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The Philosophical transactions of the Royal society of London, from their commencement in 1665, in the year 1800 (Volume 14) online

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University of California • Berkeley




T r




t\



THE



PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS



OF THE



ROYAL SOCIETY OF LONDON,



FROM THEIR COMMENCEMENT, IN 1665, TO THE YEAR 1800;



9it)ritiseti»



WITH NOTES AND BIOGRAPHIC ILLUSTRATIONS,



BY



CHARLES HUTTON, LL.D. F.R.S.
GEORGE SHAW, M.D. F R.S. F.L.S.
RICHARD PEARSON, M.D. F.S.A.



VOL. XIV.

FROM 1776 TO 1780.



LONDON:

PRINTED BY AND FOR C. AND R. BALDWIN, NEW BRIDGE- STREET, BLACKFRIARS.

1809.



SO (o



/</*?^^^



LOAN STACK



CONTENTS OF VOLUME FOURTEENTH.



Clayton, an Account of Falkland Islands. . 1

Price, on the Values of Annuities, &c. . . 5

Planta , on the Romansh Language 7

Percival, on tlie Population of Manchester. 17
Hutchins, on Freezing Quicksilver and the

Dipping Needle '2'>

Pigott, Astronomical Observations 22

Cavendish, on the Torpedo and Electricity. 23

Priestley, on Respiration and the Blood ... 34

Jngenhousz, Experim. of Airs and Platina. 38

Masson, Journeys in Southern Africa .... 43

Royal Society, Meteorological Journal ... ibid

Dr. Horsley, Observations on the same. ... 44

Farr, Meteorological Journal at Bristol. ... 47

Barker, Ditto at Lyndon 48

Barker, Fresh Water from Salt by Freezing 48

Cavendish, Meteorol. Instrum. of the r. s. 40

Capt. Cook, on the Health of his Ship's Crew. 58

Cavallo, on Electricity of tlie Atmosphere . 60

J. Hunter, Recovery of Drowned People. . 63

Nourse, on die Cure of Wounded Intestines ibid

Small, on tlie Island of Minorca 6'8

Capt. Cook, on the Tides in the South Seas. 71

Smeaton, Experim. on Mechanical Power. . 72

Hutton, On Quickly Converging Series. ... 84

Henly, Effects of Lightning on Bullocks. . 9"

Fordyce, on the Light by Iiiflammation. ... 93

Biograph. Notice of Dr. Geo. Fordyce .... ibid

Roebuck, Experiments on Ignited Bodies . . [6

Henly, Machine for Perpetual Electricity. . i)7

Pallas, on the Iron Ore in Siberia 99

Keir, on the Crystallizations in Glass 102

Messier, on a Belt on the Disc of Saturn. . 108

Anderson, Poisonous Fish in South Seas. . . . ibid

Whitehui'st, Expts. on Ignited Substances . 112
Hamilton, on the Suppression of Urine cured

by piefcing the Bladder by the Anus. ... 113

A. Fothergill, on the late Frost at Northamp. 1 16"

J. Fothergill, on Dr. Knight's Mag. Mac. . 117

Hutton, Demonstr. of Geomet. Theorems. . 120

Woulfe, Experim. on Mineral Substances. . ibid

Mackenzie, on a'woraan living without food. 121

Marshara, Washing Trees to prom, growtli. 124

Debraw, Discov. on the Sex of Bees .... 125

Wolf, on a Portrait of Copernicus 127

Sparman, on a New Species of Cuckoo. ... 128

T. Cavallo, New Electrical Experiments . 1 29

Dicquemare, a 3d Essay on Sea Anemonies ibid

Henly, Exper. and Obs. in Electricity.. .. 130

Toaldo, on tlie Tides in tlie Adriatic ibid

Wargentin, Longit. of Paris and Greenwich. 131

Maseres, on the Value of an Infinite Series, ibid

Costard, on a Passage in Ebn Younes 133

Dobson, On Evap. as a test of Dryness. ... 1 37

Huddart, on Persons not disting. Colours. 143

Landen, New Theory of Rotatory Motion. . 144

Mudge, Making the Metal of Reflect. Teles. 1 57

Barker, Meteorological Observations 178

Farr, Meteorological Journal 179

R. Soc, The same at R. S. house ibid

West, on a Volcanic hill near Inverness. . . . ibid

Cavallo, Electrical Expts. and Observations. I 80

De Luc, Baromet. Obs. in the Hartz Mines, ibid

Glenie, on the Laws of Universal Proportion. S3

Fynney, the Surgical Case of A. Davenport. 1 80"

Stewart, on the Kingdom of Thibet 18S

Stedman, on Winds proper to move Mills. . 198
VOL. XIV.



