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The Philosophical transactions of the Royal society of London, from their commencement in 1665, in the year 1800 (Volume 8) online

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same time a circulation, which is so necessary to the very being of air, espe-
cially in a compressed state, and its preservation for the use of animals; and so
much the more necessary, as any body who has been in a diving bell for a long
time without any new supplies of air, and has been reduced to the last extre-
mity of breathing in it, will agree, that when at such a time the bell begins to
be drawn up, and by that means the compressed air allowed to expand, and be
put into motion ever so little, the man receives as it were a new life, and incre-
dible comfort and ease.

Again, when, in coal-pits, levels are driven in the coal, or through dykes,
the air of the level or adits growing hot by the breath and sweat of the hewers
and workmen, for want of a circulation of the air; he has found it to be an
excellent remedy, to place along the side of the drift or adit, a square wooden
box, open at both ends, laid from the place where the air is cool and good,
reaching as far, by joining one box close to another, as where the work is car-
ried on. Thus, by this simple contrivance, a circulation of air is obtained, and
sometimes to that degree, that when a candle is held at the end of the box
where the cool air enters, the flame is driven out by the current of cold air
entering and circulating through the box.

By which experiment he thinks, that though the diver should not keep the
end of the flexible tube in his mouth, which he may easily do, yet that the air
would circulate through the copper tube, and he will receive no small benefit by
it. DD are the weights for sinking the bell, so contrived as easily to be hooked
on the same hanging on the cable. The iron plate e, fixed to the chains fff,
serves the diver to stand upon, when he is at work.

The bell is very well tinned on the inside; and as in all rivers, and the coasts
of the Baltic, the water is exceedingly clear and limpid, because there is no
ebb and flood, M. Triewald has placed strong convex lenses gcg ; by which
means the diver can not only see what is under him, but also on all sides at a
good distance.

These glasses have strong copper lids, hhhh, like snufF boxes, which are


shut, when there is no occasion to discover any objects in the bottom of the
sea, and serve to preserve the glasses from being broken.

A Description of the Moose* Deer of New England, and a sort of Stag in
Firginia ; with some Remarks on Mr. Ray's Description of the flying Squirrel
of America. By Mr. Samuel Dale. N° 444, p. 384.

The moose-deer has been mentioned by several authors ; but their accounts
have generally been so very imperfect, as to afford little satisfaction to the curi-
ous enquirers into natural history. The first mention that Mr. Dale finds made
of this animal, is by Mr. Josselyn, in a small tract, called New England's
Rarities ; where he says, " that it is a goodly creature, some of which being 12
feet high, their horns exceeding fair, with broad palms; some being 2 fathoms
from the top of one horn to the other." Much to the same purpose is the ac-
count he gives of this animal in another book, called Two Voyages to New
England, where, he says, " that the moose or elk is a creature, or rather a
monster of superfluity, when full grown, being many times bigger than an
English ox." What Neal, in his History of New England, Vol. ii, p. 573,
has of this animal, called by him the mose. is copied from Josselyn. The best
and fullest account of this animal was sent by Mr. Dudley, and published in
Phil. Trans. N° 368, where he makes them to be of 2 sorts, viz. the common
light grey moose, called by the Indians, wampoose ; and the large or black
moose. As to the grey moose, Mr. Dale takes it to be no other than that
which Mr. John Clayton, in his account of the Virginia quadrupeds, published
in Phil. Trans. N°210, calls the elk: which in the Memoirs for a Natural
History of Animals, published at Paris, and rendered into English by Mr.
Pitfield, p. 167, is called by the name of the stag of Canada, of which Mr.
Dale has seen a single horn, sent by Mr. Mark Catesby from Virginia, by the
name of an elk's horn, which was in all respects like those of our red deer or
stags, only larger, weighing about 12 pounds avoirdupois; and from the burr to
the tip, measured by a string, about 6 feet high. Mr. Dudley writes that his
grey moose is most like the ordinary deer ; that they spring like them, and herd
together sometimes to the number of 30 in a company. But whether he means
the red, the Virginian, or the fallow deer, is uncertain, having said nothing of
their horns, which was necessary to distinguish them. The black moose is ac-
counted by all writers a very large creature. Mr. Josselyn makes it many times
larger than an ox ; and Mr. Dudley writes, that the hunters have found a buck
or stag-moose 14 spans high from the withers; which at 9 inches to the span,

