Roy J. (Roy Joseph) Deferrari.

Lucian's Atticism; the morphology of the verb online

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Sovaw of TONP.*

C. Contract Verbs with Other Forms of the Present

I. -aoj, -afw; -aw, -aiw etc.

ireipaw, 7retpofw. iretpafw is an epic and late prose word. 29
Tretpao/xai- with its perfect Treirei.pap.evos is found in papyri, 30
but in the N. T. iceipa^w is always used for 7retpdco. 31 Forms

2 * Ocypus: ireivuvT 122.
26 Lobeck 205 note.
26 Blass 58.
* Schmid I 161.

" Schmid I 369 incorrectly credits Lucian with £vp&u.
*Note also Parasitus: xpqcrflcu fiN^r 2 x 9 * <r 6 a 1 ZAr' 17, but in 20 and
elsewhere in Lucian all mss. agree on Attic xpv"6ai.
Soloecista: xpaaBau (7) is condemned.
2 ' Kiihner s. v.
10 Mayser 406, Cronert 274.
81 Blass 59.



COLLATERAL PRESENT TENSES 3 1

of ireipAco and xeip&fw never occur in Lucian without a variant. 32
An incorrect variant occurs in 22-21 , eireipadris TfiU kiretpa<r8ris N,

rexv&a), rexv&fa. Lobeck draws a fine distinction of meaning
between rexvau and rexvafa. rexvau means to execute a
thing with cunning skill, with a crafty motive in view; rexva^u
is to execute a thing as an ordinary artisan, with no ulterior
motive. 33 rexvau occurs three times in Lucian, and rexvau
once without variants, but no such distinction is observed.

3-2 ob nr)xaviic6s ovros yevdpevos, troths 8e Kal kinvorjaat ....
rb pev yap rod 'EireioD iravv apxatov, Us ov phvov rexvf)aa<r8at rots
'AxatoTs rbv lirirov. . . . \eyerai.

29-I btrbaa kirl ireipa rfjs pavriKrjs tirirexvuvrai. avrQ apvtia
upea Kal x^Xciyas hpovres.

57-13 K-o-ra pmpbv avrots k7n.Texvi1p.eva1 tous ipuras.

79-1-2 Prometheus speaks to Zeus, oide aTropr)aeis beap&v,
1\v ti rexvafav a\LcrK<iip,ai. (Should be rexvau according to
Lobeck).

Thus a decision is difficult in 42-41, erexvr)aaro r$J2F* 2
irexvaaaro BSE'.

The verbs Kvalu, icvau, nvi£u are all equally good Attic. 34
They occur to a like degree in Lucian as follows, walu 8-8,
19-16, 77-23-1; ivau 15-21, 29-34, 41-"; K"tfw 15-27, 67-5,
80-10-4. It is impossible to decide between the two variants
in 74— 9 r > KaraKvriffO) N KaraKviau T. In 29— I, KviioaoOai (7)
has the odd variant ak^>i)caadai (0).

yeivau. The mss. show considerable confusion between
ydvopai, yevvupai, and yiyvopai; cf. 13— 34 yevvarat (7), ylyvtrai
(/S) ; 26-17 yevopevu T yevvupkvu (right) other mss. In 20-1, it
is difficult to choose between yeivapkvu (/3) and yevvupkvu (7).
The one is supported by the Homeric line quoted in 65-8, the
other by 26-17.

Koipaw is by far more frequent than /coi/ufco in Lucian,
appearing 27 times. Koiptfu is used three times without a
variant, 21-1, 73-44 twice. In the following cases of variants,
the first forms have the better authority, 60-6 icoi.prj<rai F
noipioai NA, 73-44 noipiaavra T$AC Koiprjcrai. Q.

apaw, <7m4x«- Both Moeris and Phrynichus condemn

32 7r«pdfo) occurs in Podagra 149 without a variant; and in 166 with a
variant, mireipavTcu. TK wemlparai N.

