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DR. ARNOLD



F RUGBY







No.



EXTRACT FROM THE

B Y - L A W S

OF THE

itrfc foliates' ttibrarg

ASSOCIATION
OF SAN FRANCISCO.



This Book may be kept Three Weeks,

For each day kept over the above time, the
holder will be subject to a forfeit of five
cents.

If a work of one volume be injured or lost,
the same to be made good to the Librarian.

If a volume or more of a set of books be
injured or lost, the full value of the set must
be paid.



Press ..



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.Shell.



^ * L




Dr. Arnold of Rugby.







DR. ARNOLD.

From a Photograph published by Mr. Whit ton, Rugby.



THE WORLD'S WORKERS.



iUM

V

Dr. Arnol




BY



ROSE E. SELFE.



" This man's entire of heart and soul, discharged
Its love or hate, each unalloyed by each,
On objects worthy either." ROBERT BROWNING.




CASSELL & COMPANY, LIMITED:

LONDON, PARIS, NEW YORK <S- MELBOURNE.
[ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.]




ARTHUR PENRHYN STANLEY,

AUTHOR OF

"THE LIFE OF DR. ARNOLD,"
AND TO

THOMAS HUGHES,

AUTHOR OF

"TOM BROWN'S SCHOOL-DAYS,"

THIS BRIEF SKETCH OF THEIR MASTER

fS DEDICATED

BY THE WRITER.



CONTENTS.



CHAPTER I.
CHILDHOOD AND YOUTH



CHAPTER II.
LIFE AT LALEHAM ......... 23

CHAPTER III.
THE NEW HEAD MASTER 31

CHAPTER IV.
SCHOOL-LIFE AT RUGBY 38

CHAPTER V.
MASTER AND PUPILS 45

CHAPTER VI.
GUIDE AND FRIEND 58

CHAPTER VII.
PUBLIC SCHOOLS 68



viii CONTENTS.

PAGE

CHAPTER VIII.
THE BELOVED MASTER 80

CHAPTER IX.
LABOUR AND CONFLICT 89

CHAPTER X.
REST AND REFRESHMENT 98

CHAPTER XI.
FATHER AND CHILDREN 113

CHAPTER XII.
FROM DEATH TO LIFE ... 118





DR. ARNOLD OF RUGBY.



CHAPTER I.

CHILDHOOD AND YOUTH.

" And through thee I believe
In the noble and great who are gone."

RUGBY CHAPEL.

IN a series of biographies which treats of the
"World's Workers," it may for a moment excite
some surprise that Dr. Arnold of Rugby should
have been chosen as a subject. The life of a great
explorer like David Livingstone, or an heroic soldier
like General Gordon, would naturally find a place
in such a series ; their work was that of action, and
the value of their self-sacrificing labour for the world's
good can be seen at a glance. But work is of
different kinds, and it will be the writer's effort to
show in the pages of this little book that Dr. Arnold
belongs, in truth, to the foremost rank of those of
whom the present series treats. Work while it is
called to-day ! This message seems to come to us
like a trumpet call as we study the records of the
strenuous earnest years of Dr. Arnold's earthly career.
A favourite saying with him (quoted from a great



io THE WORLD'S WORKERS.

writer), " In this world God only and the angels may
be spectators," gives, as it were, the key-note of
his life.

The incidents of that life were, no doubt, wanting
in outside interest, the field of his work was a great
public school ; but on that field it was given to him
in large measure to do what, before his election to
the Head Mastership of Rugby, it was predicted of
him that he would do, i.e., to "change the face of
education all through the public schools of England."
Surely such a work constitutes a claim upon our
interest and admiration. What work can be nobler,
more enduring, more important than this, to feed
life at its springs, to inspire lofty aims, to awaken
to earnest purpose, to train and develop intellec-
tually, morally, and spiritually, the young hearts and
minds of those who are to be the men of the future,
and on whom so much 'of England's strength and
wisdom and prosperity must depend ? Dr. Arnold
was not only a great schoolmaster, it is true, he
was an historian,, a reformer in many departments of
Church and State ; where superstition and bigotry
were to be denounced, where social and moral abuses
were to be made public and remedied, his voice was
never silent. " I must write, or die ; " this vehement
saying of his is characteristic of his intense eagerness
and earnestness ; but though his interest in public
affairs was far too great to be passed over in silence,
yet the work he did for education is the principal






DR. ARNOLD OF RUGBY. 11

subject of this brief memoir, and to his school life at
Rugby we must chiefly confine ourselves.

