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A history of the World's Columbian Exposition held in Chicago in 1893; by authority of the Board of Directors online

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ul, Form of Hand and Character, Synthetic Philosophy, the
Twofold Nature of Knowledge, Realism in Art and Literature, and many other topics discussed — Papers
by William T. Harris, W. Lutoslawski, Francis Galton, Brother Azarias, Josiah Royce, Louis J.
Block, and others.

The Congress on Evolution ....... ... 411

President Bonney's opening address— A letter from Prof. Huxley— A letter from Herbert Spencer-
Addresses by Sara A. Underwood, Rev. William J. Potter, Florence G. Buckstaff, James A. Skilton,
Prof. Haeckel, Dr. R. G. Eccles, Rev. Minot J. Savage, Rev. H. M. Simmons, Rev. James T. Bixby,
and others.

President Bonney's Closing Address .... .... 481


The Educational and Moral Value of the Exposition (written expressly for

this work by Selim Hobart Peabody) 488

What individuals learned from it, and what nations learned— How it may affect home life, educational
methods, public morals, and universal brotherhood.

Bibliography ....
Index to the Four Volumes




Portrait of Mrs. Potter Palmer

The Art Institute Building . . ...

View northwest, from the Manufactures Building
The French Government Building ....

The Swedish Government Building ....

Government Buildings of Japan and Canada

The United States Government Building

The Midway Plaisance .......

The Casino .........

The Territorial Building and the Arkansas State Building
The California State Building .....

The State Buildings of Connecticut and Colorado

The State Buildings of Florida and Delaware

The Illinois State Building ......

View southeast, from the Woman's Building

The State Buildings of Iowa and Indiana

The State Buildings of Idaho and Kansas .

Group of Delegates to the Parliament of Religions .

The State Buildings of Kentucky and Louisiana .

The State Buildings of Maryland and Minnesota

The Massachusetts State Building ....

View northwest, from the Electricity Building

The Michigan State Building

The State Buildings of Nebraska and Montana

The Missouri State Building

The State Buildings of New Hampshire and North Dakota

The New Jersey State Building ...

The New York State Building . . • .

View northeast, from the Manufactures Building

The State Buildings of Ohio and Rhode Island

The Pennsylvania State Building .

The State Buildings of South Dakota and Utah

The State Buildings of Vermont and Texas .

The Virginia State Building ....

The State Buildings of West Virginia and Wisconsin

The Washington State Building ....












Tympanum on the Manufactures Build-
ing I

Looking southwest from the roof of the

Manufactures Building . . 15

Drill of West Point Cadets on the Gov-
ernment Plaza . . 81

The Terminal Station, southwest corner

of grounds . . . .102

The Western Entrance to the Manufac-
tures Building . . .118

The India Building . . 159

View on the Lake Shoje looking south . 160

The Whaleback Steamer at the Long

Pier. . . . 179


The Maine State Building . . . 220
View southeast across the North Pond . 221
View southeast across the Lagoon . 337

A pediment on the Agriculture Build-
ing . . .... 338

Plan of the Horticultural Garden on the

AVooded Island . . . 357

Base of Obelisk in front of the Colon-
nade ..... 410

View on the Midway Plaisance looking

east . . . . 411

The South Canal . 481

A gondolier . . . 487

View on State Avenue, looking west . 488'


Rev. Lyman Abbott


Rt. Rev. Thomas U. Dudley .


The Countess of Aberdeen .

. 69

Georg Ebers .

. 170

Charles K. Adams .

■ 177

Rt. Rev. Samuel Fallows


Jane Addams .....


W. M. R. French .

. 338

James B. Angell ....

• 205

Sir Francis Galton .

• 357

Rt. Rev. B. W. Arnett .

. 291

James, Cardinal Gibbons


Rev. William W. Atterbury

• 326

Rev. Simeon Gilbert


Mrs. Rachel Foster Avery

. 18

Daniel C. Oilman .

■ 195

Rev. John H. Barrows .

. 221

Rev. Washington Gladden


Fletcher S. Bassett.

. 176

Ernst Haeckel


Sir Walter Besant .

. 163

Rev. Edward Everett Hale

• 255

Rev. James T. Bixby

• 472

G. Stanley Hall .


George R. Blanchard

. 132

William R. Harper .

• 197

Rev. George D. Boardman

• 334

William T. Harris .

. . 183

Charles Carroll Bonney .


Mrs. Charles Henrotin .

■ 13

Mrs. Maud Ballington Booth

• 65

Thomas W. Higginson

. 271

James B. Bradwell

■ 355

Mrs. Julia Ward Howe .

