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THE
LONDON, EDINBURGH, and DUBLIN

PHILOSOPHICAL MAGAZINE

AND

JOURNAL OF SCIENCE.

CONDUCTED BT

SIR DAVID BREWSTER, K.H. LL.D. F,ll,S,L,&K. &c.
RICHARD TAYLOR, F.L.S. G.S. Astr.S. Nat.H.Mo»c.&c.
RICHARD PHILLIPS, F.R.S.L.&E. F.G.S. &c.
SIR ROBERT KANE, M.D. M,R.r.A.



" Ncc aranetnim sane textus ideo melior quia ex se fila gignunt, nee noster
viiior quia ex alienit libamut ut apes." J oar. LiPt. Polit. lib. i. cap. 1 . Not



VOL. XXXIII.

NBW AND UNITED SERIES OF THE PHILOSOPHICAL MAGAZINE,
ANNALS OF PHILOSOPHY, AND JOURNAL OF SCIENCE.

JULY— DECEMBER, 1848.



LONDON:



RICHARD AND JOHN B. TAYLOR, RED LION COURT, FLEET STREET,

Printen and Publt$her9 to the University of London;

•Or.D BY LONGMAN, BROWN, GREEN, AND LONGMANS; 8IMPKIN, MARSHALL

AND CO.; 8. HIGHLEY; WHITTACEil and CO.; AND SHERWOOD,

GILBERT, AND PIPER, LONDON : — BY ADAM AND CHARLES

BLACK, AND THOMAS CLARK, EDINBURGH; SMITH AND SON,

GLASGOW ; HODGES AND SMITH, DUBLIN ; AND

H ILEY AND PUTNAM, NEW YORK.

tJNJVIBBITT

. ^C^- IK(yat'i\*^ ' Digitized by CjOOgle



" Meditationis est perecrutari occulta; conteroplationis est admiral i

perspicua Admiratio generat qusstionem, quaestio investigationeno^

investigatio inventionem.'* — Hugo de S, Victore



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CONTENTS OF VOL. XXXIIL

(THIRD SERIES.)



NUMBER CCXIX.— JULY 1848.

Page

Dr. J. Stenhouse on Alpha* and Beta-Orcine 1

MM. E. du Bois-Reymond and W. Beetz on the Theory of

Nobili's Coloured Rings 7

Mr. H. Hennessy on the Attraction of Spheroids 24

Dr. 6. O. Rees on a Function of the Red Corpuscles of the Blood,

and on the Process of Arterialization 28

Dr. G. O. Rees's Additional Obserrations on the subject of the

foregoing Memoir 34

Mr. W. Swan on certain Phaenomena of Capillary Attraction
exhibited by Chloroform, the Fixed Oils, and other Liquids :
with an inquiry into some of the causes which modify the form
of the mutual surface of two immiscible liquids in contact with

the walls of the Tessel in which they are contained 36

Prof. Young on some Forms of Quadratic Moduli. In a liCtter to

Prof. De Morgan, &c 45

M. Plucker on Diamagnetism. In a Letter to Mr. Faraday. ... 48
Rev. Dr. Callan on the Construction and Power of a new form

of Galvanic Battery 49

Dr. J. Stenhouse on Chloropicrine . . . 53

Sir W. R. Hamilton on Quaternions ; or on a New System of

Tmaginaries in Algebra (continued) 58

Proceedings of the Royal Society 60

' Royal Astronomical Society 66

On the Formation of Hyponitrite of Silver 75

CEconomical preparation of Oxide of AntinK>ny, by M. E. G.

Homung 76

On the Chrysotil from the Vosges, by M. Delesse 76

On Chloride of Gold as a Test of Organic matter in common water 77

Analysis of the Ashes of Turnip Leaves 78

New Minerals — Medjidite and Liebigite 79

Meteorological Observations for May 1848 79

Meteorological Observations made by Mr. Thompson at the
Grarden of the Horticultural Society at Chiswick, near
London ; by Mr. VeaU at Boston ; by the Rev. W. Dunbar at
Applegarth Manse, Dumfries-shire; and by the Rev. C.