33 Lobeck 477.
u Kuhner 462 f .



32 lucian's atticism : THE morphology of the verb

oytijxw as Hellenistic. It does occur chiefly in late Greek
(Paus., Strabo, Porphyr., Themist. etc. 36 ), but it also occurs
in Homer, and once or twice in tragedy. The Koivi\ use of
this word, then, comes from an ancient source. 36

Both Attic aixao) and Hellenistic oytfa" are rare in Lucian;
37-29 o-judco, 28-14 aTTOVixiifievov T 2 UN kiroa^unuvov T 1 *; 25-54
07117x0, as a quotation in 31-28.

ba<i>paivonai is the true Attic form, and b<r<ppao(iai. is late. 37
In the papyri of Herculaneum, the late form batppaopai occurs
several times, but ba<ppalvop.ai never. 38 Aristides uses bafypaonai,
and Aelian has the post-classical aorist batppria&nevos. 39

In Lucian this verb occurs but once without a variant, 25-45
6a-<j>paiv6p.evoi.. In 28-48, the late present ba^parai has been
printed in all editions except Sommerbrodt's. Nearly all
mss., however, differ in the reading; botpparat U, wacpparai A,
oxr^parai N, cos 4>kpoiro TQ. Ms. N, it seems, has preserved
the true reading (conjectured by Somm.) — i. e. the perfect
of bcrcfrpalvonai, which goes best with the context; & a <j> p ar a 1
rod xpvv'wv, irkt}oiov rj5Tj kcTiv. tyavcrw, e iXij tttoj , avaa-
■jra.awp.tv. In2l-I5, NAPS have iia^prjaOai, editions ba<ppkaBai,
TO, (correctly) bqcppalveadai.

ireravmifii. is the common verb in Attic, and irtraw is very
rare until Hellenistic times. 40 The forms in Lucian are all
derived from the present irerawvui, except kvairerSicai in 15—21,
which must come from the late avaireraco. The regular
perfect of this verb is xeirra^at. This form occurs nine times
in Lucian, 8-4, 10-3, 10-6, 25-19, 25-41, 29-17, 36-3, 56-25,
77-1-2. In 22-29, however, the late form of the perfect
occurs as a variant in the /3 family, and hitherto it has been
incorrectly published in editions; avaTkirraTcu, T$ (avarer-
pairrai Q) dvaireweTaaTai UNA. 41

2. -eca, -tfco; -ew, -i&>; -ew, -euco; etc.
bpuku, opjutfco. Only a single instance of each verb occurs
without a variant, bpixtlv 73-24, bpixiaavres 14-6. The dis-

36 Lobeck 253 f.

86 Rutherford 322.

37 Kuhner 506.

38 Cronert 273.

39 Schmid II 32, III 43.
<° Kuhner II 515.

41 Abdicatus: tvawetcTankvos 27.
Saltatio: &vaweirTanb>os 85.



COLLATERAL PRESENT TENSES 33

tinction in meaning between " being at anchor " and " com-
ing to anchor " should be applied in settling on the following
variants; 13-10 &pfiicrap,tvoi. fiNS bpp.i\aap.a>oi TFZ, 13-42
bpp.iaap.woi. fiSP bpfiijaafievoi TFN, 34-34 bpy.iaai.ntv r 2 ON
dpfifrawev T^A, 73-9 Kadopp.laaadai. NAC KaBopiir/aaaBai I\

xeipku and x«pff" in compound sometimes stand as variants
of each other. In 14-46, where Tfi read Trpoxapvcatitvos
for Tpoxeipiffafievos of flNSZP, and in 31-12, where A has irpo-
X^priadixtvov for irpoxtipiaap.evov of TNfi, the first forms are
false, since the verb it p o x«p«>> is unknown. In 34-20,
e7rix«ipiff« of IV for kirexelpyae of T$fiN is incorrect, since the
meaning of the first is not admitted by the context. But hyxu-
pkw and kyxeipifa have the same meaning, so that it is more
difficult to settle the following cases of disagreement, 38-4
iyxti.pi.cai 3>flB kyxa.prjaai I\ 73-33 kvexeipiaav $AC kvtx<^P"\aav
TD. The first readings, however, are preferable, since hyx*ip£<>>
never occurs elsewhere, and hyxeipifa appears without a variant
in 23-3, 24-5, 36-42, 47-8, 55-45, 57-53, 57-59, 65-1 1, 65-12,
65-14.