No very full details of Dr. Arnold's early days
have been handed down to us, but enough remains
to show that in many important points the child was
father to the man. Thomas Arnold was born on the
1 3th of June, 1795, at West Cowes, in the Isle of
Wight. His father, who was collector of the Customs
at Cowes, died before the boy was six years old, and
at the age of eight he was sent from home to school
at Warminster, in Wiltshire. But the associations
of that early home were tenderly cherished by Dr.
Arnold to the last day of his life. He delighted in
treasuring up every particular relating to his birth
and parentage ; and from the great willow tree in his
father's grounds at Slatwoods he transplanted shoots
successively to the three homes of his later life to
Laleham, to Rugby, and to Fox How. In July, 1836,
he writes to his sister, after a visit to the Isle of
Wight :-

" Slatwoods was deeply interesting : I thought of
what Fox How might be to my children forty years
hence, and of the growth of the trees in that interval ;
but Fox How cannot be to them what Slatwoods
is to me, the only home of my childhood, while
with them Laleham and Rugby will divide their
affections ; " and it was this tender memory of and
love for his early home, which made him write in
1840:



12 THE WORLD'S WORKERS.

" If my father's place in the Isle of Wight had
never passed out of his executors' hands, I doubt
whether I ever could have built Fox How, although
in all other respects there is no comparison, to my
mind, between the Isle of Wight and Westmoreland."

This strong family feeling and loyalty to the past
is shown also by the constant love and gratitude
which he retained to the last for his aunt, Mrs. Dela-
field, to whom his mother had entrusted his education
in his earliest years. To her he writes, in 1834, on
her seventy-seventh birthday :

" This is your Birthday, on which I have thought
of you and loved you for as many years past as I can
remember. No loth of September will ever pass
without my thinking of you and loving you."

The Little Tom was one of seven or eight brothers
and sisters, and was an object of tender affection to
his own family. Some very touching letters have
been preserved from his elder brother and sister to
the little boy, which illustrate this feeling, and also
show how very early were developed many of his
tastes and interests. In May, 1800, before Tom is
five years old, his brother Matthew writes thus to him
from school :



MY DEAR

Having heard from Susanna that you have written
her a letter, I think it will be in your power to write to me also,
and answer this letter and tell me all the news you can think of.
What new books you have, whether you like the great Bible as
well as you did, how your garden and the flowers come on, and



DR. ARNOLD OF RUGBY. 13

a great many more things You may likewise tell

your Aunt that I have got a Calendar of Nature for you one of
the small sort and also the British Nepos and I will not forget
to bring it home for I think you may like to read some of it and
if not to look at the pictures. I suppose when I come home you
will be able to play about and go anywhere and we need not
fear the dirt then as I hope it will be fine weather and you will
be grown so much of a man that if it should be dirty you will
not mind it

This letter, which is signed

Your truly affectionate brother,

MATTHEW ARNOLD

shows what were the little fellow's pursuits. Books,
the great Bible, the garden, the Calendar of Nature
these are what Thomas Arnold already delights in,
as he did all through his life. Another letter from
his sister Susanna, which is endorsed " for my
dearest, DEAREST, DEAREST Tom," and begins " My
sweetest dear Tom," offers a little map which the
writer thinks may perhaps " give him amusement by
comparing it to the larger ones." She goes on

I hope you take care of the Books and letters I left under
your care. I must now go and do up my parcel of letters, as I
expect Mr. Harris every minute. Oh ! how delighted shall I be
if he brings one from you to me ; but I will not expect it, for
fear I should be again disapointed. I fear you will not be
able to read either of my notes yourself, but I know your dear
Aunt, if you ask her, will read them. Good-bye, my love, till

Midsummer Not one day passes without Fan and

my talking of you and all at Slat woods. I have hardly room
now to tell you, my darling Tom, how much I am

Your sincerely attached sister,

SUSAN ARNOLD.



