Copyright
Royal Robbins.

The world displayed in its history and geography : ... To which is added an outline of modern geography online

. (page 1 of 73)
Online LibraryRoyal RobbinsThe world displayed in its history and geography : ... To which is added an outline of modern geography → online text (page 1 of 73)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


ft/

'

%t






\



IP




LIBRARY OF THE



ty of California.



C / R C ULA TING B R A N C //..



Eetuin in *w



or a weak before the end of the



\



THE



WORLD DISPLAYED



IN ITS



HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY ;



EMBRACING A



HISTORY OF THE WORLD,



FROM THE



CREATION TO THE PRESENT DAY.



WITH GENERAL VIEWS OF THE POLITICS, RELIGION, MILITARY AND NAVAL-

AFFAIRS, ARTS, LITERATURE, MANNERS, CUSTOMS, AND SOCIETY,

OF ANCIENT AS WELL AS MODERN NATIONS.



BY REV. ROYAL ROBBINS.

\ %

TO WHICH IS ADDED,

AN OUTLINE OF MODERN GEOGRAPHY.



TWO VOLUMES IN ONE.

VOL. 1.




NEW YORK.
PUBLISHED BY H.. SAVAGE.

1839.



3*-)





Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1835,

By EDWARD HOPKINS,
In the Clerk's office of the District Court of Connecticut



PUBLISHERS' NOTICE.



THE Volume here offered to the public, had its
origin in the belief, that a Historical and Geo-
graphical View of the World, united in one work,
and constructed on the plan here adopted, would
be an acceptable addition to the already multi-
plied stock of book for general reading. The
plan of the work is original, and is believed to
offer many advantages. It divides Ancient and
Modern History into twenty distinct periods, and
then gives a detail of the events during each of
them. At the end of every period is a detailed
biography of many eminent individuals who flou-
rished during the same, and a sketch is given of
the progress of the arts, of science, and of litera-
ture. Hence a clear delineation of the advance-
ment of human society, and its various revolutions,
is exhibited ; and the reader can easily trace not
only the particular history of each country and
people, but can keep in view, at the same time,
the grand movements of the nations, regarded as
one common family.

In order to perfect the plan originally contem-
plated by the author, the volume has been in-



PUBLISHERS' NOTICE.

creased far beyond what was at first anticipated-
nearly one hundred pages have been added ; an
advance which, it is believed, will be gratifying
to the patrons of the work, and sufficiently attest
the wish of the publishers to make it in every
way satisfactory to them.

The System of Modern Geography is of course
a condensed one but it will be found fully ade
quate to the purposes for which it is attached to
the volume.

On the whole, as no expense has been spared,
and as the Author, whose reputation as a histori-
cal writer is of the first order, has bestowed un-
wearied pains upon the work, we commit the
volume to the public, with much confidence that
it will be received with favour.



CONTENTS.



INTRODUCTION.



Benefits to be expected from history,
Sources of history, .



Ten periods, . .

Antediluvian World, .
Distinguished Characters,

Deluge,

History of Assyria,

China, .

Egypt,
Distinguistad Characters,

History of the Hebrews,
Canaanites,
Greece,



GENERAL DIVISION.

*

Period L





Period II



Period III.



Egypt, continued,
Chin



hina, continued,
Distinguished Character!, .

History of the Israelites, .

Canaanites, continued,

Phoenicians,

Greece, continued,

Egypt, continued,

Lydia,

Italy,

Distinguished Characters,

History of the Israelites, continued,
Greece, continued,
Macedon,

Assyria, continued,
Egypt, continued,
Phoinicians, continued,
Carthage,
Italy, continued,

Distinguished Characters,

History of the Romans,

Greece, continued,

Israelites, continued,

Jews,

Nineveh,

Babylon,

Medes,

Persia,

Lydians, continued,

Egypt, continued,
Distinguished Characters)



Period IV.



Period F.



Period VL



7
8



U
17













H












it












23












24













26
23
80
82
33
JW











* aej

89










59










40










42










43










43










44













4?












49












52












62












53












63












53












64












65



.












57


d,












64


ued,












66














67














68














68














69














70


led,












72


,












72


.








i


*


> ""3



vf



CONTENTS.