Kovku is the usual verb in Attic prose, and mv'ua occurs in
early poetry and late prose. 42 Both Aelian and Philostratus
use Kovlo). iS Lucian uses these synonyms about equally:
Koviw 14-14, 14-46. 26-1, 34-35, 36-21, 37-4; kovIw 19-3,

25-45. 37-3. 37-6, 37-31. 79-24-1-

Kv\iv&ec>>, Kv\'ua, nvickeca, KvXivSco. Kv\iv8ku is an epic verb
which has been taken over by late prose; e. g. N. T., Polybius,
and Epictetus. 44 Aelian uses /cvWSeco but more frequently
the late kuXiw. 45 Philostratus uses kv\Lu.** Lucian uses the
late forms Kv\iv8ku and kvX'm more frequently than KwcXew
and KvXtvSw. 47 They occur as follows: KvKivSku 26-3, 26-5,
37-1, 40-12, 51-3, 78-5-1, 79-6-2; Kv\'ua 37-6, 40-8, 41-3,
55-44, 59-3° (<" xiw °)> 59-3* (iKi)\i<re $), 61-4; KvXivSoj 57-15-
The following forms may be derived from either Kv\iv8a or
kuXiw, 3-6 kyuvhiaaaBai, 59-4 nvXiaai, 59-57 k&Xio-e, 59 _6 3

K«K&X«TT<U. 48

Kuhner II 463.

« Schmid III 206, IV 311.

« Kuhner II 453. Blass 58.

« Schmid III 246.

« Schmid IV 363.

47 Cobet (133) is too sweeping in his corrections.

48 Amores: kvkKovvtcs 18.
Asinus: KiiXtd/ievos 5.

Lexiphanes: elffecfaXijre TEA uoenviikuje N Aaadih-urt (tis) Q 8.



34 lucian's atticism: the morphology of the verb

diciKopiu, BiaKopehu. In classical Greek, the only case of
this verb, as far as I know, is fatnbpevae Arist. Thesm. 480.
Only SiaKopeoi appears in Lucian without a variant; 57-25
dicLKopfras, 78-13-2 diaKvcoprjadai (double tradition). 49 In two
other cases Sianopku has SiaKopefoo as a variant ; 78-7-1 8teic6p7i<rev y
SieicSpevaev j3, 78-13-1 SieKoprjaas y Sieaopevo-as /3. In 80-II-2,
where r is lacking, NF read 5iaKeKopwixkvrjv against $i,a.Ke\tvoiikvi}v
of Z. Thus the y group consistently reads Siaicopku, and the /3
group alone twice out of four times has SiaKopevu. It seems
best to read SiaKopeu throughout in Lucian.

The verb nvdio/xai, is found 15 times without a variant,
9-8, 34-27, 38-6, 40-1, 40-24, 55-6, 55-13, 57-31, 57-33,
57-41, 57-58, 57-6o, 61-30, 73-14, 77-28-3- In 10^20,
nvBeverai 50 (both groups of mss.), a late form of the verb,
occurs in a sentence or two of Ionic, put into the mouth of
Herodotus. The correction to nvdkerai. seems well founded,
since the change of the unfamiliar form into the Koivij would
be easy.

a.Tro<ra<jjk<a occurs three times without a variant, 20-14,
27-14, 55-11. The only case of airoaa^rivi^o) is in 21-27,
where NACD incorrectly have it for dxoa-a$«o of TQ.

As to £6&) and £ko, a slight preference is shown for the former,
which occurs five times without a variant, 8-27, 17-33, 41-
17, 70-62, 73-45. 51 £ea> is used in 32-2, 32-6, 59-51. Vari-
ants appear in 29-1 1 airo^vofievoi. TUNSFAC airel-wnkvoi &we£e-
aop-hot, A, 27-10 &x6£u<7W Tfi airo^ea-ov UN.

Both purro) and pixreco in the present system are good Attic. 52
Lobeck believes that pt-vrkw in contradistinction to plwro
means " to throw away with vehemence." This may have
been true originally, but among late writers, piirrku is used
more often than piirrui, and apparently loses all distinction in
meaning. 63 In papyri, piirrw is used slightly more than
pLTTko). bi Both forms occur equally in the N. T. 66

Dio Chrysostom, Aristides, and Philostratus use purree
to some extent. 66 Lucian shows only a slight preference for

** Dindorf wrongly emends to £taK«cop6u<rd<u.

M vxBtbta appears in Euripides, Aristotle, Strabo.