Clouston at Sandwick Manse, Orkney 80

a2



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IV CONTENTS OF VOL. XXXIII. — THIRD SERIE.5.

NUMBER CCXX.— AUGUST.

Pogt
Mr. T. G. Tilley on CEnanthal, its Compounds, and the Pro-
ducts of its Decomposition 81

Prof. E. Wartmann's Fifth Memoir on Induction. (With a Plate.) 89
Rev. B. Bronwin on a particular Transformation of the Differ-
ential Equations of Motion in the ITieory of Planetary Per-
turbation 95

The Rev. J. Challis's Additional Analytical Considerations re-
specting the Velocity of Sound 98

Mr. W. Beverley on the Magic Square of the Knight's March 101
Sir J. W. Lubbock on the Determination of the Numerical
Values of the Coefficients in any series consisting of Sines and

Cosines of Multiples of a variable angle 106

M. Berzelius on the existence of Lactic Acid in Living Bodies 128

Dr. Schunck on the Colouring Matters of Madder 133

Notices respecting New Books : — Herschel's Astronomical Ob-
servations made at the Cai)e of Good Hope ; The Messrs.

Chambers's Edition of Euclid 145

Proceedings of the Royal Society 155

Royal Astronomical Society 159

Researches on the Combinations of Silicium, by I. Pierre .... 162
On the Constitution of the Phosphates of the Organic Alkalies,

by Dr. Thomas Anderson , 1 63

On the Preparation of Creatine, &c., by Dr. Gregory 164

Researches on the Constitution of the Atmosphere 165

Researches on essential Oils, by M. C. Gerhardt 166

Meteorological Observations for June 1848 167

Table 168



NUMBER CCXXI.^SEPTEMBER.

Lieut. Spratt on the Influence of Temperature upon the Distri-
bution of the Fauna of the iEgean Sea, 169

Dr. T. Anderson on the Products of the Destructive Distillation
of Animal Substances. Part 1 1 74

Mr. J. Glaisher's Remarks on the Weather during the Quarter
ending June 30, 1848 186

Mr. A. Cay ley on the Application of Quaternions to the Theory
of Rotation 196

Mr. T. S. Davies on Geometry and Geometers. No. II 201

Mr. J. Goodman on a new and practical Voltaic Battery of the
highest powers, in which Potassium forms the positive element 207

Mr. G. Boole's Remarks on a Paper by the Rev. Brice Bronwin,
On the Solution of a particular Differential Equation 211



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CONTENTS OF VOL. XXXIIK-^THIRD SERIES. V

Page
The Rev. Dr. Lloyd's Account of a Method of determining

the Total Intensity of the Earth's Magnetic Force in Absolute

Measure 212

Mr. B. C. Brodie's Investigation on the Chemical Nature of

Wax 217

Dr. J. Stenhouse on the Action of Chlorine on Anilic Acid . . 231
Notices respecting New Books : — Herschel's Astronomical

Observations made at the Cape of Good Hope 231

Proceedings of the Royal Astronomical Society 237

Pn the Composition of the Phosphates of Uranium, by M.

Werther 244

On the Composition of the Arseniates of Uranium, by M .Werther 246

On the Magic Square of the Knight's March 247

Meteorological Observations for July 1848 247

Table 248



NUMBER CCXXII.-OCTOBER.