Wright, the Jesuit's Bark Tree of Jamaica. . I. 99

the Cabbage-bark Tree of do 200

Shuckburgh, Barometrical Obs. in Savoy . . 20:i

Biog. Notice of Sir G. Shuckburgh, Bt ibid

Barker, Bramin's Observatory at Benares. . 214
Dr. Hunter and H Watson, on Dr. Maty's

Illness and Death 217

Nairne, Experim. with Smeaton's Air-Pump 220
Bastard, on the Culture of Pine-Apples . . . 224
Col. Roy, on Meas. Heights by the Barom. . 226

Biog. Notice of Col. Wm. Roy ibid

Boscovich, a new Microm. and Megameter. 248
Maskelyne, on the Prismatic Micrometer. . 250
R. Society, on the Use of Thermometers . . 25S
Hamilton, on Volcanos near the Rhine . . . 276
Hunter, Heat of Animals and Vegetables . . 278
Hutton, on the Force of Fired Gunpowder. 282

Darwin, A New Case in Squinting, 295

Partington, Muse. Contrac. cured by Elect. 302
Anderson, of a large Stone near Cape Town. 303
Polhill, on Debraw's Culture of Bees .... 304
Macbride, Improvement inTanning Leather, ibid
Haygarth, Population and Diseas. of Chester. 311

Swift, Electrical Experiments 314

Miller, on the Island of Sumatra 315

Roxburgh, Meteorol. Diary in the East Indies. 322
White, Experiments on different Effluvia. . ibid
Henry, on die Earthquake at Manchester 330
Papers on the Accid. by Lightn. at Purfleet, viz.
Nickson's Report of it to the Board of Ord. . 333
Report of die Committee of the R. Soc. . . . ibid
Wilson's Dissent from Committee's Report. 334
Letter to the R. S. from the Board of Ordn. 336

Wilson, New Expts on Conductors 337

Playfair, Arithm. of Impossible Quantides. . 356
Milner, on die Communication of Motion. 36 S
Milner, on Limits of Equations, also on the

number of Athrmadve &: Negative Roots. 382
Dalrymple, Voyage to the East Indies. . . . 3^6

De Luc, Pyrometry and Areometiy ,587

Barker, Meteorological Journal 3,sq

Barr, Idem at Montreal ibid

M<^Gouan, Idem near Edinbuigh 390

Farr, Idem at Bristol ibid

Lloyd, Idem near Manchester & Leeds. ... 39 1

Royal Society, Idem in London ibid

Masson, Island of St. Miguel 3y2

Scott, Imperfection of Sight 394,

Pulteney, Populat. of Blandford Forum . . 3t)5
Guthrie, Antiseptic Regimen in Russia .... iljid
Biog. Nodce of Dr. Matthew Guthrie . . . ibid

Pigott, Astronomical Obsenations 40O

De Mertans, Observations on die Scurvy . . 401
Shuckburgh, Barometrical Meas of Heights. 405
Hutton, on the Mean Density of the Earth

from the survey at Schihallien 4O8

Watson, jun on the Blue Shark 4.03

Brown, on the Flying Fish ibid

Nairne, on Pointed Electrical Conductors . . i27
Musgrave, Dissent from the Electrical Com. 440
Higgins, Amalgam of Zinc for Elect. Excita. 446

Watson , Experiments on Lead Ore 44.7

Ld Malion, Securing Buildgings from Fire, ibid
Maseres, on very Slowly Converging Series. 451

Maseres, Extension of Cardan's Rule 433

Le Cerf, Propor. force of lever, and wheel

and pinions 4154

a



Q41



/^54'5



CONTENTS.



Wilson, Termination of Elec. Conductors. . 458

Wales, Observations on a Solar Eclipse, . . . 46o

Ludlam, on the same 46l

Ingenhousz, to light a Candle byElectricity. 46..'