* The moose is the American variety of the ccnitu alee* of Linnaeus.


is 10 feet and a -J-; and that a doe or hind of the fourth year, killed by a gentle-
man near Boston, wanted but 1 inch of 7 feet in height. The stag, buck, or
male of this kind, has a palmed horn, not like that of our common or fallow
deer, but the palm is much longer, and more like that of the German elk ;
from which it differs, in that the moose has a branched brow-antler, between
the burr and the palm, which the German elk has not.

Fig. 7, plate 4, represents the head, or rather the attire, as it is called in
heraldry, of a black moose-deer, which was sent to Mr. Dale from New Eng-
land ; the dimensions of which are, as follow :

AB 56 inches, ca 34, ce 31, cd 34, dh 30, fg Q-l, fi 14, kl 7.

The horn of this New England black moose agrees not in figure with either
of those mentioned in Phil. Trans. N°227, and N°394, found fossil in Ireland;
the last of which Mr. Kelly writes, that for want of another name, they called
them elks-horns. Mr. Dale suspects that those horns Mr. Ray mentions, in
his Synopsis Methodica Animalium quadruped to have seen with Mr. Holney, an
apothecary at Lewis in Sussex, as also in divers museums, were not the horns
of this black or American moose, but of the German elk ; because that in-
quisitive gentleman takes no notice of any brow-antlers they had, which Mr.
Dale thinks was too remarkable to have escaped his observation, had there been

any such.

As to the number of young ones, or calves, which the moose brings forth at
a time, authors vary : for, Mr, Dudley says, they bring forth only 2 : but
Josselyn in his '1 Voyages, and from him Neal, that they bring forth 3 ; and
that they do not go so long pregnant, as our hinds, by 2 months. What these
two last- mentioned authors write, as to their casting their calves a mile distant
from each other, does not seem probable ; nor does Mr. Dale find that Neal,
in his description of this animal, makes any mention of their having a long tail,
though charged so by Mr. Dudley, who also omits the brow-antlers in his de-
scription of their horns.

There is another beast of the deer kind, which though very common in
Virginia, and doubtless in others of the northern provinces of America, yet so
far as Mr. Dale knows is not described by any author. Mr. Beverley, in his
present state of Virginia, mentions both elk and deer in that country, but does
not describe either.

But by what Mr. Dale received from Mr. Catesby, the first should be the
Canada stag, and the other the deer here mentioned. Mr. Clayton also men-
tions the elk, which he says are beyond the inhabited parts, and are the same
with Mr, Beverley's ; as also the deer of which he says there are abundance ;
yet he does not describe them, but calls them red deer, though they are not the
same with what we here call by that name, but of those that follow.


That which Mr. Dale takes for the undescribed deer, is of the stag-kind
having round horns like them, not spreading out as in the stag or red deer, but
meeting nearer together at their tips, and bending forwards over the face of the
animal ; the brow-antlers are not crooked, standing forwards, but straight and
upright, as represented fig. 8, the dimensions of which are as follow :
ab 1 1 inches, acb 20, ad 12-i-, df 12^, de 11, gh 24.

The skin of this deer is of a sand colour, with some black hairs intermixed,
and while young spotted all over with white spots, like some sorts of fallow
deer ; being likewise about their size when full grown. The Dama Virginiana
Raii Synop. Animal, Quadruped, p. 86, which was formerly in St. James's-Park,
seems to be different from this ; if Mr. Willoughby was not led into a mistake
in taking it to be of the palmate kind, by only seeing it when the horns were
shed : perhaps this last of Mr. Ray may be the maurouse of Josselyn's Voyages,
p. 91, which he says is like the moose, only his horns are but small, and the
creature about the size of a stag ; but his description is too short to be satis-

There are other kinds of deer mentioned by Mr. Josselyn in his book, p. 87,
as natives of that country ; as the buck, stag, and rein-deer : but whether they
are the same with those called by the same names in Europe, Mr. Dale cannot
determine ; their descriptions being omitted. Mr. Josselyn also mentions, as
another kind of American deer, an animal called a maccari, caribbo, or pohana:
but by the account he gives, it seems to be a fiction ; no such animal being,
Mr. Dale thinks, in rerum natura.