. 60

Mrs. Myra Bradwell

■ 27

Rev. William R. Huntington .

• 330

Rev. Frank M. Bristol .

. 276

Thomas H. Huxley

■ 447

Louis J. Block

■ 407

Most Rev. John Ireland


Francis F. Browne .

. 178

Most Rev. John J. Keane

• 250

George W. Cable .

. 167

Martin A. Knapp .

. 156

Mrs. Laura Ormiston Chant


Rabbi K. Kohler .

• 3°2

Rev. Francis E. Clark

• 307

Rev. Albert G. Lawson


Timothy Cole.


Josephine C. Locke

. 208

Rev. Joseph Cook .

. 322

Mrs. Minnie D. Louis .

. 48

Mrs. L. A. Coonley (Ward) .

• 76

Seth Low


Edward D. Cope ....

• 430

Julia Marlowe

. 41

Roland G. Curtin ....

• 98

Rev. James McCosh

. 189

Rev. Theodore L. Cuyler

. 109

Joseph S. Mitchell .

• 93

Seymour Dexter

. 148

Helena Modjeska .

• 32

Mrs. Mary Lowe Dickinson .

■ 56

Clara Morris ....

• 37

Prof. Henry Drummond

• 311

Prof. Max Muller .

. 266




J. Clark Murray 397

J. C. Peasley .


William F. Poole .


Edna Dean Proctor


Mrs. Elizabeth A. Reed .


Bradford Rhodes .


Henry Wade Rogers


George W. Ross


Josiah Royce .


Rev. Minot J. Savage


Archibald Henry Sayce


Rev. Philip Schaff .


Jacob G. Schurman


Rev. Frank Sewall .


Mrs. May Wright Sewall


L. D. Shepard


Rev. Henry M. Simmons


James A. Skilton .

• 442

F. Hopkinson Smith - .

• 349

Lady Henry Somerset .

. Ill

Rt. Rev. John L. Spalding

• 213

Herbert Spencer .

. 411

Rev. J. MacBride Sterrett

. 366

Sarah H. Stevenson

. 88

George F. Stone

. 141

Rev. Josiah Strong

. 232

Mrs. Sara A. Underwood

. 416

Francis A. Walker .

. 186

Charles Dudley Warner .

. 165

Horace White

. 118

Frances E. Willard

. 106

Frederick S. Winston

. 488

Rabbi Isaac M. Wise

. 286

Tympanum on the Manufactures Building.





Outline of the World's Congress organization and work — Number and order of the Con-
gresses — Number of addresses and of nations represented — Presi-
dent Bonney's opening speech.



President of the

World's Congress Auxiliary.

H E World's Congress Auxiliary may be con-
sidered one of the grand achievements of
the Columbian Exposition. For its breadth
and comprehensiveness of conception, for the
skill and wisdom shown in its development, and
for the magnitude of its success, the people of
our country have every reason to be grateful
and the managers of the Exposition to be
proud. The gathering of the peoples of the
world at a great exposition furnishes an oppor-
tunity for association and conference to those
who are widely scattered geographically but are
united in interests such as exists under no other
conditions. Thus at an early day appeared the
necessity of establishing a compact and efficient
working organization, which should take charge
of the arrangements of such gatherings, furnish-


ing places for assemblage, fixing the sequence and times of meeting, and giv-
ing to all a systematic and orderly supervision.

The guiding organization, sanctioned and approved by the governing
bodies of the Exposition, was granted autonomy, and worked freely, with-
out friction, on its own lines parallel with those of the Exposition, toward
the one great purpose of the illumination of mankind. The comprehensive
scheme of the World's Congresses of 1893 was the conception of Hon.
Charles C. Bonney, of Chicago, and to his tact, industry, and genius for ad-
ministering undertakings requiring a high degree of versatility and a knowl-
edge of the trend of current thought was due its orderly and successful

The Congresses were first proposed publicly by Mr. Bonney, in an article
dated September 20, 1889, and printed in the Statesman Magazine for Octo-
ber of that year. A proof sheet of this article was shown by the editor of
the Statesman, Walter Thomas Mills, to Judge L. D. Thoman, Prof. David
Swing, Thomas B. Bryan, E. Nelson Blake, the Rev. P. S. Henson, D. D.,
and the Rev. John Henry Barrows, D. D., all of whom wrote brief letters
commending the project, which were printed in connection with the article,
the historical importance of which leads to its substantial reproduction here.
It was then proposed that the World's Fair be held in 1892, and this date
was accordingly used in the announcement, which was as follows :