Ingenhousz, Expts. with die Electrophoms. 463

Henly, on the same 473

Pickersgill, Voyage to Davis's Straits, &c. . 47;')

A. Fothergill, St. Vitus's Dance cured by Elec. 476

Orred, Head of theOs Humeri sawn off. ... 4/7

Woulfe, Experiments on Minerals ibid

King, a Petrefaction of Sand, &c 47 .s

Wilson, Knight's way of making magnets . . 480

Latham, Extraordinary Dropsical Case... 4S1

Waring, Problems on Interpolations 483

Lexell, on the Periodic Time of a Comet. . 485

Waring, Soiut. of Algebraical Equations . . 487

Don Ulloa, Annular Eclipse of the Sun. . . . 495

Bugge, on t'ne Theory of Pile-Driving .... 4.98

Jeaurat, of an Iconantidiptic Telescope. ... 501

Camper, Org.of Speech of the OrangOutang. 503

Biog. Notice of Dr. Peter Camper ibid

Cooper, EftVcts of Lightning on a Ship 510

Longfield, Astron. Observations at Cork .. 511

Maskelyne, the Longitude of Cork, determ. ibid

Stevens, on the Latitude of Madras 5 1 C

Burney, the Infant Musician W. Crotch . . 513

Cazaud, Cultivation of the Sugar-Cane.. 521

Hunter, on the Free Martin ibid

R. Society, Meteorological Journal ibid

Guthrie, on the Russian way of recovering

from the fiimes of Charcoal, &c 52'2

Dollond, Correcting the Errors of Refraction. 524

Ab. Fontana, on Breathing Inflammable Air. 526

Biog. Notice of the Abbe Felix Fontana . . . ibid

Shuckburgh, Temperature of Boiling Water. 537
Ingenhousz, New kind of Inflammable Air,

with a new Tlieory of Gunpowder 540

Ramsden, on two New Micrometers 557

Fontana, on the Salubrity of different Airs. . 563

Swift, Experiments in Electricity 57 1

Thunberg, tlie Sitodium Incis. & Macrocarp. 572

De Luc, Barometrical Meas, at the Hartz. 574



Milner, on the Precession of the Equinoxes. 576

Fordyce, Examination of various Ores 585

Ingenhousz, Suspending Magnetic Needles. 589

Barker, Meteorological Journal 592

Farr, Idem kept at Bristol 593

Mann, Treatise on Rivers and Canals ibid

De La Trobe, Meteor. Journal at Labrador. 5^7
Ingenhousz, Improvements in Electricit)- . . oi)ii
Hutton, Place of great. Attrac. on a Hill. . . . 603
Cavallo, New hlectrical Experiments .... 608
Fordyce, New way of Assaying Copper. . . . ibid

Hamilton, Eruption of Vesuvius (}\:}

Maseres, Extension of Cardan's Rule 624

Barnard, Saving of a Stranded Ship 625

Hunter, a child born with the Small-pox . . 628

Thunberg, A Voyage to Japan 634

Cockin, Extraordinary Appearance in a Mist. 639
Fontana, on the Ainerican Poison Ticunas. . 641

Crell, on the Acid of Fat QtJG

Maseres, on Cardan's Rules fur Cub. Equat. . 67 1

Blizard, on tlie Fistula Lachrymalis 679

Roxburgh, Meteor. Journal at Coromandel. 681

Barr, Idem at Montreal ibid

Royal Society, Idem at London 682

Hellins, on computing Logarithms ibid

Cazaud, on Sugar-cane Mills 6S3

Cheston, on an Ossified Thoracic Duct. 6:s4, 739
Nairne, Wire Shortened by Electricity ... 688
Herschel, Observ. on the Star CoUo Ceti . . 6S9

Percival, on preparing Potash Qyi

Ingenhousz, the Salub. of Sea &: Land Air. ibid
Lvidlam, on the Engine for turning Ovals . . 7 00
Hutton, Cubic Equations and Inf. Series. . 704
Wilson, Great degree of Cold at Glasgow. . ibid
Barker, Meteorological Register at Lyndon. 7 1 1

Schotte, Weatlier, &c. at Senegal ibid

Herschel, Height of Moon's Mountains.. 717
Hunter, of an Extraordinary Pheasant .... 723

Layard, Distemper among the Caitle ibid

Vince, Progressive & Rotatory Motion .... 705"
Cavallo, Thermometrical Experiments. . . . 740



THE CONTENTS CLASSED UNDER GENERAL HEADS.



