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confinement, through an aperture fitted for the point only, and so straight,
that the report on its coming out, was like that of a cork out of a bottle; for
though it appeared that the opening had occasionally been enlarged, as the in-
crusted part of the pin was pressed forward into it, yet it is plain that nature's
attempts to get rid of it had been fruitless, and might possibly have been so
during all the patient's life.

Sir Hans Sloane has furnished the curious with instances of bodies incrusted
in the guts with stone, and of some making their way out, when there was
little probability of it. Daily experience shows how far nature will struggle to
free herself; so that it is always most eligible to trust them lo her care : this
may appear from the difficulties that have attended the cure of this case, which
at last did not prove so successful as it was first hoped for; for the patient having
been remiss in the wearing of his truss, on some effort the guts found a way
into the inguen again, 6 months after the healing of the wound. This case
also shows, that the best operation, or the utmost care, is no security against
the relapse of a rupture. This is the third or fourth instance Mr, A. had met
with, of the insufficiency of this operation to effectuate a cure of ruptures;
and yet it is plain that this is far more likely to prove effectual than the caustic,
or any other method cried up for the cure of this evil. In a growing age, a
good spring truss is an eflfectual remedy ; and in an adult, this should be the
ultimate one, though it is no more than a palliative cure.



VOL. XXXIX.3 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. <)3

After mentioning 4 other cases of hernia and wounded guts, Mr. Amyand
subjoins the following practical inferences.

Hence it appears, that the parts inflamed and in contact, have been coalesced
and knit together, so as to prevent any extravasation from the wounded or
bursted gut into the cavity of the abdomen.

That the cure in some cases has been owing to a free discharge of the faeces
through the wound ; and consequently that when, in a gut rupture, the part
prolapsed cannot be reduced ; a cure may be hoped for, by making such an
opening in the guts, before they are entirely sphacelated, as may procure a free
discharge to the faeces pent in, and thus secure the patient's life.

That if this happens to the colon or caecum, its tube will so far be preserved,
as to open a free discharge for the faeces the natural way ; and if that cannot
be obtained in a wound of the small gut, yet the discharge may be secured by
making the wounds an artificial anus.

Tl>at the readiest way to obtain a cure of a wounded or bursted gut, is to
keep it in contact with the outward wound, and the patient in a very low diet.

That the deligation of the vessels of the omentum, previous to its amputa-
tion, being liable to many exceptions, it is more eligible to forbear it, except-
ing when the vessels are large; for when reduced loose and floating, it is less
liable to the inflammations and suppurations that attend the separation of the
ligature.

Experiments on Quicksilver. By Herman Boerhaave, M. D. &c. Part II.*

N° 443, p. 343.

In this 2d part of his communications on this subject, as well as in the 3d
part, which is inserted in another of the Transactions, but of which, for the
reader's convenience, the substance will be introduced here; Dr. B. prosecutes
his experiments on quicksilver, for the purpose of ascertaining the truth or
fallacy of its fixibility by the fire, and other properties ascribed to it by the
alchemists.

Dr. B. subjected pure quicksilver for 15 years and a half (viz. from Nov.
17 18, to May 1734) to the continued action of a degree of heat equal to 100
and upwards of Fahrenheit's thermometer, in a phial, which admitted the air
without admitting any particles of dust. At the expiration of this length of
time, he found the quicksilver in the phial still fluid, with the exception of a
very small portion of a black powder on its surface, which powder was after-
wards revived by trituration in a glass mortar. Being afterwards subjected to

• For Part I. see Philos. Trans. N" 430j of theie Abridgments, Vol. vii, p. 619.



94



PHILOSOPHICAL TKANSACTIONS.



[anno 1736.

distillation, the whole of the mercury passed over into the receiver in the form
of fluid quicksilver, without leaving any residuum in the retort. Hence (says
Dr. B.) it is evident, that quicksilver is not fixable by long continued exposure
to the degree of heat beforementioned.

But lest it should be objected that the access of the air prevented its fixation.
Dr. B. subjected a quantity of purified quicksilver to lOO degrees of heat for
4. year (viz. from Dec. 173'i to July 1733), in close vessels. He afterwards
subjected a quantity of this quicksilver to the heat of a sand-bath, nearly equal
to the heat of boiling water, in vessels well closed. The quicksilver was found
to be unaltered, excepting a very small quantity of black powder on its surface,
which, as in the former instance, was revived by trituration. Being subjected
to distillation, the whole of the quicksilver passed over into the receiver, leav-
ing no residuum in the retort. The futility therefore of attempting to fix
quicksilver is clearly proved.

