my Views and
Essays in Education. Eevised by Niederer. Eeport to parents and
the public on the educational institute of Yverdun. Revised and in
part written by Niederer.

1807 to 1811. Weekly Journal of Education (3 vols.) ; written in great
part by Niederer and others.

1808 to 1818. Discourses to my Establishment.

1809. Discourse pronounced before the Society of Friends of Education,
at Lenzburg. Revised and added to by Niederf r.

1813. Letter to Mr. Delbruck, Privy Councillor at Berlin.

1815. To the Innocent, Serious, and Noble-minded ones of my Country.

1820. A Word on my Pedagogical Labours, and the Organization of my
Institute in 1820. Practical Elementary Exercises on Number. Com-
piled by Schmidt. Elementary Exercises on Size and Form. Com-
piled by Schmidt.

1820 to 1826. Cotta's edition of Pestalozzi's works (15 vols.), published at
Stuttgart.

1822. Vie~ws on Industry, Education, and Politics, in connection with the
State of our Country before and after the Revolution.

1826. The Song of the Swan. My Experiences in my Educational Estab-
lishments of Burgdorf and Yverdun. Discourse pronounced as Presi-
dent of the Helvetian Society, the 26th of April, 1826.



APPENDIX IH.

BOOKS TO CONSULT ON PESTALOZZI.

1801. Der deutsche Merkur. (Articles by Wieland.)

1802. Amtlicher Bericht iiber die Pestalozzische Anstalt in Burgdorf, von J.
Ith, etc. Bern.

1803. Pestalozzi, seine Lehrart und seine Anstalt, von A. Soyaux. Berlin.
PestalozzVs Metliode und ihre Anwendung in der Volksschule , von F.
H. E. Schwartz. Bremen. Ueber Pestalozzi's Lehrart, Akademit der
Wissenschaften, von Fischer. Berlin. Bemerkungen g>'gen Pestalozzi's
Unterrichtsmethode, von J. N. Steinmiiller. Zurich.

1804. Pestalozzi's Idee eines ABC der Aiischauuny, untersucht und wissen-
schaftlich ausgefiihrt, von J. F. Herbart. Gottingen. Briefe aus Burg-
dorf Uber Pestalozzi, von A. Griiner. Hamburg. Darstellung und
Priifung der Pestalozzisclien Methode in Burgdorf, von Passavant.
Lemgo. Historische Denkwiirdigkeiten der helvetischen Staatsunnoalz-
ung, von Zschokke. Kritik der Pestalozzischen Methode, von Johan-
sen. Jena und Leipzig. Beleuchtung der Pestalozzischen Groszsprecher-
eien. Erfurt.

1805. Expose de la methods Gttmentaire de Pestalozzi, par D. Alex. Cha-
vannes. Vevey. Bericht an S" Maj. den Konig von Preussen iiber das
Pestalozzische Institut in Burgdorf, von C. Witte. Leipzig. Geist deir
Pestalozzischen Methode, von EVald. Bremen. Einige Grundregeln dfr
Erziehungsknnst nach Pestalozzi, von Plamann. Halle.

1806. Briefe aus MiJnchenbuchsee iiber Pestalozzi und seine Elementurbild~
vngsmethode, von Tiirck. (2vol.) Leipzig. Aufa&tze fur und gegen die
Pestalozzische Unterrichtsmethode.

1807. Seise nach der Schweiz. Torlitz, Copenhagen und Leipzig.

1809. Padagogische Mittheilungen, von Kimly. BerUn. Veber die Pesta-
lo:zische Lehrmethode, von Siisskiud. Stuttgard.

1810. Rapport sitr I'institut de M. Pestalozzi a Yverdon, par le p%re Girard.
Fribourg. Erfahrungen und Ansichten, von Jos. Schmidt. Heidelberg.
Priifung des Werthes der Pestalozzischen Methode, von d'Autel. Stutt-
gard. Ueber das Wesentliche der von Pestalozzi, etc., von Hagen.
Erlangen. Peslalozzi, Hauptmomente seiner MetJiode, von Lehmann.
Konigsberg. Geist und Vorschritte der Pestalozzischen Bildungsinethode,
von Ewald. Mannheim. Briefe aus einer Reise dnrch Siiddeutschland,
die Schweiz, etc., von Kessler. Leipzig. Veber Pestalozzi's Grundsatze
und Methoden, von Aug. Herm. Niemeyer. Knrze und fassliche Dar-
stellung der Pestaloztischen Methode. Stuttgard.