Class I. Mathematics.

1. Arithmetic, Annuities, Politicnl Arithmetic.

Value of Annuities, &c Price 5 Populat. of Blandfoid Forum, . .

Population of Manchester, .... Percival .. 17 On computing Logantlmis, .. .
Populat. and Disea. of Chester, Haygarth. . 311

9.. Alfrehrn. Analysis, Fluxions.



Pulteney .
Hellins .



Extension of Cardan's Rules, . .
Problems on Interpolations,. . . ,
On Algebraic Equations, .....
Extension of Cardan's Rule, . . .

On the same,

Cubic Equat. and Infin. Series,



Maseres
Waring

Waring
Maseres
Maseres
Hutton



Quickly converging Series, .... Hutton . . 84

Value of Infinite Series, Maseres . . 131

Laws of Universal Proportion,. . Glenie .... 183

Arith. of Impossible Quantities, Playfair . . 356
Uunits of Kqua., al.so Numb, of

Affirm, and Negative Roots, Milner. . . . 382

Slowly Converging Series, .... Maseres . . 45 1

3. Geometry, Trigonometry, Land-surveying.
Demonstr. ofGeom. Prob Hutton .. 120

Class II. Mechanical Philosophy. — 1. Dynamics.
Exper. on Mechanical Power,. . Smeaton . . 72 Connnunication of Motion, .... Milner
Theory of Rotatory Motion,,. .. Landen ,. 144 Progressive and Rotatory Motion, Vince .



395
682



453

483
487
624
671

704



36-3
726



CONTENTS,



Account of Falkland Islands, . . Clayton
Astronomical Observations, .... Pigott ....

Health of his Ship's Crew, Cook

Tides in the South Seas, Cook

A Belt on Saturn's Disc, Messier . .

Long, of Paris and Greenwich, Wargentin
A Passage in Ebn Younes, .... Costard . .
Bramin's Observatory at Benares, Barker. . . .

Prismatic Micrometer, Maskelyne

Voyage to the East Indies, .... Dalrymple
Astronomical Observations, .... Pigott ....

Densit}' of the Earth, &c Hutton . .

Observ. on a Solar Eclipse, Wales

3.

Force of Fired Gunpowder, .... Hutton



2. Astronomy, Chronology, Navigation.



I On the same, Ludlam . .

22 Voyage to Davis's Straits, &c.. . PickersgiU

58 Periodic Time of a Comet, .... Lexell. . . .

7 1 Annular Eclipse of the Sun, .... Ulloa ....

108 Astronomical Observ. at Cork, . . Longfield

131 Longitude of Cork, Maskelyne

1 33 Latitude of Madras, Stevens . .

2 14 Correcting Errors of Refraction, P. DoUond

250 Precession of tiie Equinoxes, . . Milner . .

3S6 Place of Greatest Attraction, . . Hutton . .

400 Voyage to Japan, Thunberg

408 On the Star Collo Ceti, Herschel

460 Height of the Lunar Mountains, Herschel



111

461
475
485
4"5
511
ibid
512
524
:,7G
603
634,
6.9
717



Chronology, Gunnery, Projectiles.



Treatise on Rivers and Canals, . . Mann.



282 New Theory of Gunpowder,. ,

Hydraulics.
717
Pneumatics.



Ingenhousz 540



Barom. Obs. in the Hartz Mines,DeLuc, 180,574
Barom. Obser. in Savoy, Shuckburgh 203



Exp with Smeaton's Air-pump, Naime
On Barometrical Measurements, Roy
Force of Fired Gunpowder, .... Hutton
Exper. on different Effluvia, . . Wliite.

6.

The Infant Music, W. Crotch, Burney



Areometry and Pyrometry, . . . De Luc . . 387

Baromet. Measurem. of Heights,Shuckburgh 405
_ _ .... .. .. _ ^^g

54L.
56'3
691



220 On Breathing Inflammable Air, Fontana

. . 226 New kind of Inflammable air, Ingenhousz

. . 282 Salubrity of different Air, .... Fontana . .