History of Greece, continued, ,
Romans, continued,
Egypt, continued,
Persia, continued,
Macedon, continued,

Distinguished Characters,

History of Greece, continued,

Rome, continued,

Sicily,

Syria,

Jews, continued,

Egypt, continued,

Parthia,

China, continued,
Distinguished Character's,

History of Rome, continued,
Syria, continued,
Jews, continued,
Egypt, continued,
Partnia, continued,

Distinguished Characters,

History of Rome, continued,
Judea, continued,
Egypt, continued,
Parthia, continued,

Distinguished Characters,



Period VII.



Period VIH



Period IX.



Period X.



GENERAL, VIEWS.



Antediluvian World. Surface of the Earth, Seasons, Population and Longevity,

Religion, Arts and Sciences, Government, Commerce, : : :

Assyria, (including Bahylonia) Government and Laws, Religion, Customs,

Learning, Arts, : : : : : : : :

China. Geography, Government, Religion, Sciences and Arts, : :

Egypt. Situation, Name and Division, Cities, Monuments and Works of Art,
Government and Laws, Mythology, Education, Domestic Habits, Manners and
Customs, Literature and Arts, Trade, Language, : : : :

Hebrews. Remains of Ancient Works, Cities, Religion, Government, Manners

and Customs, Learning, Arts, Commerce, : : : :

Canaanites. Customs, Manners, Arts and Sciences. Religion, : :

Greece. Appearance and Face of the Country, Situation, Extent and Division,
Names, Interesting Localities, Cities, Government, Military Affairs, Naval
Affairs, Religion, Literature, Arts, Private and Domestic Life, : :

Phoenicians. Country, Cities and Remains, Navigation and Colonies, Sciences,

Aits and Manufactures, Religion, : : : : :

Lydiana. Country, Cities, Character, Customs, : : : :

Romans. Country, its Name, Situation and Division, Interesting Localities,
Capital of Italy, and Sect of the Roman Empire, Political State, Religion,
Military Affairs, Fleets, Agriculture, Amusements and Public Spectacles,
Education, Literature, Arts, Domestic Life and Manners, Foreign Commerce,
Syria. Situation and Cities, Character of the Ancient Syrians, Language,
Carthage. Extent, Government and Character, : : :

Parthia. Situation, &c. :::::.

Persia. Extent and Situation, Education, Punishments, Military Art,
Mythology of Ancient Nations, : : : : :

Discoveries. Inventions, and Improvements of Early Ages,



K!
89
89
90
91



94

100
109
109
111
112
113
113
114



117
124
125
126
126
127



128
147
147
149
149



154

157
160



162

167
170



171

193
194



195
216
217
217
217
219
223



INTRODUCTION.



1. The term History comprehends a record of all the remarkable
transactions which have taken place among the human family. It
is the collected result of individual experience in every age and na-
tion ; and is, consequently, a source of practical wisdom to legislators
and rulers, and of profitable reflection to private persons.

The benefits to be expected from history deserve a few remarks in detail.
When it is written with a proper spirit, and in strict agreement with facts, there
is scarcely any branch of letters so well calculated to furnish an agreeable re-
laxation to the student ; to improve his understanding- and enlarge his stores
of useful knowledge ; or, in general, to subserve the cause of morality and re-
ligion in human society.

From the infinite variety of aspects in which history presents the dealings
of Providence, and from the immense number of characters and incidents
which it brings into view, it becomes a source of perpetual interest and enjoy
mcnt. The novelist, with all the license he possesses to imagine such physi-
cal and moral combinations as he pleases, cannot clothe his subject with hall
the attractions which a reflecting mind attaches to true narrative.

The view of past ages fills the mind with a sublime and pleasing melancholy.
We dwell with deep and tender emotion on the actions, sufferings, and changes
of those who were " bone of our bones, and flesh of our flesh" we regret that
some of them should ever have lived to disorder the world with their crimes,
and that others should have died, to leave it without the benefit of their con-
tinued active labours.

History improves our understanding, and enlarges our stores of useful
knowledge, by bringing to our assistance the experience of others the expe-
i ienoe of all time ; by making us acquainted with human nature ; by delivering
the mind from bigotry and prejudice from narrow and sectional feelings ; by
opening to us the springs of human affairs, and the causes of the rise, great-
ness, decline, and fall of empires.

There is something in the picture of the generations before us, of their
achievements and projects ; of their manners, pursuits, and attainments ; of
their mode of thinking and acting; of their religion, government, and litera-
ture ; which, going beyond the gratification of curiosity, or storing the mind
with mere ideas, teaches us wisdom, by the comparison of their situation with
our own, and by a great variety of interesting reflections naturally suggested
to our thoughts.

