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AGRIO. DEPT.



PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMA COL L F E T G H E E OF J



DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE.



BULLETIN No. 48.



EXHIBITING FRUIT AND VEGETABLES.



-BY



R. M. WIN5LOW, B.S.A., Provincial Herticulturist.




PRINTED BY
AUTHORITY OF THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY.



VICTORIA, B.C. :

1'rlnted by WILLIAM H. CULLIN, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.

1913.



DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,

VICTORIA, B.C., January 15th, 1913.

Hon. Price Ellison,

Minister of Agriculture.

SIR, I have the honour to transmit herewith Bulletin No. 48,
entitled ''Exhibiting Fruit and Vegetables," compiled by II. M.
Winslow, B.S.A., Provincial Horticulturist

I have the honour to be.

Sir,
Your obedient servant,

WM. E. SCOTT,
Deputy Minister of Agriculture.



TABLE OF CONTENTS.



PAGE.

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

Exhibition of Fruit 5

Standards of Perfection 5

Score-card for Plates of Apples or Pear-s . . . . . . . . 9

Score-card for Plates of Peaches . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

Score-card for Plates of Plums and Prunes 10

Score-card for Plates of Seedlings 11

Plate Collections Score-cards . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

Boxes of Apples, Pears, Peaches Score-cards 12

Preparation of Fruit for Exhibition 13

Exhibition of Garden Vegetables 15

Standards of Perfection for Vegetables . . . . . . . . . . 15

Prize-list, Vegetables 24

Commercial Classes Vegetables 25

Collection Classes Vegetables 26

Adapting this Prize-list to Individual Fairs 26

Mixing Garden and Field Classes 26

Rules and Regulations relating to Fruit and Vegetable Sections . . 27

Prize-lists Formation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

Revision of Prize-lists . 32



EXHIBITING FRUIT AND VEGETABLES.



INTRODUCTION.

FOR a number of years past the Horticultural Branch of the Department
of Agriculture has been supplying judges for fruit, and to a certain
extent for vegetables, for the numerous fairs of the Province. This was
undertaken primarily in order to establish uniform and correct standards of
perfection, which the indiscriminate choice of judges by each local fair had
previously failed to do. The reports of the exhibition officials and exhibitors
indicate that, to a very large extent, uniformly correct judging standards have
now been established and maintained.

It is also the desire to use the information so acquired by the Horticul-
tural Branch to modify the prize-lists of the different fairs in such ways as
to promote the culture of the best varieties of fruits and vegetables by giving
the greatest prize-money to such varieties ; by providing for commercial displays
in order to educate exhibitors in the commercial methods of packing; and
generally to build up exhibitions by inspiring their officials to keep well abreast
of the progress of horticulture in their districts.

The work of the Horticultural Branch has been of great assistance to
exhibitors in the identification of varieties; in disseminating a knowledge of
the various blemishes to which fruit is subject; and to a very large extent in
promoting general information on what is ideal in fruit-production. This work,
having been carried on for several years, has given general satisfaction. There
has been a great improvement in the fairs, and the offer made by the Depart-
ment to have the prize-lists of the various fairs revised at the end of each
year by the Horticultural Branch has been generally taken up. This matter
was discussed at the last Agricultural Fairs Association meeting at Victoria,
and the following resolution passed:

" Be it Resolved, That this meeting is fully in accord with the general
principles of prize-list revision as stated before us by the Provincial Horticul-
turist, and we recommend that the various agricultural associations consult
with the Department of Agriculture on the necessary revision."

Our officials found much room for improvement in the choice of products
for exhibition, in their preparation, nomenclature, and arrangement, and we
have been able to make many recommendations in the revision of prize-lists.
A general demand has been created for information along many of these lines,
but more especially with regard to the score-cards used and the standards of
perfection for the various types of fruits and vegetables, and it is to meet this
demand that the present circular has been prepared.

EXHIBITION OF FRUIT.

STANDARDS OF PERFECTION.