But it had been asserted by some chemical authors and particularly by Van
Helmont, that some metals were resolvable into quicksilver. " When lead
(says the last mentioned chemist) is dissolved by alkalies and salts, or oil,
which take in the sulphur and separate it from the body, the lead by this means
becomes changed into a volatile running mercury, which can no more endure
the fire, as before, but is cold and running like water, and without a metalline
form." (Vide Paradoxical Discourses of V. Helmont, Lond, l685. Part II.
§ 22.) The same thing is affirmed by Joachin Becher. (Vide Collectanea
Quingentor. Experimentorum k p. 310, ad p. 333.) But after subjecting lead
to processes similar to those described by the last mentioned authors, as well as
to a treatment similar to that described by Isaac Hollandus ; Dr. B. was unabls
to extract a single particle of quicksilver from that metal.
^ Dr. B. afterwards made a numerous and laborious set of experiments on
amalgams of lead and quicksilver, of tin and quicksilver, and lastly of gold
and quicksilver. After long-continued* digestion in a heat of 84, the amal-
gam of lead being distilled, the quicksilver passed over into the receiver, minus
43 grs. in 3 oz. (the total quantity of quicksilver operated upon in this expe-
riment) in part accounted for by the red powder (precipitate per se) which re-
mained behind in the retort, which was not volatile in the aforesaid degree of
heat. The weight of the lead was found to be the same as before the opera-
tion, viz. 1 oz. Hence it appears that no mercury is obtainable from lead-|- by
amalgamation, digestion and distillation with quicksilver, in the manner above-
mentioned.

* From the 1 1th of Feb. 1732, to the 10th of Jan. 1735.
f In other words, none of the lead is convertible into mercury.



VOL. XXXIX.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. ' QS

An amalgam of tin and quicksilver in the same proportions (viz. 1 oz. of
tin and 3 oz. of quicksilver) being digested in the same degree of heat, and
afterwards subjected to distillation ; there passed over into the receiver '2 oz.
4 drs. of quicksilver. There remained behind in the retort a powder, the finer
part of which consisted of fixed mercury,* and the coarser black portion of
particles resembling tin. There adhered to the neck of the retort a small
quantity of quicksilver, weighing 2 drs. 5 grs. The residuary mass of tin
weighed 1 oz. 1 dr. g grs. There was a loss of 46 grs. This experiment
shows that quicksilver cannot be extracted from tin; but more than a seventh
part of the quicksilver remained combined with and fixed in the tin, even
when subjected to a red heat for the space of 4 hours. — Dr. B. mentions that
the quicksilver distilled from the lead and tin amalgams, on being shaken in a
clean white glazed earthen vessel soon deposited a black stain on the sides of
the vessel : that on being spread out on writing paper, the said quicksilver left
a black trace where it passed over the paper ; and lastly, tiiat when at rest,
the surface of such quicksilver was always covered with a greasy pellicle or film.
Hence he supposes, that some of the particles of these metals may be volati-
lized by the quicksilver; but this he observes is very different from the actual
conversion (as some have supposed) of a portion of these metals into quick-
silver.

The results of Dr. B.'s experiments on amalgams of gold and quicksilver, are
related in the 3d part of his communications on this subject. After subjecting
an amalgam of gold and quicksilver to digestion and repeated distillations,-|-
the gold was found to be of the same weight, and to possess the same proper
ties as it did before it underwent this treatment. The quicksilver was in part
converted into a very fine brown powder, of a sharp metallic taste, which how-
ever was again brought to the state of fluid quicksilver, by the action of a
stronger degree of heat. Thus there was no purification of the quicksilver by
the gold in this experiment, the latter metal being found unaltered after the
operation.

When an amalgam of gold and quicksilver is exposed to the fire, the silvery
appearance of the amalgam is changed first into a brown, and afterwards into
a black colour ; but by the action of a higher degree of heat, the yellovy
colour is restored to the gold, and the silvery lustre to the quicksilver. From
these experiments it is inferred, that all hopes of fixing quicksilver by subject-
ing it to the action of the fire with gold, must be relinquished for ever.