Dr. E. Schunck's Remarks on the Substances discovered by
Mr. Stenhouse in the Roccella tinctoria and Evemia Pru-

uastri 249

Mr. Reuben Phillips's Account of some Experiments on Volta-

Electric Induction 260

Prof. J. R. Young on some Properties derivable from the deve-
lopment of a Binomial ; with a simplified proof of a remarkable

Theorem of Abel 268

Prof. E. Wartmann's Sixth Memoir on Induction 275

Mr. G. Boole's Notes on Quaternions 278

M. Ernst Brucke on the Existence of the Colour Brovrn 281

Mr. J. Hi^n on the Colouring Matters of Madder 282

Mr. W. J. Kenwood's Notice of a colourless Atmospheric Arch

seen in the Interior of Brazil 295

Notices respecting New Books :— Herschel's Astronomical Ob-
servations made at the Cape of Good Hope 296

Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 309

On a singular Irregularity of Vision, by N. S. Heineken, Esq. . 318
On the Detection of Lead in the presence of Bismuth in Blow-
pipe Experiments, by E. J. Chapman, Esq 319

On the Separation of Antimony from Arsenic, by C. Meyer . . 320
On the Composition of Orcine and its derivatives, by MM. Lau-
rent and Gerhardt 322

On Pseudoquina — a new Alkaloid, by M. Mengarduque 323

Preparation of Meta-Antimoniate of Potash as a Test for Soda 324
Solubility of the Hydrates of Copper and Chromium, &c. in

Potash and Soda 325

Meteorological Observations for August 1 848 327

Table 328



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VI CONTENTS OF VOL. XXXIII. — THIRD SERIES.



NUMBER CCXXIIL— NOVEMBER.

rage
Mr. A. Claudet's Description of the Photographometer, an in-
strument for measuring the Intensity of the Chemical Action
of the Hays of Light on all the Photographic preparations,
and for comparing with each other the sensitiveness of these

different preparations. (With a Plate.) 329

Prof. J. R. Young on the Extension of the Theorem of Leib-
nitz to Integration 335

lieut.-Colonel Portlock on the absence of any Traces of the
fall of Aerolites and of Grlacial Action in the Strata formed
before the last great modification of the Earth's surface. . . . 337
Mr. T. Dickson's Inquiry into the Amount of Inorganic Con-
stituents contained in Ale and Porter 341

Mr. H. Taylor on the Apparent Motion of the Figures in cer-
tain Patterns of Blue and Red Worsted *. . . . 345

Mr. G. G. Stokes on a difficulty in the Theory of Sound .... 349
Mr. Richard Phillips on the Spontaneous Cohesion of the Par-
ticles of Alumina 357

The Rev. J. Challis on the Vibrations of an Elastic Fluid 360

Mr. J. Glaisher's Remarks on the Weather during the Quarter

ending September 30, 1848 , 365

The Rev. A. Weld's Account of the Aurora Borealis as seen at

Stonyhurst Observator)', October 18, 1848 376

Mr. B. C. Brodie on the Chemical Nature of a Wax from China 378
Notices respecting New Books : — The Physical Atlas. Parts VI.

to X .^ 392

Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 393

On the Ripening of Fruits and the Gelatinous Bodies of Vege-
tables, by M. E. Fremy 394

On Sulphomorphide and Sulphonarcotide, derivatives from Mor-
phia and Narcotina, by MM. Laurent and Gerhardt 396

Composition of Uranite and Chalkolite, by M. Werther 397

Society of the Friends of the Natural Sciences of Vienna: — Dr.

Bialloblotzky's African Journey 398

On the Distilled Waters of Cherry-Laurel and Bitter Almonds,

by M. Lepage 399

On Metallic Carbonates, by M. J. Lefort 401

Meta-Antimoniate of Ammonia, by M. E. Fremy 402

Gresham College 403

Meteorological Observations for September 1848 407

Table 408



NUMBER CCXXIV.-DECEMBER.

MM. L. Svanberg and H. Struve on the Atomic Weight of
Molybdenum and some of its Compounds 409



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CONTENTS OF VOL. XXXIII.— THIRD SERIES. Vil

Page
Mr. J. Cockle on certain Functions resembling Quaternions,

and on a new Imaginary in Algebra. In a Letter to T. S.