61 Lexiphanes: iivdnriv 5.

" Kuhner II 532.

" Schmid II 81 f.

" Mayser 408, Cronert 275, 224 note 4.

" Blass 60.

»« Schmid I 134, II 8l, IV 226.



COLLATERAL PRESENT TENSES 35

piTT«, and apparently keeps no distinction in meaning:
i>iicTu 1-6, 1-12, 17-36, 17-44, 17-45. 21-28, 50-24, 59-7,
59-10; finrTiu 13-41, 25-12, 36-5, 37-27, 63-10, 65-10, 70-28."

X&o, xfow. 68 x«", not xbvu, is used by Alciphron. 8 ' Lucian
uses x&> 47 times without a variant. Lucian condemns
xvvu in 51-29. The only occurrence of xvm in Lucian is an
incorrect reading in 50-29, 'tKKexvixkvov AC inxwd/ievov TQ.

The present of \k<a is always contracted regularly in Lucian. 60
The imperfect contracts regularly, e. g. kirkxa 55-7. The
form -kxee in compound (15-23, 29-34, 79-25 -1 ) is from the
Attic aorist «x«a- 61 Aelian, Aristides, and Alciphron also
use this aorist always in compound. 62

3- -oo), -tfw; -ow, evii)

fevlfw is by far preferred to leww, n times (22-8, 24-1,
36-24, 37-16, 51-11, 59-25, 59-45, 64-14, 76-6, 76-7, 79-
23-2) to three (10-2, 29-7, 51-2). 63

irarraXevco, iroTTaX6«. 64 iraTrdXevu is the true Attic form,
being found in the tragedians. varraKSu is a late formation,
and occurs in a scholion to Aristophanes's Birds 436 and in
Suidas. The Attic Trai-raXeuo) occurs three times in Lucian
without a variant, 19-13 twice, 23-2. In 78-14-3, y incorrectly
reads TpoffTeiraTraXufikvrjv for irpoaireira.TTa\&)iJ.kvr)v of (3. 6B

D. Other Collateral Forms, and Orthographical Variations
-1- or -«-, -co- or -o-, etc.

In Lucian there are three cases of SeSirTOficu. without a
variant, 10-22, 40-4, 63-4. In 34-31 T$ and in 61-4 TB have
the mis-spelling 5eSe££o/«u. 66

According to Cronert 67 iXi77iaco rather than 61X1771001 is

67 Asinus: jttirru 31; frnrrkw 44.
Saltatio: (turrit,) 83.

M Cf . Lobeck 726.

» I 6-2, III 29-1, III 29-3.

M 69-3 1 ? »*»ox«'» epic uncontracted form.

81 Cf. Meisterhans 182.

68 Schmid III 19. All excluded treatises have x&">> not xfmu.
68 Amores: iirtZe/obiuBa 7.

Lexiphanes: |«<£foi (f«c£f6i A) 20.

64 For the tt or aa cf . p.

66 Amores: vpo<rirtTaTTa\tviiivov in quotation 43.

*• Soloecista: BtSiTTo/tat 5.

« 7 Page 29.



36 lucian's atticism : THE morphology of the verb

the correct spelling. This verb as l\iyyi.au occurs twice in
Lucian (24-11, 78-9-2). In 57-30, however, T has the poorer
spelling el\iyyt.6,cravTes for iXiyyi&aravTes of BA.

ifiau never appears without a variant. In each of the three
instances of this verb (6-6, 14-42, 19-17), r writes tip.- alone.

vUfrco, Wfco, 68 and vItttw occur once each in 24-26, 14-34,
19-15 respectively. In 14-14, vi<po> has the late collateral
form vei^xii as a variant and probably incorrectly so; KaTavi<j>ei
/3 Ka.Tavd4>ei y.* 9

In 5-8, vtv e w \KriiMevov stands without a variant. A form
of incorrect v eo X/c&<> occurs once as a variant in 77-22-2,
veoikKr\(Ta.s y vedXuriaas j3. In 26-3, the aorist vea>\Krjcrai in rfiMBC
has the variant veaikKvcrai in NA.