• i. e. not volatile in the beforementioned degi-ee of heat,
t In the course of these experiments, the distillations were repeated 877 times !



96 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO 1736.

A Partial Eclipse of the Moon, observed at fVittemberg, Oct. 2, 1735, N. S.
By J. F. Weidler, F. R. S. N° 443, p. 359-

At O** 59" A. M. The eclipse began.
3 36 The eclipse ended.

Account of a Shock of an Earthquake felt in Sussex, Oct. 25, 1734. Com-
municated by Charles Duke of Richmond and Lenox, &c. F. R. S. And
of another in Northamptonshire, in Oct. Anno 1731, by the Rev. Mr. fVasse.
N°444, p. 361.

On Oct. 25, 1734, between 3 and 4 in the morning, there happened an
extraordinary earthquake in Sussex. And what confirms the Duke in the
opinion that there really was an earthquake, is, that almost every one agrees
in the same description, as to the sensation, the hour of its happening, and
the perfect calm that was at that time. His Grace observes that the shock was
vastly more felt towards the sea-side, as at Shoreham, Tarring, Goreing, Arun-
del, and Havant. At his house of Goodwood, which is near 3 miles north of
Chichester, and about 7 from the sea, it was not so perceivable as at Chichester,
and where it was still less so than by the sea-side. It is not heard as yet
that there was the least touch of it in any parts of the vale on the north-side
of the Downs, which for the most part run east and west. What Dr. Bayley
of Havant says of the different motions of the beds, according to the different
situations they were in, seems very well worth observing, being a very curious
man. Above 50 more accounts might be collected from the several places
abovementioned; but as they all tend to the same purport, the following may
be sufficient.

An Account of the same Earthquake at Havant in Sussex. By Edw. Bayleij,

M. D. N" 444, p. 362.

Oct. 25, 1734, between 3 and 4 o'clock in the morning, an earthquake was
felt at Havant, in Sussex : the shock was so considerable, as to be observed
by one or other in most houses of the town. Happening to be aw.ike at
that time, the Dr. perceived the bed shake under him, with a quick tremulous
motion, which continued about 2 or 3 seconds, then ceased ; and after a very
short intermission was repeated in the same manner, and lasted about the same
space of time. He was at first much surprised at such an unusual phenome-
non; but on a little recollection, concluded it must be occasioned by an earth-
quake, and was soon confirmed in his conjecture by the concurrent observa-



VOL. XXXIX.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 97

tons of the neighbours, and afterwards by accounts of the same from many
other places; in some of which it seems to have been more violent than at
Havant. Several persons in this place say, that they not only perceived the
shaking of their beds, but also the rocking of their houses, with a rumbling
noise of drawers, and the like moveable goods, in their chambers, and other
rooms. A learned and ingenious gentleman in that town affirmed, that the
motion of his bed appeared to him like the tossing of a vessel when it crosses
over a wave, the head and feet rising and falling alternately several times ;
whereas the Dr.'s seemed rather to rock from side to side : but these contrary
motions of the two beds are easily accounted for, by considering their dif-
ferent positions, the former standing directly east and west, and the Dr.'s
north and south : for supposing the undulatory motion, which the earth might
have at that time, was propagated from east to west, the same kind of motion
which caused the former bed to rise up and down lengthwise, must make the
latter rock from side to side; as may be observed in two vessels sailing in con-
trary directions on the same waves of the sea, that which crosses the waves at
right angles being tossed up and down endwise, while the other moving in a
line parallel with the waves, is rocked from side to side. What makes the Dr.
more inclined to think the progressive motion of this earthquake was from east
to west, is, because it appears from the best accounts, that it was observed
sooner east than westward, and likewise extended farther from east to west,
than north and south.