Davies, Esq 435

Prof. £. Wartmann's Seventh Memoir on Induction 439

The Rev. T. P. Kirkman on Pluquatemions, and Homoid Pro-
ducts of Sums of n Squares 447

Mr. W. Pringle on the Duration of a Solar Spot 460

The Rev. J. Challis's Further investigation of the Nature of

Aerial Vibrations 462

Notices respecting New Books : — Messrs. H. E. Strickland and

A. G. Melville on the Dodo and its Kindred; Mr. G. R.

Weld's History of the Royal Society 467

Proceedings of the Royal Astronomical Society 477

On a simple and ready way of producing Tools for grinding

Lenses, by N. S. Heineken, Esq 480

Dr. Bialloblotzky's Journey to the Sources of the Nile 481

On the Arsenites of Iron 481

Analyses of different varieties of Epidote, by M. Hermann . . 483

On the Preparation of Black Sulphuret of Mercury . . , 486

Meteorological Observations for October 1848 487

Table 488



NUMBER CCXXV.— SUPPLEMENT TO VOL. XXXIII.

Sir D. Brewster on the Phaenomenon of Luminous Rings in Cal-
careous Spar and Beryl, as produced by tubular cavities con-
taining the two new Fluids 489

The Rev. T. P. Kirkman on Pluquatemions, and Homoid Pro-
ducts of Sums of n Squares (concluded) 494

Mr. Reuben Phillips on the passive state of Iron 509

Mr. T. S. Davies on Geometry and Geometers. No. Ill 513

MM. L. Svanberg and H. Struve on the Atomic Weight of

Molybdenum and some of its Compounds (concluded) ...... 524

On a Property of the Hyperbola 546

Proceedings of the Royal Society 548

Calculating Cubes, by J. E. Ryffel 551

Analyses of the Phosphates of Manganese 551

Discovery of Columbite in the environs of Limoges, by M. Da-

mour 553

On Alluaudite, — anew Phosphate of Iron, Manganese and Soda,

by M. Damour 554

Index 555



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PLATES.

I. Illustrative of Prof. Elie Wartmann's Fifth Memoir on Induction.
11. Illustrative of Mr. A. Claudet's Description of the Photographometcr.



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THE
LONDON, EDINBURGH and DUBLIN

PHILOSOPHICAL MAGA.ZINE

AND

JOURNAL OF SCIENCE,




[THIRD SERIES.]



JULY 1848.



I. On Alpha- and Beia-Orcine.
By John Stenhouse, Esq., Ph.D.*

A PAPER on the lichens, read before the Royal Society
•**- about three months a^o, contained among other matters
some observations upon orcme, and described an easy method
of procuring that interesting substance in a perfectly colourless
state. In tne present notice, I purpose narrating a few obser-
vations I have subsequendy made, and to describe a new
species of orcine derived from usnic acid, to which I have
given the provisional name of beta- orcine.

The usual mode of preparing alpha-orcine is by boiling
lecanoric, erythric, or any of the similar principles of the
lichens, with an excess of lime or baryta. The orcine obtained
in this way is always more or less coloured. Without enter-
ing into the minute details of the process for preparing the
colourless orcine, which are fully given in the paper already
referred to, I only remark in passing, that it may be readily
procured by boiling the alpha- and beta-orsellesic, or the ery*
threlesic acids, in pure water from half an hour to an hour,
when a great deal of carbonic acid is given off; and on the
solutions being concentrated and set aside^ abundance of cry-
stals of colourless orcine are deposited. If a little animal char-
coal is kept in. the solution while it is being concentrated, it
will be found useful in preventing any tendency to oxidation.

A quantity of colourless orcine prepared in this way was
dried at the ordinary temperature, and analysed with chro-
mate of lead. 0*332 grm. substance dried at 60° F. gave
0-717 carbonic acid and 0'204 water.