From the whole that history presents us, we deduce conclusions that have
an important bearing on human happiness and virtue. This we consider as
the most signal benefit derivable from the record of past ages. It gives us,
in connexion with revelation, which furnishes a most interesting portion of
the world's history, a correct estimate of life and of human nature in all its va-
riety. It shows us how man has acted according to his own pleasure, whether
uprightly or wickedly, and, at the same time, how God has conducted the
train of events to bring about the purposes of His wisdom and grace.

Speaking in the way of aphorism, history is a record of what God has done,
and of what he has cither enabled or suffered man to do, on the stage of the
world. Even, therefore, without the direct comments of the writer, which
nevertheless are due, we can derive important instruction froirj it ; and can
hardly help being impressed with the grandeur or solemnity of the movements
{-f Providence, in the deatiny of nations.



INTRODUCTION.

In short, it is here that we are supplied with the most rational entertainment,
and our faculties of imagination, memory, reason, and judgment, are put to a
most agreeable and salutary exercise. It is here we learn political science and
philosophy; we ascertain the necessity of government, the blessings of civili-
zation, the progress of reason and society ; and especially it is here we see

" a God employed
In all the good and ill that chequer life,"

and in all the events that have a bearing on the interests of true religion.

2. History is derived to us from various sources, differing in de-
grees of authenticity, but in general illustrating and confirming one
another. The principal sources are the narratives of writers, whose
knowledge of the events they describe may have been acquired by
personal observation; inspection of public documents ; poetic le-
gends; and oral tradition. In addition to these, there are several
other sources that are highly valuable, supplying the want of direct
and regular narrative, such as monuments, ruins, coins, &c.

Monuments on the surface of the ground, such as pillars and heaps of slone
or earth, since they are intended to perpetuate the knowledge of important
events, throw some light on the proper subjects of history.

Ruins indicate the existence of arts and wisdom in ancient times, which are
Btill astonishing to the civilized world. They afford a knowledge of antiquity,
which description, in many cases, could never supply. Such are the ruins thai
exitin Egypt, the Holy Land, Greece, and Italy, in their cities, temples, aque
ducts, columns, &c.

Coins and medals offer very valuable means of historical information.
They have often been examined and studied for that purpose, are abundant,
and some of them possess considerable antiquity. The oldest known, belong
o the 5th century B. C.

Inscriptions on marble may be mentioned as another source of history.
The Arundelian marbles, so called from the earl of Arundel, who brought
them from Greece into England, are the most celebrated collection of marbles
bearing inscriptions, and thus communicating knowledge of antiquity. The
Chronicle of Paros is the most important of these inscriptions, as it contain?)
the chronology of Athens, from the time of Cecrops 1582, commonly put
B. C, to 264 B. C.




ANCIENT HISTORY,



GENERAL DIVISION.

HISTORY may be divided into two great parts, viz. An
cient and Modern. Ancient History includes a period of
4004 years, and extends from the Creation of the World to the
Nativity of Jesus Christ. Modern History includes a period
of 1829 years, and extends from the Nativity of Jesus Christ,
to the present time.

Observations. Ancient History, which is the subject of this vo-
lume, comprehending an account of the Creation, and the grand
events connected with it ; of the fall of man ; of the deluge ; of the
origin of nations ; and of the principles, achievements, manners,
habits, religion, learning, &c. of the early race of mortals, is equally
curious and instructive.

PERIOD I. will extend from the Creation of the World,
4004 years, B. C., to the Deluge, 2348 years B. C. This is
the Antediluvian Period.

PERIOD II. will extend from the Deluge, 2348 years B. C.,
to the Calling of Abraham, 1921 years B. C. This is the
period of the Confusion of Languages.

PERIOD III. will extend from the Calling of Abraham,
1921 years B. C., to the Departure of the Israelites from
Egypt, 1491 years B. C. This is the period of Egyptian
Bondage.

PERIOD IV. will extend from the Departure of the Israel-
ites from Egypt, 1491 years B. C., to the Dedication of Solo-
mon's Temple, 1004 years B. C. This is the period of the
Trojan War.

PERIOD V. will extend from the Dedication of Solomon's
Temple, 4 004 years B. C., to the Founding of Rome, 752
years B. C. This is the period of Homer.

PERIOD VI. will extend from the Founding of Rome, 752
years B. C., to the Battle of Marathon, 490 years B. C. This
is the period of Roman Kings.