The Dr. thinks it may not be amiss to take notice of some remarkable phae-
nomena, which happened before and after, as well as some other circumstances
which immediately attended this earthquake, most of them agreeing with those
signs which have been observed by the learned to precede or accompany former
earthquakes, in these and other parts of the world. It was observable, that
there had been of late more rain and wind for several months successively, than
for many years past ; especially from the beginning to the middle of this month ;
about which time it cleared up, and the weather became suddenly very cold,
with frosty mornings, the wind blowing generally pretty hard from n. w. On
the 23d, the cold abated considerably ; it was cloudy, but no rain. The 24th
was very calm all day ; it rained most part of the afternoon, though the mer-
cury stood at ?>0-iV- It continued very calm all night, and rained hard for
some time before and after the earthquake happened ; but it soon cleared up,
and a strong gale of wind rose within half an hour, or, as some say, within a
quarter afterwards : it continued blowing hard all the forenoon.

Philip Boisdaune, Esq. of the parish of Funtington in the county of Sussex,
and many other persons, all agree, that there was a manifest shock of an

VOL. VIII. O



98 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO 1736.

earthquake felt on Oct. 25, about 4- before 4 in the morning, which lasted by
fits some few seconds, about -j- of a minute, or while one might deliberately
count to 20: for most of the accounts concur in this particular, that the chairs,
wainscot, doors, chests of drawers, and other moveables, were heard rattling ;
and one, that a bell rung of itself just before they felt the heaving of their
beds ; and that there was no wind stirring at that time, but that it rained, and
the wind rose soon after.

Of a Shock of an Earthquake felt in Northamptonshire, in October 1731.
By the Rev. Jos. Wasse. N° 444, p. 367. 1

About 4 in the morning, Oct. 10, 1731, the Rev. Mr. Jos. Wasse, rector
of Aynho in Northamptonshire, says, that his windows rattled, as if some-
body had been dancing over-head. The concussion lasted about 1 minute ;
others thought it lasted about 2 minutes. It alarmed the neighbouring vil-
lages, Bloxham, 4 miles south-west from Anyho; Barford, b ; Banbury, 4
west; Adderbury, 1 mile west ; Crowton, 1 mile to the east; and Charlton,
as much to the north. There was no notice of its progress south or south-
east. About 1 minute after, some of the town of Aynho saw a great flash
of lightning. In the morning the sky looked of a land-colour. It was said
that there was a former shock felt upon Oct. 8, about 3 in the morning; and
that the latter was preceded by a noise like distant thunder.

It is remarkable, that this shock was perceived to extend more from east to
west, than from north to south ; which particular was likewise observed in the
last shock felt in Sussex 1734.

Experiments on Quicksilver. By Dr. Boerhaave, Part III. N° 444, p. 368.

From the Latin,

The substance of this paper has been incorporated with Part II. inserted
at p. 93, of this vol. of the Abridgments.

Concerning an Improvement of the Diving Bell. By Mr. Martin Triewald,
F. R. S. Captain of Mechanics, and Military Architect to his Swedish Majesty.
N" 444, p. 377.

Mr. Triewald having made trials with the diving bell and air barrels in several
depths, on the coast of the Baltic, according to the ingenious improvement of
Dr. Halley, made in the year 17 16, but with some small additions; he found
by experience, that no invention founded on any other principles than those of



VOL. XXXIX.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 99

the campana urinatoria, can be of use in any considerable depths; or that the
diver, in any other invention whatever, can be a single moment safe. As to
the many inconveniences that attend other inventions, he only mentions that of
a water armour, in which the man is drowned in an instant, when such a ma-
chine receives the least leak ; whereas experience has shown, that when such an
accident has happened to the diving bell, as to his knowledge it did once, when
the diver was 12 fathom under water, and a pretty large hole happened to be
struck in the bell, by a bolt of the wreck he went upon, when the air rushed
out of the same with such violence as astonished the beholders by the excessive
boiling on the surface of the water, fearing, not without reason, that the man
in the bell vvas drowned; but he clapped his hand to the hole or leak, and gave
a sign to be hauled up, which was done with all the ease and safety as if no
accident had happened to him, the water having only risen about half a foot
into the bell by this leak.

The very same diver that was then in the bell is 63 years of age, and has
used the business of diving ever since he was 20, in a common diving bell.
He declares that never a worse accident happened to him in his business, except
once, when the bell he was in rushed down at once about a fathom or more, by
the carelessness of those that worked the bell; at which time the blood came
out of his nose and ears, feeling besides an intolerable pressure on his whole
body; which shows, that when a man in a diving bell is slowly and gradually
let down, he at such a time and by degrees respiring compressed air, which by
the lungs is forced into the blood, cannot feel the external pressure, though of
highly compressed air, surrounding him, and that of the water reaching some
parts of his body; which convenience no other invention can yield or afford,
where the diver is to draw his breath from air in its natural state.