* Communicated by the Author.
Phil. Mag. S. 3. Vol. 33. No. 219. July 1848. B



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Dr. J. Sten house on Alpha" and Beia^Orcine.
Orcine dried at 60° F.









Mr. Schunck




Calculated numbers.


Found numbers.


found


21C


1605135 59-61


58-90


58-98


15H


187-192 6-95


6-82


706


90


900-000 83-44


84-28


33-96



2692-327 100-00 10000 1 0000

It will be observed that this analysis agrees pretty closely
with Mr. Schunck's, and that the small amount of colouring
matter remaining in orcine prepared by the old method has
no perceptible effect upon the result of the analysis.

Orcine is a body which retains its water of crystallization
with great tenacity. It may be rendered anhydrous, however,
in several ways, as when it is distilled, when it is heated to
212° F., and, as I have recently found, when it has been re-
peatedly crystallized out of aether, or even when it has been
dried in vacuo over sulphuric acid.

The last-mentioned mode of rendering orcine anhydrous,
though tedious, requiring from three to six weeks, is by far
the best and safest, as the orcine remains perfectly colourless,
and all risk of decomposition is avoided. The following are
the results of several analyses of colourless orcine, prepared
from alpha-orsellesic acid at four different times, and dried iVi
vacuo.

I. 0*264 grm. substance gave 0*6610 CO^and 0*1570 water.

II. 0-349 grm. substance gave 0*8675 CO* and 0*205 water.

III. 0*324 grm. substance gave 08085 CO* and 0*1985
water.

IV. 0*2064 old orcine, also dried in vacuoj gave 0*515 CO*
and 0*130 water.





Calculated


Aobydrooi




t








nuinben.


orcine.


I.


11.


TIL


IV.


21 C


1605- 135


68-16


68-28


67-80


6805


68-02


12H


149-754


6-35


6-60


6-52


6-70


6-97


60


600000


25-49


25-12


25-68


25-25


25-01



2354*889 100*00 10000 100*00 100*00 100*00

I. and II. analyses were made with chromate of lead, and
the heat strongly raised towards the close of the combustion.
No. III. was burned with pure oxide of copper, assisted with
a current of oxygen gas. No. IV. was orcine prepared by the
old process, and also dried in vacuo: it too was burned with
oxide of copper, assisted by n current of oxygen. It is ob-
servable, that the quantity of hydrogen in the two last analyses
is too high : the reason of this is, that from fear of decompo-
sing the orcine, I did not venture to heat the mixture of the



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Dr. J. Stenhouse on Alpha' and Beia-Orcine. S

substance and oxide of copper in the tube, and then to dry it
with an exhausting syringe, as is usually done.

It is plain from the result of these analyses, that anhydrous
orcine has lost three atoms of water, and that its probable
formula is C^i H,g O^, that of hydra ted orcine being C^i Hj^jOy
I subjoin the results of previous experimenters on anhydrous
orcine, with which it will be seen that these analyses agree
pretty closely.

Dumas. Schunck. Robiouet.

Distilled orcine. Dried at 2112° F. Distilled orcine.
Carbon . . 67*78 67*88 68-574

Hydrogen . 6'50 660 6-828

Oxygen . . 25-72 25-52 24-598

10000 100-00 100-000

In order to corroborate this determination of the atomic
weight of orcine, which, it must be confessed, still remains
somewhat doubtful, I made repeated attempts to prepare the
lead salt previously described both by Dumas and Schunck,
but I am sorry to say with by no means satisfactory results.
This perhaps is not to be wondered at, when we consider how
easily alterable orcine is. In my first trials, I treated an
aqueous solution of orcine with a very slight excess of sub*
acetate of lead. The precipitate in the course of a few minutes
assumed a deep red colour, and the compound appeared so
unstable, that much of the orcine was removed by the wash-
water ; so that the more the precipitate was washed, the greater
was the amount of oxide of lead it contained. In some sub*
sequent trials, when the quantity of subacetate of lead which
was added was not sufficient to precipitate tlie whole of the
orcine in the solution, the precipitate, though reddish-coloured,
was not nearly so deeply coloured as when a slight excess of
base had been employed. The amount of oxide of lead in
these precipitates was however greatly diminished ; and though
freqaently repeated, I never could get the results of the various
trials to agree in a satisfactory manner. Mr. Schunck admits
that his experiments were somewhat similar. I subjoin the
results of a few of my experiments.