In general 7rAcotf« is used by the older authors (Thucydides,
Hesiod), and irXotfco by late writers (Strabo, Polybius, Dio-
dorus, Heliodorus, Photius, etc.). 70 Lucian has only two
instances of this verb, in neither of which do the mss. agree.
On the authority of T and the most significant mss. of the /3
family, w\otfa is to be preferred; 27-26 ir\6i$6p.evov TU*
TrKoii^bfievov N, 59 _ 62 ir\o'i^op.kve>3v TEHG ir\cci^op.evo3v $S2NAA.

aeiSo) in Lucian is always contracted into £5«. In 17-4
aei.adp,eda is quoted.

In the mss. of various authors, the form ecopew occurs often
as a variant of alwpku. In Lucian, forms of aiwpkco occur five
times, 26-15, 59-8, 63-10, 73-44, 78-14-3. In the three
additional cases of this verb, r alone against the other mss.
has kuipkoi; 26-16 aloipovp-evos BN ecopovpevos V, 59-29 aiojpeladai.
NA kupeiadcu T, 63-4 alup&v MNA eoop&v T. n

yLyv&oiiu, yiyvoficu (yivuxrKoi, ylvopai). According to Moeris,
the longer forms (717'') are true Attic, and the shorter
(71?) Hellenistic. From the beginning of the kowti the yiv-
forms began to appear in Attic inscriptions with ever greater
frequency. 72 In papyri, the forms yiyvwaiaa and 7171^01
occur only in Classical words, and here as orthographical infil-
trations. The forms yivcccKw and yivofiat (not seldom ydvop.at)

88 N. T. has Atttoi for Wfw (Blass 43).

09 Amores: &wovi\j/i.iicvos 39, 44.

Lexiphanes: KaravLQw 15.

*> Cf. Lobeck 614.

71 Asinus: al&pa N* kwpei T 9.

Podagra: oiupel 300.

n Meisterhans 75.



COLLATERAL PRESENT TENSES



37



appear exclusively from 277 B. C. on. 73 Callinicus 74 and
Philostratus Maior 76 always use the shorter formation, but
Herodian has not quite displaced the 717P- by the ytv- forms.
The shorter forms too are constant in the N. T. 76 and the
church fathers. 77

The longer Attic forms cropped up again in the later period
among certain Atticists. Aristides- always and Philostratus
generally employs yiyvopai and yiyvoxricu. Philemon, Herodes,
and Aelian on the other hand, follow the noivii in having
yivofiai and yivutwca exclusively. 78



No.


yiyvoiLa*


yivofiai


Variants


yiypwerKitf


ytviiiiTKia


Variants


9


I





2





2





14


O


2


4


O


3


O


17


I


2


O


O


3


3


19


I


I


O


O


2





24


I


2


3


O


3





25


O


4


1


O


2





26


I


3


2





1


1


28





1


2





1





31





1





I


8





34


9





1


2





3


37


24





1


2


1





38


2


1


6


I





4


41


1


3


2





2


1


42


4


1


4


I


1


2


43





2


1


O


1


1


50





1


1





1


2


59


2





3





1


3


60








2











61


2





3





3


1


62








3





1





65


1





2





1





70


12





1


5





1


77


3


5


2





4





78


3


3


2











79





4


1





2





80


2


3








2






In Lucian, statistics show that there are nearly two cases
of ylyvonai to one of yivofiai (116 to 63 exclusive of variants),

" Mayser 164, Cronert 91.
74 yivixnctiv IOO-24.

Kylpo/uu, 3IO-II, 342-25i 394-9. 299-2, etc.; ywtiaKa 294-19, 318-26,
321-12, etc.

76 Blass 55.

77 ylvoiiai Diog. Il-I, I Clem. 23-4 cet, Bar. 6-19, H Man. 4-1-5 etc. •
etc.; ytv&xriuo I Clem. 12-5, I Clem. 18-3 cit, Rom. 5-3, H Vis. 5-3, H Sim-
5-3 etc., etc.

78 Schmid II 29, IV 579.



38 lucian's atticism: the morphology of the verb

but three cases of yiv&ricu to one of ytyuuffKu (45 to 13 ex-
clusive of variants). This ratio, however, does not run at
all evenly throughout the corpus of treatises. We find the
widest of variations, i. e. from a ratio of 24 to o (37) in favor
of yiyvoiiai to 6 to o (13) in favor of yivopcu, from 8 to I (31)
for yiviHTicw to 5 to o (70) for yiyvdifficu. Thus a comparison
of the total number of different forms does not show the true
aspect of the case.