. . 322 Salubrity of Sea and Land Airs, Ingenhousz

Acoustics, Music.

.. 513



7.

143

157

248

250



Persons not distinguishing Col. Huddart . .
Metals for Reflecting Telescop. Mudge . .
New Microm. and Megameter, Boscovich. .
The Prismatic Micrometer, . . . Maskelyne

8. Electricity,
Dipp. Need, and Freezing Merc. Hutchins. .

Torpedo and Electricity, Cavendish

Electricity of the Atmosphere,. . Cavallo .
Effects of Lightning on Bullocks, Henly. . .
Experiments on Ignited Bodies, Roebuck.
Machine for Perpet. Electricity, Henly. . ,
Experiments on Ignited Bodies. Whitehurst 1 1 2
On Dr. Knight's Magn- Mach . . J. FoUiergilll 17



New Electrical Experiments, . Cavallo
Exper. and Observ. inElectricity,Henly. . . .
Electrical Exper. and Observ. . . Cavallo . .
On the Use of Thermometers,. . R. Society
Heat of Animals and Vegetables,J. Hunter
MuscularContract. cured by Elec. Partington

Electrical Experiments, Swift ....

Accident by Lightn. at Piirfleet, Nickson. .
Rep. of the Com. of tlie R.s.on it, R. Society
Dissent from the Comm. Report, Wilson . .
Letter to the r. s. on the same, Bd of Ordn

Class III. Natural

A New Species of Cuckoo, .... Sparman. . 1 28
On the Blue Shark, Watson, jun.423



Optics.

Imperfection of Sight, Scott .... 394

Iconantidiptic Telescope, Jeaurat .. 501

Correcting the Errors of Refract. P DoUond 524

Two New Micrometers, Ramsden . . 557

Magnetism, Thermometry.

20 New Exper. on Conductors, .... Wilson . . 337
On Pointed Electric. Conductors, Naime . . 427
Dissent from the Electr. Comm. Musgrave 440
Amalgam for Electr. Excitation, Higgins . . 446
Termination of Electr. Conduct. Wilson .. 458
To light a Candle by Electricity, Ingenhousz 462
Exper. with the Electrophorus, Ingenhousz 463

On the same, Henly. . . . 473

St. Vitus's Dance cured by Elect. A. Fothergill476
Knight's way of making Magnets, Wilson . . 480
Effects of Lightning on a Ship, Cooper .. 510
Temperature of Boiling Water, Shuckburgh 537
Experiments in Electricity, .... Swift .... 57 1
Suspending Magnetic Needles, Ingenhousz 589
Improvements in Electricity, . . Ingenhousz 598



23
60
(.0

96
97



129
130
180
258
278
302
314
383
ibid
334
336



New Electrical Experiments, . . Cavallo
Wire Shortened by Electricity,. . NaLme
Thermometrical Experiments, . . Cavallo



Zooloi



HiSTOBY. — 1. IjOOlOgy.

On the Flying Fish, Brown

On an Extraordinary Pheasant, J. Hunter

1. Botany.
224 Sitodium IncisumetMacrocarpon,Thunberg
521



Culture of Pine Apples, Bastard

Culture of the Sugar Cane, Cazaud

3. Mineralogy , Fossilogy, &c.
Experiments of Platina, &c. ..Ingenhousz 38 Experiments on Lead Ore,



The Iron Ore in Siberia, Pallas ... 99

Exper. on Mineral Substances,. . Woulfe .. 120

Volcanic HiU near Inverness, . . West .... 179

Volcanos near the Rhine, Hamilton 276

A large Stone near Cape Towu, Anderson 303



. . Watson . .
Experiments on Minerals, .... Woulfe . .

A PetrefactioB of Sand, &c King . . . .

Examination of various Ores, . . Fordyce . .
Eruption of Vesuvius, Hamilton



608
688
740



423
723

572



447

477

585
613



IV CONTENTS.