The first step in preparing the exhibit of fruit is to get a mental picture
of the ideal first prize exhibit. Of course, the entry must comply with the
rules and regulations of the association, and be entered in due form and staged
correctly on time and place; but the fruit itself must have a high degree of
intrinsic merit if it is to excel in competition. There are certain standards
of perfection which are accepted as ideal, and in proportion as the exhibits
approach the perfect ideal they should receive awards.



6

The standards of perfection discussed here are the results of much experi-
ence. They have been reached as the result of observation during a number
of years at the fairs of this Province and in the apple regions of the United
States, and in them endeavour has been made to emphasize those qualities
of fruit, in their proper relative proportions, whidi, when attained, give fruit
pre-eminence.

In answering the question, What is the standard of perfection? we say
of a plate of fruit that it must be free from blemishes and in good condition,
of normal shape and size for the variety, and for purposes of consumption
of the highest possible colour, uniform in all respects, and of high quality
for the variety.

In collections of fruit there must be, in addition, correct nomenclature,
commercial value, proper selection to cover the season, and the various uses
in consumption, and attractive arrangement. For packed fruit there must
be in addition to the form. size, condition, uniformity, and freedom from
blemishes proper packing and attractiveness of package; so that standards
take in many points, and must be discussed separately.

There are, however, certain principles upon which all our standards are
based, and upon which our score-cards are prepared- These principles will be
first discussed, and, following them, the various standards and score-cards
separately.

THE SIZE OF FBCTT.

This is a point on which there is much misunderstanding. Many seem
to consider that for exhibition the largest size is the perfect size. This is
manifestly absurd. Fruit is mainly to eat, partly to look at, and its consump-
tion value should rule in exhibition as in use. This principle has been in
much confusion, but the point now stands as clearly defined. In some varieties
of fruits, however, which in British Columbia do not attain the size they do
in more southerly regions, the market demands the size to which it has been
accustomed, and when this size is secured at only moderate sacrifice of quality
and none of colour, as in plums, prunes, and peaches, the size should be large.
The most desired sizes for each fruit will be discussed under their separate
headings.



Colour, like size, is an obvious quality of fruits, and is one in demand.
Colour is popular because it appeals to the eye, and is also usually associated
with quality. In all our fruits the highest possible amount of colour is
demanded. At the same time it must not be secured at the expense of other
qualities. Some very highly coloured fruit is so because of some injury to
the tree, or from undue exposure of the fruit to sun or warmth. Such fruit
would lose points on condition. The colour must be healthy and attractive, as
well as high, and must be typical of the best in the variety. Any abnormality
of colour scores low, on type and colour both.

FORM.

In shape, the fruit must be true to the type of the variety, as commonly
known. Some varieties vary widely in different districts. In extreme cases
the off-shape fruit must be scored down. In many varieties of irregular or
unsymmetrical form, individual fruits may be chosen that excel in uniformity
and regularity, and while they may score high on uniformity, they may be
so off-type as to be disqualified for form. There is, then, a medium between
the extremes that scores well both ways. For this reason it is desirable to
choose fruits rather more uniform than the usual type of the variety.



UNIFORMITY.

This quality is most important in all classes of fruits. The individual
specimens that comprise the entry should be as nearly alike as possible. They
should each approach the common ideal, which ideal is, of course, the perfect
one for the variety and for its intended use. Uniformity gives attractive-
ness to what, without it, would be a collection of unattractive specimens.
Uniformity is also the fundamental of successful packing, and is the basis of
fruit-grading; in itself it also helps to sell the fruit.

Uniformity applies to colour, size, shape, and condition. Some varieties
of fruit are much more variable in shape than others, as, for instance,
Wagener and Mclntosh, as compared with Wealthy, Jonathan, and Northern
Spy ; and in such irregular varieties such perfect smoothness as is expected
in the latter kinds is not typical of the variety, and so would lose points
under " Form."

FREEDOM FROM BLEMISHES AND CONDITION.

It is a fundamental in exhibiting fruit that it should be perfect : free
from all blemishes, whether they cause actual waste or merely disfigurements.
This seems a most obvious axiom, and yet much fruit is shown with most
apparent defects. Just how to deal with fruit infected with disease is often
a problem with the judge, especially at fairs in new districts, or those where
fruit is of secondary importance, as in many Coast sections. To disqualify
all infected fruit would discourage earnest exhibitors, and would sometimes
result in awards going to fruit much inferior in all other essential points.
Our judges are therefore instructed to use their best judgment on this point,
but to be as firm as possible, and to discourage the display of diseased
specimens.