14 THE WORLD'S WORKERS.

And again the same sister writes :

MY darling little TOM,

I have long been in expectation of receiving a
letter from you, but have always been disapointed. I, there-
fore, will not delay writing to you any longer but hope you will
now favour me with an answer to this, the next time Mr. Harris
conies to Salisbury. You cannot think how much I long to see
you, I hear you are got a very Idle Boy. I assure you I
promise myself great pleasure at Midsummer in walking with
you, and seeing your Garden. Fan is much delighted to find

you take such great care of her Garden I shall

expect to find you very much improved, particularly in your
reading. As I know you are fond of kissing, give our DEAREST,
DEAREST, DEAREST Mamma and Aunt ten each from Fan and
myself. Oh, how I wish I could see and kiss them myself, and
you, too, my sweet dear Tom ! I should like to know very much
if you are as fond of geography as you were last Christmas ; tell
me when you honotir us with a letter. Adieu now, my lovely Boy.
With sincerely wishing you health and happiness,

I remain your truly affectionate and loving sister,

SUE ARNOLD.

I could not forbear transcribing some passages
from these letters which lie before me in the faded
ink of eighty or ninety years ago, yet living and
fresh still in the affection which united the brothers
and sisters, and which was so characteristic of Dr.
Arnold throughout his life. From other reminis-
cences we glean facts which show the beginnings
in these early years of many of the chief interests
and employments of Dr. Arnold's later life, notably
his love for history and geography, At three years
old he received from his father a present of Smollett's
History of England as a reward for the accuracy



DK. ARNOLD OF RUGBY. 15

with which he had gone through the stories connected
with the portraits and pictures of the successive
reigns ; and at the same age he used to sit at his
aunt's table arranging his geographical cards, and
recognising by their shape at a glance the different
counties of the dissected map of England. The
earliest production of his pen that survives is a play,
written in a round childish hand before the age of
seven. This little tragedy, on " Piercy, Earl of
Northumberland," is faultless as to spelling, language,
and blank-verse metre, and the arrangement of acts
and scenes, but is not otherwise remarkable. Dr.
Arnold's love for naval and military affairs dates
from his childish days, as he tells us of his games
with rival fleets, and of his having been brought up
amidst the bustle of soldiers and sailors, and familiar
from a child with boats and ships, and the flags of
half Europe, which gave him an instinctive acquaint-
ance with geography. The battles of the Homeric
heroes were also a favourite sport with him and
his companions. A schoolfellow of his at War-
minster writes of these games : " Arnold's delight
was in preparing for some part of the Siege of Troy ;
with a stick in his right hand, and the cover of a
tin box, or any flat piece of wood, tied upon his left
arm, he would come forth to the battle, and from
Pope's Homer would pour forth fluently the challenge
or the reproach. His whole soul seemed full of the
exploits both of Greeks and Trojans, and his memory



1 6 THE WORLD'S WORKERS.

amply stored with the poet's verse. Every book he
had was easily recognised as his property by helmets
and shields, and Hectors and Achilleses, on all the
blank leaves ; many of mine had some token of his
graphic love of those heroes."

Some of Arnold's letters from this first school
have been preserved, and are remarkable as showing
the keen interest he already took in his work, and for
the criticisms they contain both of ancient and modern
books, and both in matter and manner would lead
one to the conclusion that they were written by a
much older person. The following passage from the
pen of the future Head Master, written before he was
twelve years old, is interesting :

WARMINSTER, February, 1807,

The school is certainly the world in miniature, where there
are different parties and cabals, and struggles for popularity,
the same as in the great world. The interests of the master
and scholars are the same as those of the king and people, and
it is difficult to please both ; but amidst all the various scenes in
which I am engaged, my thoughts revert to that peaceful spot
near Covves, from which I am far distant. But let not that disturb
me ; we cannot always be together.

From Warminster he went on to Winchester, at
the age of twelve.

The four years which he passed there, amid the
" downs and the clear streams and the associations
of Alfred's capital, with its tombs of kings and
prelates," were always remembered with pleasure
and affection ; and when it fell to his own lot to rule



DR. ARNOLD OF RUGBY. 17

a great public school, he remembered with gratitude
the tact in managing boys, and the skill in imparting
scholarship, shown respectively by the two successive
head masters of Winchester during his stay at the
school. Arnold was as a boy, and indeed always, of
a shy and retiring disposition ; and up to the time of
his leaving Winchester he was st^jj^^Jpnnal in
manner, and gave the impression of having been
much with older people, and being interested in '
thoughts and pursuits beyond his years. His letters
from Winchester he himself characterised as being
" generally more like essays than epistles ; " but they
are full of interest in passing events the war which
was at that time thrilling half Europe, the great fire
at Drury Lane Theatre, &c. He held strong opinions
as to the system of education then prevailing in
public schools. The custom that obtained at Win-
chester, of recitation with action, he thought
" uncommonly useless." " For what use can it be
of," he writes, " to be able to get up and spout like
an Actor ? If we were all designed for the Stage, I
should think such Lessons very necessary ; but as
Gentlemen, I do think the whole totally useless.
For the only three sorts of Eloquence in Practice in
this Country are those of the Senate, the Law, and
the Pulpit. The Pulpit only requires simple reading,
and I apprehend that a person will be but little
qualified for the Senate or the Law by having learnt at
School to spout Milton and Gray, accompanied with