4. Geography, and Topography.

Account of Falkland Islands, ..Clayton.. 1 On the Kingdom of Tibet, Stewart,. 188

Journeys in Southern Africa, . Masson .. 43 On the Island of Sumatra, ....Miller.... 315

On the Island of Minorca, .... Small .... tis Eruption of Vesuvius, Hamilton 6l3

On the Adriatic Tides, Toaldo . . 1 30 A Voyage to Japan, Thunberg G'ii

Barom. Observ. in the Hartz, . . De Luc . . 1 SO

Class I J'. Chemical Philosophy. — 1. Chemistry.
Exper. on Airs and Platina, . . . . Ingi-nhousz 3.S Evaporation as a test of Dryness, Dobsou .. 137

On Light by Inflammation, .... Fordyce . . 93 On die Acid of Fat, Crell .... 660"

The Crystallizations in Glass, . . Keir .... 102

1. Meteorology.

Meteorol. Journal, R. S. 43, 179, 391, b'Z\, 682 Meteorol. Journal at Montreal, Barr . . 389, 681

Observations on the same, Horsley . . 41- Idem at Edinburgh, M'Gouan 390

Meteorological Journal at Bristol, Farr. . 47, 179, Idem near Manchester & Leeds, G. Lloyd. . 391

39<', ^9'^ Idem at St. Miguel, Masson . . 392

Ditto at Lyndon, Barker 48, 17'*,389, 592, 71 1 Elfects of Lightning on a Ship, Cooper.... 510

Meteorol. Instmm. of the R.s .Cavendish 49 Meteorol. Joui-nal at Labrador, De la Trobe 597

Elfects of Lightning on Bullocks, Henly .. 90 Extraor. Appearance in a Mist, Cockin .. 6"39

Frost at Northampton, A. Fotliergill 1 16 Meteorol. Jour, at Coromandel, Roxburgh. . 68 1

Meteorol. Diary in the East Ind. Roxburgh .'i22 Great deg. of Cold at Glasgow, P. Wilson. . 704

Earthquake at Manchester, .... Henry. . . . 330 Weatlier, &c. at Senegal, .... Schotte. ... 711

Class /'". Physiology. — 1. Physiology of Animals.

On Respiration and the Blood, Priestley . . 34 On Debraw's Culture of Bees, Polhill .... 304

Poison. Fish in the Soudi Seas, Anderson . . 108 Imperfection of Sight, Scott 394

On a Woman living with. Food, Mackenzie 121 Org.ofSpee. of the Or. Outang, Camper .. 503

Discoveries on the Sex of Bees, Debraw . . 125 On the Free Martin, J. Hunter. . 521

Third Essay on Sea Anemonies, Dicquemare 1 29

2. Physiology of Plants.
Wash, of Trees to prom. Grow. Marsham . . 124

3. Medicine.

Health of his Ship's Crew,. . . . Cook 5S Russian way of recovering from tlie

Recovery of drowned People,. .J. Hunter. . 6'3 Fumes of Charcoal, Guthrie. . . . 522

Poison. Fish in the South Seas, Anderson.. 108 Salubrity of different Airs,. ... Fontana. .. . 5(i3

Jesuits-bark Tree of Jamaica, Wright 199 A Child born with the Sm.all-p.J. Hunter . . 628

Cabbage-bark Tree of Jamaica, Wright. .. . 200 The American Poison Ticuuas, Fontana. .. . 641

Antiseptic Regimen in Russia, Gudirie. . . . 395 Salubrity of Sea and Land Airs, Ingenhousz 69 1

Observations on die Scurvy, . . De Mertans 401 Distemper among die Cattle, .. Layard ... . 723

4. Surgery.

Cure of Wounded Intestines, Nourse 63 Muse. Contract, cured by Elect. Partington 302

Suppression of LIrine cured by piercing St. Vitus's Dance cured by Elect. A. Fothergill476

die Bladder by die Anus, ..Hamilton.. 113 Head of the Os Humeri sawn off, Orred ... . 477

Case of Ann Davenport Fynney 186 Extraordinary Dropsical Case, .. Ladiam .. 481

Dr. Maty's Death, Dr. Hunter &:H. Watson 217 On die Fistula Lachrymalis,. ... Blizard .. 679

A New Case in Squinting, .... Darwin . . 295 Ossified Thoracic Duct, Cheston 6S4, 739

Class Yl. The Arts. — I. Mechanical.