Blemishes are of four main sorts :

(1.) Insect injuries, which are generally obvious. Most of these, especially
the presence of scale-insects, should disqualify at once.

(2.) Fungous diseases, especially apple and pear scab, brown-rot of the
stone-fruits, etc., for the display of which there is but little excuse.

(3.) Physiological troubles, prominent among which are fruit-pit (or
Baldwin spot) and water-core, for both of which fruit should always be dis-
qualified.

(4.) Mechanical injuries, such as hail-marks, bruises, punctures of the
skin, etc. Many of these, especially slight bruises and healed-over injuries of
any kind, are considered the least injurious. The absence of the stems is,
however, evidence of gross carelessness and should disqualify exhibits of
apples, pears, and plums, as it leads to early decay of the fruit. With prunes,
it is hard to keep the stems on, and it is unnecessary, as breaking-off of the
stem does not with these cause decay. In fact, prunes wither less where the
stems are removed.

POLISHING.

Unless local regulations and sentiment are distinctly against wiping and
polishing, apples and pears may be so prepared. We are aware that this
practice is forbidden in the prize-lists of many of our fairs, but the rule is
now much more honoured in the breach than in the observance. We believe
that it is a regulation which might well be abolished altogether. The large
shows all allow polishing. It really does not affect keeping quality.

CONDITION.

This refers to the stage of ripeness. Specimens of varieties past season
should be in reasonably firm condition, and prizes should be awarded to the



8

entries not past condition at the show. Fruit so far past season as to be
unsightly should not be shown. Winter fruits are not supposed to be of
mature eating quality at the fall fairs, but they should be firm and in a normal
stage of growth for the time of year, not too far advanced, which indicates
short keeping qualities, and not so immature as to suggest possible failure to
properly mature before frosts.

QUALITY.

On the score-cards quality is the combination of flavour, sweetness, texture,
etc., that constitutes edibility. The term includes the quality of the fruit for
preserving or cooking, as well as for dessert purposes. It will be noticed that
there is no place allowed for quality in score-cards for plates of one variety,
or boxes of one variety. This is because it is assumed that all exhibits of
one variety are equal in quality. If not, then the one more deficient in colour
and condition would be of least quality, and would be scored down on those
points. Where varieties compete against each other, however, the question of
quality must be considered as of primary importance, and receives a place
on the score-card in consequence. It is also considered in deciding on the
merits of collections, and is very important in giving awards for the " any
other variety " class, as well as that for seedlings or new varieties.

In commercial exhibits, quality also includes shipping qualities and the
standing of the variety in the estimation of the market. The variety that
ships best and is best liked on the market gets favourable consideration on
these advantages.

In deciding on quality, which, by the way. is a very hard thing to define,
and to quite a surprising extent a subject for a great difference of opinion,
the judge does not test the different varieties, but gives each a score based
on his knowledge of the general estimate of it.

With seedlings and new varieties, however, it is necessary for him to
sample them, and make awards according to his personal judgment.

COMMERCIAL VALUE.

This is scored in collections only, as in box classes each variety is supposed
to have a class for itself. The judge does not decide on the commercial
value of the specimens on exhibition, but takes the general verdict of the
markets to which the fruit of the district normally goes as to the average
value of each variety. It is important to- note that the commercial value of
the variety as locally produced is considered, not its value as produced in
fruit districts in general. Where a district is not yet at the marketing stage,
the judge will make as correct an estimate as possible of the relative com-
mercial values of the varieties in competition.

NOMENCLATURE.

Fruits shall be correctly named. In plate fruits, where it is assumed that
all the plates are named (and this should be required), the judge may dis-
qualify for omission or misnaming. In this latter case, he will, if possible,
make the necessary correction. In collections, it is expected that there may
be some defects in nomenclature, and scoring will be based accordingly. The
names of varieties should be insisted on in all exhibits, and especially in
collections and commercial displays, because their absence greatly detracts
from the educational value of the decision. Labels should be neat, legible,
and convenient to see, but should not be pasted or pinned to the fruit.