1811. Das Pestalozzische Institut an das Publikum. (Niederer's work, with
preface by Pestalozzi.) Yverdun. Ueber die Verbesserung des Ele-
mentarschulwesens in Preussen, von Neumann. Potsdam.



436 APPENDIX III.



1812. Precis sur I'institut d'Yverdon,p&T M.-A. Jullien. (Pamph.) Milan.
Esprit de la methods Pestalozzi, par M.-A. Jullien (2 vol.) Milan
Versuch einer Metakritik der Weltof.rbesserung, oder ein Wort iiber Pesta-
lozzi und Pestaiozzismus. Ulm. Ueber die Schrift Pestalozzi's : Unter-
nehmungen, etc., von J. H. Bremi. Zurich.

1812-1813. Pextalozzi's Untemehmungen im Verhdltniss zur Zeitkultur, von
J. Niederer. (2 vol.) Stuttgard.

1813. Ueber Pestalozzi's Grundidee der Erziehung und Methode, von La-
domus. Heidelberg. De VAllemagne, par M me de Stae'l. Selbstschau,
von H. Zschokke.

1814. Mittheilungen iiber Pestalozzi's Eigenthumlichkeit, Leben und Erxie-
hungsanstnlten, von Henning (in Harnisch Schulrath).

1815. Plan d' organisation pour les ecoles primaires, par F. Cuvier. Paris.
1818. Der Kuiistyeixt, etc., oder Pestalozzi und seine Widersacher, von

Kniewel. Berlin.

1822. Wahrheit und Irrthum, von Jos. Schmidt. Wie Herr Jos. Schmidt die
Pestalozzische Anstait leitet, von Jer. Meyer. Stuttgard.

1826. Beitragznr Biographic Heinricli Pestalozzi's und zur Beleuchtung seiner
neuesten Schrift: Meine Lebensschicksale, von Ed. Biber. St. Gallen.

1827. Fellenberg' s Klatie iiber P esttdozzi. Karlsruhe. Notice sur Pestalozzi,
par M me Adele du Thon. Geneve. Notice sur Pestalozzi, par Ch. Mon-
nard, daus la Revue encyclopedique de Paris.

1828-1829. Hutoire de la Suisse, continuation tie Mutter, par Ch. Monnard.
Erinnerungen an Vater Pestalozzi, von E. Frohlich. Brugg. Pesta-
lozzische Blatter, von J. Niederer. (2 vol.) Aix-la-Chapelle.

1829. Vaterlehren, fin Vermdchtniss von Pestalozzi an seme Zoglinge t von.
H. Kriisi. Trogen.

1830. Padagogische Rede iiber Pestalozzi, etc., von Nageli. Zurich.
ly.33. Der dreimonatliche Bildungskurs, von E. Fellenberg. Bern.

1834. Pestalozzi's inedirte Brief e und letzte Schicksale, von Fellenberg. Berg.

1837. Kurze Skizze meines padagogischen Lebens, von. J. Eamsauer. Olden-
hurg.

1838. Pestalozzi's Leistungen im Erziehungsfache, von Heusaler. Basel.

1840. Erinnerungen aus meinem padagogischen Leben und Wirken, von H.
Kriisi. Stuttgard.

1841. Geschichte der Pddagogik, von D* K. Schmid. Denkschrift avf G.
H. L. Nicolovius. Bonn.

1843. Pestalozzi, von D r Bandlin. Schaffhausen. Notice sur la vie de
Pestalozzi, par E. de Guimps, dans le Journal d'Yverdon.

1845. Diesterweg, Kalhch, Massmann, Die. Feier des hundertjahrigen Geburts-
tags Pestalozzi's. Berlin. Heinrich Pestalozzi, von Diesterweg. Berlin.
Niederer's hriefe an Tobler, 1797-1803. Genf. Pestalozzi's Idee
der Menschenbi/dung. Niirnberg. Pestalozzi's Anstrengungen, von Abs.
Kalberstadt. Pestalozzi's Leben, Wollen und H irken, von Appel.
Frankfurt.