Exper. on Mechanical Power,. . Smeaton . . 72 Theory of Pile driving, Bugge 498

Winds proper to move Mills, .. Stedman . . 1 98 Saving of a Stranded Ship, .... Barnard .. 625

Forceof Fired Gunpowder,.. .. Hutton .. 282 On Sugar-cane Mills, Cazaud .. 683

Securing Buildings from Fire, . . Ld. Mahon 447 The Engine for Turning Ovals, Ludlani . . 700
Propor. of Wheels and Pinions, &c.Le Cerf . . 454

2. Chemical.

Freezing Quicksilver, &c Hutchins. . 20 Improvem. in Tanning Leather, Macbride. . 304

Fresh Water from Salt by Freez. Barker. .. . 48 On preparing Potash, Percival .. 69I

3. Fine Arts.
On a Porti-ait of Copernicus, ..Wolf .... 12<'

4. Antiquities.
On the Romansh Language, . . Planta .... 7

Class VII. Biography ; or, Account of Authors.

Camper, Dr 503 Fordyce, Dr 93 Roy, Col 226

Fontana, Abbi; 526 Guthrie, Dr 395 Shuckburgh, Sir Geo 203



THE

PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS

OF THE

ROYAL SOCIETY OF LONDON;

ABRIDGED,



V. An Account of Falkland Islands. By IVm. Clayton, Esq., of his Majesty's

Navy, p. 99.

Falkland's Islands, or, as the Spaniards and French call them, the Maloine
Islands, are situated between the latitude of 52° 26' and 51° & s. and longitude
from London 56° to 6o° 30' w. They are very numerous, forming a mass of
broken high lands, or very low sedgy keys and sunken rocks. The largest is the
easternmost island, and on the eastern side the Spaniards had a settlement, which
the crown of Spain purchased of M. Bougainville, who, on his private account,
had formed a settlement in the year 1764, at the time that Commodore Byron
had first discovered Port Egmont. The next large island is of a very considerable
extent, and has many excellent harbours on it. Between these two runs Falk-
land's Sound, whicli is navigable through; but the south entrance is pretty full
of low sandy keys. Adjoinin to the 2d large island, to the westward, lies
Saunders's Island, on which the English settlement was made, a blockhouse
erected, several spots inclosed for gardens, and 3 storehouses, with 5 dwelling-
houses or huts, built at different times by the ships' crews who were stationed
there. The harbour of Port Egmont was formed by these islands, and another
high, barren, rocky island, named Kepple's Island, and some other lesser islands
to the N. E. and eastward, and was entirely land-locked, or inclosed by the land,
on every point; it was very spacious; the bottom was muddy and good holding
ground. From the hills through the bogs drained several runs of water ; and
as the landing places were good, and a natural small cove for boats to lie in safety
on the north side of Saunders' Island sheltered from the s, w, winds, it induced
Captain Macbride to begin the settlement on it.

The larger islands are overspread with a short, tufty, round grass; a shrub
with a smell like rosemary; a shrub of the myrtle kind, which in March and
April blossoms; a white flower, of a faint violet smell; a small annual plant, of
the wormwood kind. Near the shore, wherever there is a sandy soil, a species

VOL. XIV. B



3 I'HILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. ' [ANNOI776.

of grass grows, called Penguin grass, from the birds of that species making their
nests, and burrowing underground like rabbits in holes. This grass grows 4 or
5 feet high; the blades are broad and coarse like rushes; the roots, when roasted,
eat like almonds. Ground sorrel every where abounds in the greatest plenty, is
extremely tart, and a most excellent antiscorbutic; the flower it produces is ex-
actly like the wild rose which grows in the hedges in England. Celery, pepper-
grass, and scurvy-grass, also abound on every island. Maidenhair, improperly
so called, is plentiful; the berries are ripe in February and March, and very
pleasant. A small species of cranberry abounds, and is the food of the wild
geese all the autumn, when the geese are best. In the spring season, and part
of the summer, there springs up an extremely pretty humble flower, which
nearest resembles in leaf the auricula, but in flower the primrose; only they
blow quite white. In very barren craggy spots, and even out of the clifts of the
rocks near the sea-shore, grows in the summer season, a small shrub which pro-
duces an uncommon but pretty flower, shaped like a lady's pocket; the colour is
a rich yellow; the seeds are very small. Wood strawberries grow on these islands,
and are ripe in March; are of an earthy insipid taste, and grow to the size of
the common small strawberry in England. These are all the natural vegetable



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