SEASON.

The period of time at which fruit is edible is its season. In most seedlings,
or in " any other varieties," the longer-keeping variety would have the most



desirable season. With the seedling apple, we would give full points for one
keeping into April or May. In soft fruits, the season of use should be long,
so that fruit will hold up well, and it should come at a time when that fruit
is likely to be in demand, or when there are no other desirable varieties. In
collections for home use, the season implies a long range, from early till late,
so that there should be a supply at all times throughout the year. In com-
mercial collections, the varieties should include the principal commercial kinds,
and especially those which come at a time of most demand. The commercial
collection should, in other words, give a succession of varieties most in demand
on the market at the times they are in demand.

PACKAGE AND PACKING.

For commercial fruit-production, packages and packing must be of the
highest standard. The package must be adaptable to the fruit, reasonable in
cost, sufficiently strong, and attractive 1 . The packages used in British Columbia
meet these requirements to a reasonable degree. Packing must result in a
compact, firm, full, attractive pack. This will be considered in detail under
the proper heading.

PLATES OF APPLES OR PEARS.

Size 15

Colour 25

Uniformity 25

Form 15

Freedom from blemishes and condition 20

NOTE. Score-cards are not used for actual judging of plate fruits, except in the
closest competition. The judge can carry in his mind the relative importance of the
points mentioned. All judges are instructed, however, to use the score-card occa
sionally to secure harmony with it, and consequently uniformity.

Size (15 points). Apples and pears should be of medium sizes. Jonathan
and Spitzenberg should be about 138's ; Snow and Cox's Orange, 175's ; Spy and
Mclntosh Red, 125's ; other dessert varieties in similar proportion. For show-
ing in the United States, choose fruits one to two sizes larger, because in that
country they have a fruit-stand trade that wants larger apples, and the
American apple-box takes slightly larger sizes of fruit to better advantage.
For Canadian conditions, we believe we are well advised in choosing the sizes
as above for British Columbia. It is in medium sizes that the greatest quality,
colour, and length of keeping are secured. There is a tendency in British
Columbia to grow apples and pears to the oversizes, especially because most
trees are young. In cooking varieties, larger sizes are demanded, as, for
example, 112's for Rhode Island Greening. Varieties such as Alexander,
Beitegheimer, and Wolf River, whose large size is their recommendation,
should be as large as possible, consistent with perfect colour, shape, freedom
from blemishes, and condition. Size is not the most important factor, how-
ever, for colour, uniformity, and freedom from blemish are each given a higher
score. Because it is such an obvious quality, however, it usually receives
undue consideration. In many of the newer fruit districts, where most of the
fruit shown is from young trees, consequently large and low-coloured, the
awarding of prizes to fruit of proper size and colour gave apparent prefer-
ence to the smallest fruit shown. Some exhibitors consequently went to the
opposite extreme, and concluded that the smallest fruit was most desired, and
were disappointed at the next exhibition on receiving no award against normal-
sized fruit.

Pears are usually shown oversized; 2% inches in diameter is about correct
for the Bartlett, 2~y 2 inches for Flemish Beauty, and other varieties in pro-
portion.



10

Colour (25 points). Colour should be as high as possible, consistent with
the type of variety in the district. Red varieties of apples should be red all
over. Blush varieties should have a good blush on the cheek. Green and
yellow varieties should have as much red as can be secured, but the clearness
of the green or yellow colour is of first importance in such varieties. Russet
varieties should be evenly russeted all over, and bright-reddish russet rather
than green. The same colour rules apply to pears as to apples.

Uniformity (25 points). Absolute uniformity is desired, especially in
colour and size, because these are the two main points in grading.

Form (15 points). Form should be correct for the variety and district,
but is not so important as colour and uniformity. It would be impossible to
describe the correct type of each of the various varieties, even for one district,
and the local type varies, especially between the Coast and the Interior.
Generally, the apple which grows from the centre blossom of a cluster is most
typical, and should be shown : in fact, to get uniformity in form ind type, all
apples should be so chosen. Type can only be learned by study and practical
handling of the different varieties. In varieties of irregular form, an ideal
rather more regular than the average is likely to be favoured, because of its
uniformity.