1 8 THE WORLD'S WORKERS.

action which is very frequently completely ridiculous.
If they would teach their Scholars to read, they would
be of some service to them ; as it is my firm Belief
that there are not above thirty Fellows in this school
vXthat can read, even tolerably. Indeed, I think that
this neglect of teaching Boys to read is the Reason
that we so often see Clergymen in the Pulpit whose
reading would disgrace a Child of seven years old."
For this public speaking " before officers, Prebends,
the Warden, Fellows, Masters, Tutors, and I don't
know who besides," the Winchester boy of eighty
years ago thus describes his costume : " I was drest
as follows : Breeches (cords) with their strings tied in
my very best manner (bad, I am sure, is the best, you
will say), white cotton stockings, clean shoes, my best
blue Waistcoat and best Gown, a clean Neckcloth
and Band, and hands washed as white as ever Lydirfs
are ! "

Another letter gives a graphic description of " a
most dreadful siege " sustained by Arnold's dormitory
from a number of boys who had risen early " for the
Purpose of making a noise and disturbing the sleep of
others." This "most memorable Action," which Arnold
takes care to tell us took place on " the Anniversary
of the Restoration, and the still greater event of the
taking of Constantinople," and in which the missiles
employed were " Trenchers, Bread, Water, &c.," which
" rained in " (at the broken window ! ) "in a most
dreadful shower," could hardly have taken place at



DR. ARNOLD OF RUGBY. 19

Rugby under Dr. Arnold's own rule ; but he as a
school-boy enjoyed the fray immensely, and, indeed,
he seems to have been always as happy at Winchester
as he " could have been at any school," and from his
health of mind and body to have reaped the full benefit
of his public-school career, without suffering from the
evils which no doubt existed there, as in all other large
schools at that time.

So much for Dr. Arnold's boyhood up to his
sixteenth year. We may think of him when he
left Winchester for Oxford as the kind of boy
whom he himself delighted to meet with in after-days
at Rugby " morally thoughtful ; " keenly interested in y
his work, especially in history, which he read largely
at Winchester ; enthusiastic ; an ardent lover of truth ; }/
and without a grain of vanity or conceit. It is strange
to those who know the energy and activity of all his
later life to read that he was constitutionally indolent,
and that early rising was to the end a daily effort to
him. But the record of what he accomplished in life,
in spite of this tendency, only brings home to one
more forcibly the strength of his character and his
complete self-mastery. Arnold was nine years at ^
Oxford, an undergraduate for four years at Corpus
Christi, and then a Fellow of Oriel till he was twenty-
four. These years were most important ones in his
life. At Oxford he made friends with men, many of
whom afterwards became distinguished in different
walks in life ; and to one of Arnold's affectionate
B 2



20 THE WORLD'S WORKERS.

and loyal nature these friendships were of the deepest
value. His friends included Coleridge (later Chief
Justice) ; John Keble, author of " The Christian
Year;" and Whateley (later Archbishop of Dublin) ;
and with these and others Arnold read and discussed

IX' and argued ; and his own powers of mind grew in
that congenial atmosphere. When the young scholar
of Corpus was standing for the Fellowship at Oriel
in 1815, Whateley, then himself Fellow of Oriel, said,
in speaking of the relative claims of Arnold and
another candidate : " H. is the better man at present,
but there's this difference between the two Arnold

^ will grow, and H. won't." His favourite studies were
history and philosophy, but P oe ^ynowbeganto have
increased attra^tionjbrj^m, and his imaginative facul-
ties were developed, and his strong feeling for riatural
beauty was strengthened by the loveliness of Oxford
and its surroundings. To the last day of his life he
cherished a peculiar tenderness for the beautiful city,
and looked back fondly to the years when he had
made his home within its walls, and to the friends,
the studies, and the walks and expeditions of that
time. He writes in September, 1819, to an Oxford
friend, just after leaving the University, " Poor
dear old Oxford ! if I live till I am eighty, and
were to enjoy all the happiness that the warmest
wish could desire, I should never forget, or cease to
look back with something of a painful feeling on the
years we were together there, and on all the delights