" The crowning glory of the World's Fair should not be the exhibit, then
to be made, of the material triumphs, industrial achievements, and mechan-
ical victories of man, however magnificent that display may be. Something
still higher and nobler is demanded by the enlightened and progressive spirit
of the present age. In connection with that important event, the world of
government, jurisprudence, finance, science, literature, education, and re-
ligion should be represented in a Congress of statesmen, jurists, financiers,
scientists, literati, teachers, and theologians, greater in numbers and more
widely representative of 'peoples, nations, and tongues' than any assemblage
which has ever yet been convened. The benefits of such a parliament of
nations would be higher and more conducive to the welfare of mankind than
those which would flow from the material exposition, though it would not be
easy to exaggerate the powerful impetus that will be given by the latter to
commerce and all the arts by which toil is lightened, the fruits of labor in-
creased, and the comforts of life augmented.

" Such a Congress, convened under circumstances so auspicious, would
surpass all previous efforts to bring about a real fraternity of nations and
unite the enlightened people of the whole earth in a general co-operation for
the attainment of the great ends for which human society is organized. It is
impossible to estimate the advantages that would result from the mere estab-
lishment of personal acquaintance and friendly relations among the leaders of
the intellectual world, who now, for the most part, know eaclj other only
through the interchange of publications and perhaps the formalities of cor-


respondence. Among the great themes that such a Congress would natu-
rally consider are the following :

" I. The grounds of fraternal union in the language, literature, domestic
life, religion, science, art, and civil institutions of different peoples.

" II. The economic, industrial, and financial problems of the age.

"III. Educational systems, their advantages and their defects, and the
means by which they may best be adapted to the recent enormous increase
in all departments of knowledge.

" IV. The practicability of a common language for use in the commercial
relations of the civilized world.

" V. International copyright and the laws of intellectual property and

"VI. Immigration and naturalization laws and the proper international
privileges of alien governments and their subjects or citizens.

"VII. The most efficient and advisable means of preventing or diminish-
ing pauperism, insanity, and crime, and of increasing productive ability, pros-
perity, and virtue throughout the world.

"VIII. International law as a bond of union and a means of mutual
protection, and how it may be enlarged, perfected, and authoritatively ex-

"IX. The establishment of the principles of judicial justice as the su-
preme law of international relations, and the general substitution of arbitra-
tion for war in the settlement of international controversies."

Advance copies of the proposal were furnished to the Chicago press and
reprinted or noticed with favorable comment, and in circular form it was sent
to all parts of the world. Remarkable favor greeted this proposal, and Mr.
Bonney was at once called upon to carry it into effect. Early in October a
general committee was appointed by the Executive Committee of the provi-
sional organization for the Columbian Exposition, and on October 15 this
committee held its first meeting. It consisted of Charles C. Bonney, Chair-
man ; Lyman J. Gage, Treasurer ; Walter Thomas Mills, Secretary ; the
Right Rev. Samuel Fallows, D. D., William J. Onahan, John J. Mitchell,
Ferdinand W. Peck, the Rev. John Henry Barrows, D. D., Julius Rosen-
thal, and John A. Neander.

The work of organization proceeded rapidly, favorable responses came
from all parts of the world, and as the plans developed the need of a larger
organization was seen. Accordingly, on October 30, 1890, the World's
Congress Auxiliary of the World's Columbian Exposition was organized
with the following-named officers : President, Charles C. Bonney ; Vice-
President, Thomas B. Bryan ; Treasurer, Lyman J. Gage ; Secretary, Benja-
min Butterworth. Howard O. Edmonds, who succeeded Mr. Butterworth
as Secretary of the Exposition, was for some time Assistant Secretary of
the Auxiliary, and was succeeded in that office by Clarence E. Young.

The official announcement of the World's Congress scheme was sent by


the Government of the United States to foreign nations in connection with
the invitation of the President of the United States to participate in the Co-
lumbian Exposition of 1893. It was at first supposed that the AuxiHary would
come within the scope of the Columbian Commission created by the act of
Congress ; but, as President Harrison expressed a doubt on this point, a for-
mal recognition of the Auxiliary in a subsequent act of Congress was pro-
cured ; and on May 25, 1892, the World's Congress Auxiliary was officially
recognized by the Senate of the United States, in a report of the Committee
on Foreign Relations, as the proper agency to conduct International Con-
gresses in connection with the World's Columbian Exposition. On June
13 of that year the diplomatic and consular officers of the United States
were directed by the Department of State to invite the cordial and hearty
co-operation of the governments to which they were accredited, and to use
their best endeavors to procure such co-operation in the series of World's Con-
gresses then projected. On October 21, 1892, the inaugural ceremonies of
the World's Congresses were held, in connection with the dedication of the
buildings erected for the Exposition, in the Chicago Auditorium, with Arch-
bishop John Ireland as the orator of the occasion.