Mr. T. has often with a great deal of pleasure observed, that when he has
caused the bell to stop, being lowered down 5 fathom, and the diver taking in
the air contained in an air barrel, lowered down a fathom deeper than the bell,
without opening the cock for discharging the hot air; the water would, by the
access of the air out of the barrel, be almost all expelled out of the bell ; and
when the same was again lowered down 5 fathom more, the same operation with
another air barrel repeated, and the bell afterwards hauled up, it was no small
matter of delight to see, that every fathom the bell came up, it would discharge
itself of the superfluous and large quantity of air; which can)e up from the
bottom of the bell in very large bubbles, as large as ostrich eggs; which dis-
charge of air and phenomenon continued till the equilibrium of the air in the
bell, and pressure of the water, were restored, and till the bell came above the
surface of the water.

o 2



100



PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS.



[anno 1736.



At other times he has observed, when no air was by the way taken into the
bell, but the same lowered down the common way, and hauled up again after
some time, that the very instant when the bell should part with the surface of
the water, the strength of two men more was required at the capstan at that
time, than before and after the bell hung freely in the air; from whence he
thinks it plainly appears, that the air which passes through the lungs of an ani-
mal loses its elasticity, and that the lungs of a man make a kind of a vacuum
in the bell; for which re.nson the diver feels at the instant when the bell parts
with the water, a very smart pressure in his ears.

Though experience thus has taught that no invention is more safe and useful
than the campana urinatoria, with the ingenious improvements of Dr. Halley;
yet M. Triewald has found, that this invention is not to be used without con-
siderable charge ; requiring a large vessel, and number of hands, to the work-
ing and managing of such a large diving bell, and the air barrels with their
respective weights for sinking; which charges however, according to the depth
of water, and the value of what is to be brought up from the bottom of the sea,
may not be regarded; but since it more frequently happens in these parts, that
cargoes of a far less value than the loadings of Spanish galleons, &c. are to be
dived for; then next to the goodness of the invention, he has found it neces-
sary to think how the expences might be lessened, and the diving bell still an-
swer all the purposes of Dr. Halley's; which improvement is as follows:

The diving bell, ab, fig. 8, pi. 2, is made of copper, and reduced to a very
little compass, in respect to Dr. Halley's, by which means it is easily managed
by two hands: yet Mr. T. thinks that a diver may not only live in the same as
long, and with as much ease, at a very considerable depth of water, as in a bell
of twice its capacity, for this reason, though a man in a large bell has undoubt-
edly more air than in a less, and consequently should be able to subsist much
longer on a large quantity of air than on a small parcel: yet as his head is kept
chiefly in the upper part of the bell, occupied by the hot air, he receives very
little or no benefit from the air under his chin or breast, though never so fit for
respiration; which air in the lower parts of the bell will yet remain cool a long
time after he has been in the bell, and with difficulty drawn his breath; which
cannot be denied, and is very obvious to any who have been in a German
bagnio, and such as are made use of in this country, where in a single room all
the degrees of heat are to be felt, by means of a contrivance like stairs to the
very top of the ceiling; a man on the uppermost step feels an excessive heat,
so that one not much used to it cannot endure the same, nor draw his breath,
but will faint away; whereas on the first, second, and third steps from the
floor, the heat is very moderate; nay, sometimes the air near the floor pretty
cool, when at the same time near the ceiling the heat is intolerable.



VOL. XXXIX.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. Id

To obviate this inconvenience, he caused a spiral tube of copper, be, to be
placed close to the inside of the bell, so fixed that it may be easily taken out
and cleansed at pleasure ; and at the same time not to incumber the diver in the
bell. At the upper end of this tube, a flexible leather tube is joined, 1 feet
long; at the end of which is a turned ivory mouth-piece, which the diver, as
soon as he perceives the air to grow hot in the top of the bell, keeps constantly
in his mouth, which he is able to do in any position, by means of the flexible
tube, standing, sitting, bowing his head, &c. And all the while he draws his
breath through it, and the air from c; by which contrivance he not only draws
continually cool and fresh air as long as any is in the bell, but occasions at the



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