10 GENERAL DIVISION.



PERIOD YIL will extend from the Battle cf Marathon, 490
years B. C., to the Birth of Alexander, 356 years B. C. This
is the period of Grecian Glory.

PERIOD VIII. will extend from the Birth of Alexander, 356
years B. C., to the Destruction of Carthage, 146 years B. C.
This is the period of Roman Military Renown.

PERIOD IX. will extend from the Destruction of Carthage,
146 years B. C., to the First Campaign of Julius Caesar, 8C
years B. C. This is the period of the Civil War hetween
Marius and Sylla.

PERIOD X. will extend from the First Campaign of Julius
Osesar, 80 years B. C., to the Nativity of Jesus Christ, and
the Commencement of the Christian Era. This is the pe-
riod of Roman Literature.

Observations. The characteristic, or title of each of these pe-
riods, is derived from some prominent event, or striking peculiarity
by which it is marked. Thus, for instance, during the last period
but one, Rome, which was beginning to be mistress of the world,
was for a long time disturbed by the contentions of rival chiefs.
The period, therefore, is denominated that of the Civil War be-
tween Marius and Sylla, as marking the most important event in
the history of the world during that time. Thus, also, during the
last, or 10th period, literature greatly flourished among the Romans,
under the auspices of Augustus. It is, therefore, designated as the
period of Roman literature, as being the most striking peculiarity
of that era, among the nations. In the same manner, also, the cka
racteristics of all the others are derived.



PERIOD 1.



The Antediluvian Period, extending from the Creation
of the World) 4004 years B. C. to the deluge, 2348
years B. C.

THE Bible affords the only authentic history of the first ages of
the world. The events which it relates of those ages, are confirmed
by the appearances of nature, and by legendary tradition.

SECTION 1. All human records agree that men and em-
pires first appeared in the East. There, those demigods
and heroes, who are the subjects of heathen fable, are repre-
sented as having lived and acted. When, therefore, the
Bible points to that quarter of the globe, as the cradle of na-
tion^ and of the arts, and as the theatre of the most wonder
ful events, it only coincides with the general belief of man-
kind on this subject.

The account contained in that sacred book respecting the
creation of the world, or the beginning of time, is equally
worthy of credit. This, of course, is the first grand event
which history presents to us. The cosmogonies of nations,
that is, the schemes they have adopted respecting the forma-
tion of the world, vary very much from one another, and
most of them are manifestly absurd and incredible. That
of the Hebrews, which constitutes the scriptural account, is the
only one that deserves implicit belief.

2. According to this account, it appears that about 5829
years ago, God called the visible universe into being, by
the word of his power ; that a determinate length of time
was occupied in the work, the various portions of the world
being produced on six successive days ; that man was cre-
ated on the last day of those six, and constituted the head ol
all the animal tribes ; that his happiness and increase were
provided for by the institution of marriage, which was soon
announced ; that God saw that all his work was good ; and
that he rested on the seventh day, hallowing it, as a day to
be devoted to religious solemnities.



12 ANCIENT HISTOftV PERIOD /

The earth, immediately subsequent to it> creation, was a fluid,
'lark, and shapeless mass of matter. The first thing done to bring
it into a perfect state, was the creation of light. Then the firrna
ment expanded, to divide the upper from the lower waters.

Succeeding this, the assembled waters^ retired to their destined
oed ; and, at length, the dry land was se'en, crowned with a rich
profusion of herbage, fruits, and flowers. These great occurrences
occupied the first three days.

The following day was devoted to an illumination of the earth.
The heavens were accordingly adorned with myriads of stars ; and
the greater luminaries were so disposed, as to distinguish between
day and night, and to divide the seasons of the year.

On the fifth and sixth days, the waters were replenished with fish,
the air was filled with birds, the meadows were stocked with cattle,
and every part of the earth's surface was inhabited by its appropriate
tribes.

The last work of the sixth day was the creation of man. This
was the crowning work of the whole. God formed him of the dust
of the ground, breathed into his body the breath of life, or immor-
tality, and hence man became a living soul. Woman was also
formed, out of the side of the man, who was cast into a deep sleep
for that purpose.

After the creation of this helper for man, she was given to the lat
ter, and the sacred institution of marriage was ordained by the Creatoi
himself. From this pair sprang all the various nations of mankind.

As a matter of curiosity, and forming a perfect contrast to the ra-
tional account of the Scriptures, we will mention a few theories oi
philosophers and others, on the formation of the universe.