The World's Congresses were held in what was called the Permanent
Memorial Art Palace, erected on the shore of Lake Michigan, near the heart
of Chicago, through the co-operation of the Directory of the World's
Columbian Exposition and the Directors of the Art Institute of Chicago.
The city contributed the site, the Art Institute furnished about $400,000,
and the Directory of the Exposition supplied the sum of $200,000 on
condition that the building should be completed and furnished for the
uses of the World's Congress Auxiliary during the Exposition season, from
May to October. This structure, now called the Art Institute, is a massive
building three stories high, in antique style, three hundred and nineteen feet
in front on Michigan Avenue, at the intersection of Adams Street, and
has two wings extending eastwardly one hundred and seventy-six feet. It
contains thirty-three halls, which were calculated to accommodate one
hundred to seven hundred persons each ; and between the two wings were
erected two large audience rooms with seats for nearly three thousand per-
sons, and standing room for perhaps a thousand more in each. The north
room was named the Hall of Columbus ; the south one, the Hall of Wash-
ington. It was estimated that the entire building would hold more than
twelve thousand persons, and on many occasions — especially during the
Women's Congress, the Educational Congresses, and particularly the Reli-
gious Congresses — the building was found inadequate to the demands of
the occasion. The structure was not finished until about July i, but was
taken by the Auxiliary before May i and occupied by the Congresses, which
began on the 15th of that month. No accident or disturbance worth men-
tioning occurred during the entire World's Congress season.

The general meetings were held, for the most part, in the great audience


rooms, and the meetings of the divisions and sections of the Congress De-
partments in the smaller halls. The applications for times and places were
so numerous that long before the Congresses were opened it became ex-
tremely difficult to find suitable accommodations for a new congress.

Besides the $200,000 contributed for the erection of a building, the Ex-
position Directory also expended in the support of the World's Congress
work about $80,000, and it is estimated that the various Committees of
Organization also raised and expended about $17,500 more, making, with a
Governmental appropriation of $2,500, the total expenditures for the Con-
gresses about $300,000.

As finally organized, the World's Congress Auxiliary consisted of a cen-
tral organization authorized by the Directory of the World's Columbian
Exposition, and recognized by the Government of the United States as the .
proper agency to conduct a series of World's Congresses in connection with
the Exposition, made up of 2,170 members, divided into 214 local Com-
mittees of Organization. To these local Committees of Organization were
adjoined what were called Advisory Councils, comprising the non-resident
members of the Congress, and consisting of persons eminent in the work
involved, selected from all parts of the world, and co-operating with the
local committees by correspondence and, wherever practicable, in person.
The aggregate membership of these Advisory Councils was 14,528. The
chairman of each Committee of Organization was director of the Congress
committed to its charge, and the president of the Auxiliary was the general
director of the whole series of the Congresses. There were also general
honorary and corresponding members, invited to give their advice and co-
operation to the whole series of Congresses ; also committees of co-operation
appointed by particular organizations and recognized by the Auxiliary as
representatives of societies and institutions. The honorary membership em-
braced many distinguished names, including those of King Oscar of Sweden
and Norway, Lord Chief Justice Coleridge of England, Lord Tennyson,
Cardinal Manning, Prof. Max Miiller, Dr. Georg Ebers, of Germany, Prof.
De Laveleye, of Belgium, presidents of colleges and universities, foreign
ministers of the United States, and many scientists.

Joint committees of men and women were not appointed ; but for Con-
gresses suitable for the participation of women, a committee of women was
appointed, with the right to meet and act separately or in conference with
the committee of men, as occasion might render desirable. A degree of
freedom, independence, and equality otherwise impossible was thus secured,
and at the same time the best facilities for any useful co-operation were pro-
vided. These committees of women constituted what was called the
Woman's Branch of the World's Congress Auxiliary. Of this branch Mrs.
Potter Palmer was President and Mrs. Charles Henrotin Vice-President.
The other members of the original committee of women were Mrs. Henry
M. Wilmarth, Mrs. J. M. Flower, Miss Frances E. Willard, Mrs. J Young


Scammon, Mrs. Myra Bradwell, Mrs. John C. Coonley, Mrs. R. Hall
McCormick, Mrs. O. W. Potter, Mrs. A. H. Chetlain, Mrs. Wirt Dexter,
Dr. Sarah Hackett Stevenson, Miss Nina Gray Lunt, Mrs. Leander Stone,
and Miss N. Halstead.