I. Orcine precipitated by a slight excess of subacetate of
lead, 1-305 grm. salt gave 0-467 PbO and 0*525 Pbssl 081
PbO= 82-83 PbO per cent.

II. Where part of the orcine remained in solution, 0*773
salt gave 0-1383 PbO and 0371 Pb s 05379 PbOas69-58
PbO per cent.

HI. Prepared in the same way, but at a difierent time,
0-667 salt gave 0-200 PbO and 0-231 Pb=0-4488 PbO=67'28
per cwt.

B2

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4 Dr. J. Sienhouse on Alpha* and Beta-Orcine.

Examination of the Crystalline Form qfOrcine.

I transmitted a quantitjr of crystallized orcine to Professor
W. H. Miller of Cambridge, who has kindly favoured me
with the subjoined determination of its crystalline form.

Oblique. Symbols, a 100, c 001, e 101, m 110.



Angles between normals to the faces.



Orcine.

\



e I

ae 43 44
ac 83 57
ma 51 12

mmf 77 96 .

Cleavage parallel to a, very perfect. ^



Beta-Orcine.



The substance to which I have given the name of beta-
orcine is obtained from usnic acid, which is perhaps the most
widely diffused of all the known proximate principles of the
lichens. Knop found usnic acid m several species of Usnea^
such as Usnea Jlorida^ (7. hirta^ and 17. plicata. Messrs.
Rochleder and Heldt extracted it from the lichen RangeferinuSf
Usnea barbata^ and Ramalinea calicaris. In addition to these
sources, I have found it in the Evernia Prunastri and in Ba*
malinea Fraxinia, The best mode of extracting usnic acid,
as I have fully detailed in the paper already referred to, is by
macerating the lichens in milk of lime, and precipitating the
filtered solution by muriatic acid.

Beta-orcine may be obtained from usnic acid by several
processes. The method which I have found most convenient
is by subjecting the crude usnic acid, previously dried, to de-
structive distillation. The beta-orcine sublimes, and is depo-
sited in long yellow crystals, partly on the neck and sides of
the retort ; but by much the larger portion of it is dissolved
in a brownish-coloured resinous liquid which passes into the
receiver. A very large quantity of a bulky porous charcoal
remains in the retort.

The resinous fluid which has passed into the receiver must
be repeatedly treated with considerable quantities of boiling
water to dissolve out the orcine, which is retained bv the resin
with great pertinacity. The solutions containing the impure
orcine should be concentrated to the consistence of a syrup,
and led standing for some time in a flat open vessel. In the.



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Dr. J. Stenhoiise on Alpha- and Bela-Orcine. 5

coarse of a day or two the liquid becomes filled with a mass
of brownish-coloured crystals, which must be collected and
pressed between folds oi blotting-paper to free them from ad-
lieriiig resin and colouring matter.

The crystals must be further purified by digestion with

animal charcoal, and by being repeatedly ci-ystallized out of

water: they then form bard, slender, brittle prisms, which

still retain a faintish yellow shade, and are about half an inch

long. In order to obtain beta-orcine perfectly white, it must

be crystallized out of weak spirits, assisted, as l)efore, by a

little animal charcoal. So soon as the crystals are all deposited,

they should be removed from the solution and dried on blotting*

paper, as the mother-liquor, on standing for some time, becomes



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