It is noteworthy that, where cases of the verb of " knowing "
occur, there is a correspondence in form within the same
piece with the verb of " becoming " (see table on page 37.)

This correspondence between the two verbs indicates that
no existing individual ms. or group of mss. has been extensively
tampered with, and that most of the discrepancies go back to
the common archetype.

The statistics for the other pieces are:



No.


yiyvo/iai


ylvofiat


Variants


yvydxricia


yiviatJKM


Variants


I


I














O


2


I


O


O








O


3


O


O


I


O





O


7





4














8


7














O


10


1





I








O


11





1











O


13





6


9











15





3


4








I


20


3





3











21


6





1


I








22


1





1








I


23








3








I


27

















I


29








1








2


30


1


3


2








I


32


3














O


36


9


1














40


1


1











I


47


2





1


.





O


51


2


1











I


52


3

















55


1

















56


1


1














57





2


2








2


60








2











66








1








O


68


1














O


70


12





1


5





I


71


1














O


73


1





2








I


76





2


1











78


3


3


2












COLLATERAL PRESENT TENSES 39

It is seen from the two tables that the great majority of
the treatises (all except nos. 8, 9, 20, 32, 34, 36, 38, 39, 42,
5 2 . 59. 61 , 70) have a preponderance of the y'umpai forms.
In eight pieces alone (8, 21, 32, 34, 36, 37, 52, 70) are the
yiyponai forms used almost exclusively. In these eight pieces,
however, the instances of yiyvopai total 73, and it is these few
pieces which give a false impression in a comparison of the
sum totals of the different forms. This particular concen-
tration of the stem 7171/- is due to the orthography of the
scribes of these particular portions of the common arche-
type of all our present mss. Thus it appears that the
archetype most often had the stem 71c- for both verbs, and
that the general tendency of scribes has always been to change
the yiv- forms to 717V-. It is also probable that the opposite
tendency took place to some extent, according to the orthog-
raphy of the individual scribes of succeeding mss. Many of
the changes may have been made unconsciously, since both
stems were probably pronounced in the same manner. 79

The verb " to flay " occurs butbnce in Lucian in the present
system, and in this case (51-20) avaSkpeiv not ivaSeipeiv is
used.

kpeffX « X««» £p«cx V X&o. If Schmid may be trusted on this
point, the mss. of Dio Chrysostom, Aristides, and Philostratus
read ipeox « X&o. 80 This reading too is general among Classi-
cal authors. Both spellings are found in the mss. of Lucian;

Single trzd.V- IO J pe ° xv lr ay -
I 9-15 epeaxr/AOUVTOS 7-

D bl t d / 34_32 tpevx&tiv 7NJV.

I 77~ l 6~3 tpwx&ovvra 7NAB 2 kpeffxy^ovvra SFB 1 .

The spelling of the common original was either inconsistent
or inconsistently corrected. 81

Oappkw, Bapakw. Herodian says truly that Bappku is Attic.
The combination pp (except for foreign proper names) appears
on all the early Attic inscriptions. 82 In papyri Oapuka is the
usual form, and dappku appears only in the later papyri. This
writing of per beside pp is Ionic and Thucydidean, but also

79 All the excluded pieces except the Saltatio and Soloecista show a
decided preference for the yw- forms.

80 Schmid I 142, II 300, III 165, IV 250.

*' Lexiphanes: kparxv^" TE kptcx^" N 14.
82 Meisterhans 100 f.



40 lucian's atticism: the morphology of the verb

in part a peculiarity of the koiki?. 83 Polybius wavers between
6app and 6ap<r. Both forms likewise occur in the N. T., but
with a preference for 6ap<rkw. M The church fathers always
use p<r. ss