Mr. Ray, in his Synop. Quad. p. 215, rather refers the sciurus Americanus
volansto the mouse, than to the squirrel kind,* because their tails are broad and
plain, and not turned over their backs when they sit; which mistake may pro-
bably arise from only seeing the skin of a dead one, when the hair of their tails
had been eaten off by mites : for, in one Mr. Dale saw alive, which was brought
from Virginia, the tail was hairy, as in others of the squirrel kind, though
rather thinner ; and it turned over the back as in other squirrels.

Dr. Mortimer observes, that the $ame species of flying squirrel has been
found in Poland ; a description of which, with an accurate figure, is given by
M. Klein, Phil. Trans. N° 427.

And that as to the large horns found fossil in Ireland ; he has taken parti-
cular notice, in several he saw, besides the main horns being palmated, that the
brow-antlers are so likewise ; a circumstance peculiar to the rein-deer species,

• The Atnerican flying squirrel is of a pale rufous-brown colour, white beneath, and is the mvt
volans, Linn. The Polish or European flying squirrel is a different species, larger, of a grey colour,
white beneath, and is the sciurus volans, Linn.


being of great service to them in removing the snow, in order to get at the
grass or moss underneath, which is their chief subsistence in Lapland.

An Attempt to explain the Phenomenon of the Horizontal Moon appearing larger
than when elevated several Degrees above the Horizon, supported by an Experi-
ment. By Dr. Desaguliers. N° 444, p. SgO.

This apparent increase of the moon's diameter, which a telescope with a mi-
crometer shows to be only apparent, is owing to the following early prejudice
we have imbibed from children. When we look at the sky towards the zenith,
we imagine it to be much nearer to us, than when we look at it towards the
horizon : so that it does not appear spherical, according to the vertical section
EFGHi, fig. 9, pi. 4, but elliptical, according to the section epghi. The sky
thus seen strikes the eye in the same manner as the long arched roof of the isle
of a cathedral church, or the ceiling of a long room.

This being premised : let us consider the eye at c, on the surface of the
earth ; and imagine c at the surface to coincide with k at the centre ; to avoid
taking into consideration that the n)oon is really farther from the eye when in
the horizon, than when it is some degrees high. Now when the moon is at g,
we consider it as at g, not much farther than g ; but when it is at h, we
imagine it to be at h, almost as far again. Therefore, while it subtends the
nearly same angle as it did before, we imagine it to be so much larger, as the
distance seems to us to be increased.

Dr. D. contrived the following experiment to illustrate this : he took two
candles of equal height and size, ab, cd, fig. 10 ; and having placed ab at the
distance of 6 or 8 feet from the eye, he placed cd at double that distance; then
causing any unprejudiced person to look at the candles, he asked which was
largest ? and the spectator said they were both of a size ; and that they appeared
so, because he allowed for the greater distance of cd ; and this also appeared to
him, when he looked through a small hole. Then desiring him to shut his
eyes for a time. Dr. D. took away the candle cd, and placed the candle ep close
by the candle ab, and though it was as short again as the others, and as little
again in diameter, the spectator, when he opened his eyes, thought he saw the
same candles as before. Whence it is to be concluded, that when an object is
thought to be twice as far from the eye as it was before, we think it to be twice
as large, though it subtends but the same angle. — And this is the case of the
moon, which appears to us as large again, when we suppose it as far again,
though it subtends only the same angle.