1846. Pestalozzische Blatter, von Eamsauer und Zahn. Elberfeld und Moers.
Erinnerungen aus meinem Leben bei Pestalozzi, von Ackermann.
Frankfurt. Heinrich Pestalozzi, etc., von K. J. Blochmann. Leipzig.
Die wichtigeren Grundsatze von Pestalozzi, von Probst. Liestal. Pesta-
lozziana, aus dem Januarheft : La Minerva. Erinneruniien an H.
Pestalozzi, von Elditt. Konigsberg. Vortrage an der Pcstalozziachen



APPENDIX III. 437



Feier, von Heussler, Lehrrmnn, etc. Basel. Der Geist von Vater Pe*ta+
lozzi, von D r Bandlin. Ziirich. Schu'chronik, von Zahn. N 1.
Pextnlozzi, der lievolutionjiar, von Bauer, sein Zogling. Charlottenburg.
Heinrich Pestalnzzi, von Burgwardt. Altona. Pestalozzi's Leben und
Ansichten, von Christoffel. Zurich. Kin Wort zur hrinnerung an den
hundtrtjdhrigen Geburtstag Pestalozzi's, von Collmann. Kassel. Riick-
blick auf Pestalozzi, etc., von Kortum. Heidelberg. Kin Wort iiber
Pestalozzi und seine unsterblichen Verdienste, von Diesterweg. Berlin.
Mittheilungen iiber Pestalozzi, von Kroger. Hamburg. Heinrich Pesta-
lozzi, von Lueger. Hamburg. Pestalozzi. Bed" zur Festfeier, von Eosen-
kranz. Konigsberg. Pestalozzi's Verhaltniss zum modernen Leben, von
Scheuenstuhl. Ansbach. Rede bei der Sdkularfeier Pestalozzi's, von
Thaulow. Kiel. Vorschlag zu einem Denkmal Pestalozzi's, von Weiss.
Merseburg. Pestalozzi, sein Leben und Wirken, von der Schulsynode.
Zurich. Pestalozzi's Idee der Wohnstube, Vortrag zu Winterthur.
Zurich Die Feier des Pestalozzi tages vor deutschen Frauen. Berlin.
Bcde bei der Geddchtnissfeier Pestalozzi's, von Hottinger. Zurich. Rede
bei der Pestalozzifeier, von Heer. Zurich. Pestalozzifeier in Dresden.
Leipzig. Pestalozzifeier in Hamburg. Hamburg. Pestalozzifeier in
Plauen. Plauen. Pestalozzifeier in Bernbura. Bernburg.
1847. Pestalozzi und sein Neuhof, von Jos. Schmidt. Pestalozzi, von Bagge.
Frankfurt.

1850. Etudes sur Ja vie et les travaux de Pestalozzi, ouvrage couronne par
1'institut de France, par Th. Pompee. Paris.

1851. Pestalozzi vnd Rousseau, von Zoller. Frankfurt.

1853. Biographie de H. Pestalozzi, par M lle Chavannes. Lausanne.

1854. branke, Rousseau und Pestalozzi, von Kramer. Berlin.

1855. Dinter und Pestalozzi. Schulblatt Brandenburg, von Palmer. Bran-
denburg. V.rinnerungen aus meinem Schulleben, von Lange. Potsdam.

1857. Geschichte der Pddagogik, von Baumer. Stuttgard. Pestalozzi, sa vie,

sa methode et ses prindpes, par J. Paroz. Berne.
1859. Heinrich Pestalozzi und Anna Schulthess, von Morikofer. Ziircher

Taschenbuch. Zurich.
1861. Heinrich Pestalozzi, von Boack. Leipzig. Die Schweizerische Littera-

tur des 18. Jahrhunderts, von Morikofer. Leipzig.

1863. J. H. Pestalozzi, von Schenkel. Heidelberg.

1864. Karl Ritter, ein Lebensbild, etc., von Kramer. Halle.

1865. Mein Leb a nsmorgen, von Harnisch. Berlin.



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