Among the Atticists, Aelian 86 always uses dappka, while
Philostratus 87 and Alciphron 88 have both. In Lucian dapper
appears in 59 cases, all in the present tense. Forms of dapaeu
without variants occur twice, of which dapayaas 34-24 is the
only case of the aorist in either form. The other -pa- form is
Oapoei 21-3, but this is in verse (paratragoedia) . The follow-
ing variants appear, 34-31 dapayauv r$0 dappyauv NA, 73-19
ddppei AC dapvei T$N, 79-4-3 dappet /30 dapaa TF. 89

dpvXkaj is the Attic spelling, but dpvWica crept in through
inferior mss. 90 Philostratus always has Opv\kio. n This
verb occurs only twice in Lucian. In 11-1, ms. authority
favors the better spelling; TrpoTt6pv\r)p.evov TflBUIS irpoTedpvXhri-
fikvov NZACY. In 24-33, where Til show buTtdpvW-ijTo, UNA
SiedpvWeiTo, Bekker, followed by Dindorf and Fritzche, con-
jectures 8ieTedop{if}r]To. In the case of the verbal adjective
7roXi/0p£iXjjTos (20-3, 24-30, 29-21, 52-13) the evidence is strong
for the older spelling; only the NA branch of the group
writes iroXvdpvWriTos. 92

According to Moeris and the scholion to Aristophanes's
Plutus 62, the forms /cdw and kX&w are Attic, and Kaiw and
/cXaiw Hellenistic. Meisterhans, however, finds only koico
on two inscriptions of the fifth century B.C., and no evidence
whatever for koco. 93 Mayser finds both forms of these verbs
on papyri. 94 Callinicus and the church fathers use both Kalo>

83 Schmid IV 12.

84 Blass 25.

86 Bapai/aas H Vis. 4-I-8, Oapaovs Mar. 1 2-1, 0&p<rm H Vis. 3-I-5.

86 Schmid III 130.

87 Schmid IV 12.

m BappG>(<-) I 8-1, 6apoui(e) IV 14-6, BapaaKias I 7.

89 Abdicatus: TtBappi/Kdrois 4.
Asinus: 6appku> 2, 12, 14, 22.
Lexiphanes: Bappku I, 23.
Tyrannicida: Bapptai 9-, 16, 21.

90 Mayser 212, Cronert 75.
•» Schmid IV 181.

M Demosthenes: SiaTeBpvS.rja9ai 17.
Parasitus: BpvXoiiuvov Q 6pvK\obp,ei>ov rNZ*A 22.
"Page 178.
•* Page 104 ff.



COLLATERAL PRESENT TENSES 41

and /cXaiw exclusively. 95 Alciphron has a single case of kXAco,
otherwise /caiu and /cXatw. 95 It is generally agreed, however,
that this question is purely orthographical. 97

Of the cases without variants, Lucian uses nalu 27 times,
k&w twice, /cXaico once, and xXdw five times, /caiw occurs in
1-8, i-ii, 13-34, I4-I. 14- 2 . 14-4. 14-n. 14-27, 14-29,
15-5. 15-17. 15-19. 23-19, 26-22, 32-17, 38-9, 42-30, 42-39.
55-22, 55-25, 55-31, 56-7 twice, 60-4, 60-9, 62-5, 65-2,
80-12-2. The only cases of /cow are 55-25 and 55-26. For
this piece, however, collations of TF alone are available,
and those of N are still to be noted. 98 In the following cases
of variants, Kalo> rather than k&os should be read, 13-40 acaUro
ZPNFp kKaero TQS, 28-52 iy/catere T$fiM kyK&ere BUN, 30-5
Kawfiivris TfiAC Kao/ikvris BN Kvo/ikvr)s JV, 40-8 Katdfievoi TFNA
Kaofievoi BU^fiM, 78-4-2 mkiv TfiFAAC Kaeiv B.

The single instance of zcXcuw (50-24) echoes the same form in
a preceding quotation from Homer, and so can hardly count.
On the other hand kXAw appears five times without a variant,
the first four of which are preserved through a double tradition;
27-13, 50-20 (quotation), 80-11-1, 80-11-2, 70^23. In the
following variants kXow is preferable, 27-14 «Xaeis UN icXafcis
TQ, 77-22-2 hcKaov B IkKoliov TQ, 77-17-1 xXdeis B /cXa£«s $0, 80-
8-3 ^Xaev NF exXatec Z, 40-24 ic\aeiv TfiMN* Khaieiv A KaXei UB. W

Xijtt7roj'co is very rare in Attic. 100 It appears for the first
time with Xei7rw on Attic inscriptions from the middle of the
fourth century B. C. 101 In papyri, Xi/tirovw does occur but
not as often as Xeiirco. 102 Of the Atticists, Aelian uses forms


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