It was the opinion of Zenophanes, Strabo, and others, that the
earth, and the whole system of the universe, was the Deity himself
Pythagoras inculcated the famous numerical system of the monad
dyad, and triad ; and, by means of his sacred quaternary, eluci-
dated the formation of the world, and the secrets of nature.

Other philosophers adhered to the mathematical system of squares
and triangles ; the cube, the pyramid, and the sphere, &c. While
others maintained the great elementary theory, which refers the
construction of our globe, and all it contains, to the combinations of
the four material elements, air, earth, fire, and water, with the as-
sistance of a fifth, an immaterial and vivifying principle.

It is recorded by the Brahmins, in the pages of their inspired
Shastah, that the angel Bistnoo, transforming himself into a great
boar, plunged into the watery abyss, and brought up the earth on
his tusks. Then issued from him a mighty tortoise and snake; and
Bistnoo placed the snake erect upon the back of the tortoise, and he
placed the earth upon the head of the .snake.

The negroes of Congo affirm that the world was made by the hands
of angels, excepting their own country, which the Supreme Being
constructed himself; that he took great pains \vith the inhabitants,
and made them very black and beautiful ; and when he had finished
th*> first. in:ui. he was well pleased with him. and smoothed him ove*



40042348 u. c. IS

the face ; and hence his nose, and the noses of all his descendants,
Decame flat.

Buffon, a modern infidel philosopher, conjectures that this earth
was originally a globe of liquid fire, struck from the body of the?
sun, by means of a comet, as a spark is produced by the collision
of flint and steel ; that at first it was surrounded by gross vapory
which, cooling and condensing in process of time, constituted, ao
cording to their densities, earth, water, and air ; which gradually
arranged themselves according to their respective gravities, round
the burning mass that formed their centre.

Darwin, an infidel also, in accounting for the origin of the world.
supposes that the mass of chaos suddenly exploded, like a barrel of
gunpowder, and in that act exploded the sun, which, in its flight, by
a similar convulsion, exploded the earth, which in like manner ex-
ploded the moon ; and thus, by a chain of explosions, the whole so-
lar system was produced, and set in regular motion.

3. Adam and Eve. the names of the first human pair,
were placed by the Deity, immediately subsequent to their
creation, in the garden of Eden, with instructions to keep and
dress it. They were allowed the free use of all the fruit of
the garden, with a single reservation, which w r as designed as
a trial of their obedience. The penalty of death was threat-
ened if they should transgress the command of their Maker.
Created pure and innocent, and placed in a state of unalloyed
happiness, they had every inducement to do well.

Adam and Eve seem to have been created without the garden,
and immediately afterwards brought into it. It is evident that Eden
was east of Canaan, or of the wilderness where Moses wrote the sa-
cred history. But the precise spot cannot now be ascertained.

The most extravagant opinions have been entertained on this sub-
ject ; and not only the four quarters of the globe, but even the air
and the moon, have been conjectured to include this delightful
abode. Following the Bible as nearly as we are able, and judg-
ing from the well known names of the Hiddekel, or Tigris, and the
Euphrates, we may determine, with some probability, that the Gar-
den of Eden was situated in or near Mesopotamia, probably Diarbec,
a part of that country.

It is clear that Moses intended to give an intelligible description
of the situation of Eden to his countrymen, who might know it ex-
actly, though we cannot ; and it is clear, also, that, though the face
of the country may have been greatly changed by means of the de-
luge, the Tigris and Euphrates continued nearly the same course
after that event as before.

The tree, the fruit of which Adam was forbidden to eat, is called
the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, which intimates thai,
by abstaining from this fruit, the knowledge of good would be en
joyed, but, by eating it, the knowledge of evil would be fatally in-
troduced.



14 ANCIENT HISTORY- -PERIOD J.

4. The innocence and felicity of the first pair were of very
short duration. They violated, with daring impiety, the sole
command of their Maker. The precise time of this transac-
tion cannot be determined ; but it was probably only a few
days after their creation.

The woman, being deceive^ by the subtlety of Satan, in
the form of a serpent, was the first in transgression ; and, by
her means, Adam also sinned. A sense of guilt and misery
unknown before, then pervaded their bosoms ; though they
were preserved from despair by the promise of a Saviour.

The greatness of the sin of our first parents is no less evident than



Online LibraryRoyal RobbinsThe world displayed in its history and geography : ... To which is added an outline of modern geography → online text (page 1 of 73)