Freedom from Blemishes and Condition (20 points). The presence of
fruit-pit and water-core is especially to be guarded against. Stems of all kinds
should be intact, though the ends may be clipped if long.

PLATES OF PEACHES.

Size 20

Colour 25

Uniformity 20

Form 15

Freedom from blemishes and condition 20

100

Size (20 points). Size is a more important point with peaches. The
market demands them of the largest size. In the exhibition of late varieties,
sizes from GO'S to 72's are most desirable.

Colour (25 points). Colour should be as high as possible, and specimens
should be absolutely uniform in all respects. The form should be typical of
the variety.

Freedom from blemishes is usually easy to get, but exhibitors must be
careful to avoid split pits, which are very easily overlooked, while small bruises,
not apparent at the time the fruit is set up, begin to show by the time it
is judged.

In condition, the peaches should be firm.

PLATES OF PLUMS AND PRUNES.

Size 25

Colour 15

Uniformity i'.".

Form 10

Freedom from blemishes and condition 25

100

They should be the largest obtainable for the variety, consistent with other
points. Colour should be typical in tone, uniform, and as high as possible.
Uniformity is fairly easy to secure, and is expected in a high degree. In form
the fruit should be smooth and typical of the variety.



11

Freedom from blemishes is important, and such things as split pit and
gummy pit, as in Pond's Seedling, may be easily overlooked. The greatest
care should be taken to have the stems intact in all varieties of plums, because
usually when the stem is lost the skin is broken, and decay will set in. Slight
skin-punctures not readily apparent will quickly lead to brown-rot in many
districts. Fruit should be firm and in first-class condition. If brought from
cold-storage it should not have any moisture condensed on it. Preferably, the
bloom should be preserved. The stems need not be left on prunes.

PLATES OF SEEDLINGS AND FRUITS LISTED UNDER " ANY OTHER VARIETY."

Size 15

Colour 20

Uniformity 10

Form 15

Freedom from blemishes 10

Quality 25

Season 5

100

These are very unsatisfactory classes to judge. Plates of seedlings, to
receive awards, should excel most commercial varieties under culture locally,
in colour, uniformity, quality, and in season, while the specimens exhibited
should have good commercial size, and especially should be free from all
blemishes. As little or nothing as to their commercial value can be told from
the plateful of apples, we do not consider this class of much value.

The " any other variety " class is eminently unsatisfactory to all concerned,
for similar reasons. It is usual to award but one set of prizes for the whole
collection displayed under this heading. Many good varieties go unrecognized,
and their owners feel, justly, that there may be several plates each of which
is perfectly worthy of first prize on its variety merits.

We recommend the abolition of this class from prize-lists. If a variety
is worthy of a prize, let it be featured as a variety.

PLATE COLLECTIONS OF APPLES, PEARS, PLUMS, PEACHES, AND OTHER FRUITS

FOR HOME ORCHARD.

Size 5

Colour 15

Uniformity 10

Form 10

Freedom from blemish 20

Quality 15

Commercial value 10

Nomenclature 5

Season 10

100

In this collection, which is a very worthy one, and one which should be
included in ajl prize-lists, there are the same requirements for size, colour,
uniformity, form, freedom from blemish, and condition as are required of the
individual varieties in their respective plate classes. As different varieties are
shown in the different collections, however, their quality must be taken into
consideration, and this is given 15 points. Commercial value is considered to
the extent of 10 points, because a great part of the product of the home
orchard should be of value commercially to provide for the sale of excess
yields. A wide range of varieties over the season is desired, and so is a



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range over the different uses to which the fruit is put dessert, cooking,
jamming, preserving, etc. Collections of not more than twenty-five varieties
are expected, and a number of varieties beyond such limit should not be
encouraged.

Nomenclature should be correct, for one of"?the greatest values of such
collection is to aid new-comers and intending planters to choose the most
desirable varieties for the purpose.


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Online LibraryRoy Maywood WinslowExhibiting fruit and vegetables → online text (page 1 of 4)