DR. ARNOLD OF RUGBY. 21

that we have lost ; and I look forward with extreme
delight to my intended journey down to the audit in
October, when I shall take a long and last farewell of
my old haunts, and will, if I possibly can, yet take one
more look at Bagley Wood, and the pretty field, and
the wild stream that flows down between Bullington
and Cowley Marsh, not forgetting even your old friend,
the Lower London Road." And again, in November,
1819, to another Oxford friend :

"In the pictures that I have to form of my future
life my friends have always held a part ; . . . and
the benefits which I have received from my Oxford
friendships have been so invaluable as relating to
points of the very highest importance, that it is
impossible for me ever to forget them, or to cease to
look on them as the greatest blessings I have ever
yet enjoyed in life, and for which I have the deepest
reason to be most thankful."

All through his life there are similar references to
his beloved University to be gleaned from his letters.
Thus in February, 1833, to an Oxford friend :

" I owe you much more than I can well pay, for
your influence on my mind and character in early
life. The freshness of our Oxford life is continually
present with me, and especially of the latter part of
it. ... All that period was working for me
constant good." In March, 1835, to a former pupil:

" I am delighted that you like Oxford, nor am I
the least afraid of your liking it too much. . . .



22 THE WORLD'S WORKERS.

One admires and loves the surpassing beauty of the
place and its associations, and forms in it the most
valuable and delightful friendships. I hope you will
be at Oxford long enough to have one year, at least,
of revelling in the stores of the Oxford libraries. I
have never lost the benefit of what I enjoyed in this
respect." And such brief allusions as the following are
interesting : " I have felt lately that I am not so
young as when we skirmished in the Common Room
at Oriel, or speared on Shotover." We must not
linger over these days, " so happy and so peaceable,"
when the materials were being stored up for much of
his future labours, both in teaching and writing. The
friend who perhaps knew him best in his under-
graduate days speaks of him as having much of
boyish spirits, frolic, and simplicity ; in mind he was
vigorous, active, clear-sighted, and industrious; in
argument, bold, almost to presumption, and vehe-
ment ; in temper, easily roused to indignation, fired
by what he deemed ungenerous or unjust to others,
rather than by any sense of personal wrong ; in heart,
devout and pure, simple, sincere, affectionate, and
faithful. The gates of Oxford close behind him, and
Thomas Arnold goes forth into the world in which he
is to play so prominent and active a part.



CHAPTER II.

LIFE AT LALEHAM.

" And there are some whom a thirst
Ardent, unquenchable, fires
Not with the crowd to be spent,
Not without aim to go round
In an eddy of purposeless dust
Effort unmeaning and vain."

RUGBY CHAPEL.

WE have now come to the second stage in Dr.
Arnold's life ; he has left school and college behind
him, and is entering upon the actual work of his life
with fixed aim and purpose. And before proceeding
to examine what that work was to be, let us look for
a moment at the motives which inspired him, and at
the goal which he had set before himself. ^ The
deepest motive in the heart of this strong true man
seems to have been the idea of duty, of fulfilling the
purpose for which God haci sent him into the world.

A . | . ||| -^.^ ^^^^^J

of personal devotion and service to a living Master
and Friend, our Lord Jesus Christ. The object
before him was to advance the Kingdom of God and
His rigJiteousness. And herein lies the deep value of
the record of Dr. Arnold's life for us. Our circum-
stances may be, and probably are, entirely different
from his ; our gifts and talents fewer in number ; our



24 THE WORLDS WORKERS.

opportunities far less ; but the lesson is the same.
To do our daily work simply, earnestly, untiringly,
because God has given it to us to do, because our
Lord and Master is ever near us to encourage and
strengthen us. The secret of Dr. Arnold's greatness
simply lies here. No life, however small, but can be
made great if inspired by the spirit in which he lived.
And here I should like to say one word on a
subject which cannot fail to be of great interest to
those who know how deep and strong were Dr.
Arnold's religious convictions, and how entirely they
coloured and controlled every thought and action of
his life. He did not attain to this condition of
peace and certainty without having passed, in some
measure, through what he himself feelingly describes
as the severest of earthly trials religious doubts and
difficulties. These arose from his scrupulous con-
science and moral honesty ; he did not dare to stifle


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