The work of the World's Congresses was divided into twenty depart-
ments and two hundred and twenty-four general divisions, in which Con-
gresses were held. These, in their chronological order, were as follows :

I. Woman's Progress, 25 divisions.

II. PubHc Press, 6 divisions.

III. Medicine and Surgery, 6 divisions.

IV. Temperance, 12 divisions.

V. Moral and Social Reform, 15 divisions.

VI. Commerce and Finance, 10 divisions.

VII. Music, 9 divisions.

VIII. Literature, 9 divisions.

IX. Education, First Series, 17 divisions; Second Series, 16 divisions.

X. Engineering, 9 divisions.

XI. Art, 5 divisions.

XII. Government, 7 divisions.

XIII. General Department, i division, besides 4 divisions held out of
their regular order and here transferred to their proper places.

XIV. Science and Philosophy, 13 divisions.

XV. Social and Economic Science, 4 divisions.

XVI. Labor, i division.

XVII. Religion, 46 divisions.

XVIII. Sunday Rest, i division.

XIX. PubHc Health, i division.

XX. Agriculture, 1 1 divisions.

The programmes also show 125 sections, of which 29 were of the nature
of the general divisions.

These Congresses held 1,283 sessions, aggregating 753 days. The printed
programmes show 5,978 addresses delivered or papers read, including 5,454
formal contributions, 131 addresses of welcome, 176 addresses of response,
and 217 agricultural reports. But these are much less than the actual num-
ber, for many papers and addresses were admitted after the programmes
were printed, and were inserted in the corrected programmes used by the
presiding officers.

An alphabetical index shows 5,822 speakers and writers whose names
appear on the printed programmes, including 368 cases in which the name
of the paper to be read or subject discussed is not given. These partici-
pants in the Congresses represented all the continents and 97 nations
states, provinces, territories, and colonies, besides 50 States and Territories
of the American Union. The tables show the different occasions on
which the 3,817 speakers and writers, whose places of residence appear, took


part in the Congress proceedings. This extremely interesting exhibit is as
follows :

Europe 803, Asia 104, Africa 41, North America 2,770, South America
48, Australasia 39, Pacific Islands 12. The places represented and the
number of entries are : Algeria 5, Angola i, Arabia i, Argentine 7, Armenia
I, Asia Minor i, Australia 8, Austria 35, Bavaria 5, Belgium 19, Bohemia 7,
Brazil 6, British Guiana 4, Bulgaria 5, Burmah i, Canada 39, Cape Colony

3, Ceylon 6, Chili i, China 14, Colombia 3, Congo 3, Corea i, Costa Rica

4, Cuba 3, Curagoa 2, Denmark 17, Ecuador 3, Egypt 15, England 200,
Finland 7, France 99, French Congo i, Germany 112, Great Britain 113,
Greece 11, Guatemala i, Hanover i, Hayti 3, Holland 16, Honduras i,
Hungary 2, Iceland 5, India 31, Ireland 10, Italy 52, Jamaica 2, Japan 28,
Johore 3, Liberia 4, Madagascar i, Manitoba 3, Mexico 23, Monaco i. New
Brunswick 2, New Hebrides 2, New South Wales 19, New Zealand i,
Nicaragua 2, Northwest Territories (Canada) i, Norway 9, Nova Scotia i,
Ontario 30, Orange Free State 3, Paraguay 4, Persia 3, Peru 3, Poland 3,
Portugal 7, Quebec 15, Roumania 3, Russia 39, Sandwich Islands 7, Saxony
I, Scotland 41, Siam 4, Siberia i, South Africa 3, South Australia 3, Spain
13, Straits Settlements 2, Sweden 33, Switzerland 20, Syria 7, Transylvania
I, Trinidad 2, Tunis i. Turkey 11, United States of America 2,641, Uru-
guay 3, Venezuela 9, Victoria 6, Wales 4, Wtirtemberg i. The representa-
tion of the United States was : Alabama 20, Alaska 2, Arizona 7, Arkansas
19, California 113, Colorado 34, Connecticut 50, Delaware 3, District of

Online LibraryRossiter JohnsonA history of the World's Columbian Exposition held in Chicago in 1893; by authority of the Board of Directors → online text (page 1 of 67)