The difference of distance of the moon in Perigeo and Apogeo, will account

VOL. vm. P


for the different size of the horizontal moon at different times, adding also the
consideration of the faintness which vapours sometimes throw on the ap-

An Explication of the foregoing Experiment, to account for the Appearance
the horizontal Moon seeming larger than when higher. By the same. N° 444,
p. 392.

Dr. Desaguliers having made an experiment with 3 ivory balls, for confirma-
tion of what he had advanced, namely, that the deception arises from our judg-
ing the horizontal moon to be much farther than it is ; which is as follows.

Two equal ivory balls, fig. 11, pi. 4, were set one beyond another in respect
of the eye at e, namely, ab at 20 feet distance from the eye, and cd at 40.
Now it is certain, by the rules of optics, that the eye at e or p, will see the
ball CD, under an angle but half as large as it sees the ball ab ; that is, that the
ball CD must appear no larger than the ball op placed by the side of ab. But
when looking at the two balls with the naked eye in an open room, we consider
that CD is as far again from the eye as ab, and we judge it to be as large as ab,
as it really is, notwithstanding it subtends an angle but of half the size. Now
if, unknown to the spectator, or while he turns his back, the ball cd be taken
away, and another ball op of half the diameter be placed in the same line, but
as near again, at the side of ab, the spectator thinking this last ball to be at
the place of cd, must judge it to be as large as cd, because it subtends the
very same angle as cd did before.

It follows therefore — that if a ball be imagined to be as far again as it really
is, we make such an allowance for that imagined distance, that we judge it to
be as large again as it is, notwithstanding the angle under which we see it, is
no greater, than when we look at it, knowing its real distance. For this reason,
the moon looks larger in the horizon, and near it, than at a considerable height,
or at the zenith : because it being a common prejudice to imagine that part of
the sky much nearer to us which is at the zenith, than that part towards the
horizon ; when we see the moon at the horizon, we suppose it much farther ;
therefore as it subtends the same angle nearly, as when at the zenith, we
imagine it so much larger as we suppose its distance greater.

The reason why this experiment is difficult to make, is because the light from
the ball op is too strongly reflected on account of its nearness ; but if we could
give it so little light, as to look no brighter than the ball cd, it would deceive
every person. Dr. D. has made the experiment so as to deceive such as were
not very long-sighted ; but he found it very difficult to deceive those who see
at a great distance ; though they would all be deceived, if the distances were of


300 or 600 feet. Now in the case of the moon, the deceit is helped, because
the vapours, through which we see it when low, diminish its brightness, and
therefore have the same effect as would (or does) happen in the experiment,
when the light of the ball op strikes the eye no stronger than the light of the
ball CD.

Some Observations on a Man and JVoman bitten by Vipers. By Joseph Atwell,
D. D., F. R. S. and Principal of Exeter College, Oxford. N° 444, p. 394.

The man who had been bitten by a viper in the presence of several members
of the R. S., was again bitten in the presence of several besides Dr. A. in the
public hall of Exeter college at Oxford. He received two punctures in the
wrist, a little above the thumb : the blood issued, and more venom lay on
the orifices, than could be immediately imbibed. He complained in about half
an hour's time, that the poison was got up to his shoulder, and was entering
his body ; but notwithstanding this, he was not suffered to apply his medicine
[sallad oil] till an hour and 10 minutes after he was bitten : by which time he
began to be flushed and in a sweat, his hand swoln and discoloured.

On an application of his medicine, he found some abatement of his pain ;
but the swelling appeared more visible, and spread itself farther into his arm.
In about a quarter of an hour the man sunk under the table, and complained of
violent pains in his back and bowels, and he could not bear to be moved. At
last, his pulse failing, his jaw being fallen, his countenance changed, and eyes
fixed, he was stretched upon the table, and the medicine was applied to his
belly and stomach. Soon after which, recovering a little, he began to vomit,
and brought up more than a quart of phlegm and bile. In this condition he
lay for more than an hour ; and then was removed into Dr. A.'s lodgings ;
where he was seized again with a fit of vomiting, and also purging, and so con-
tinued till midnight. Dr. A. kept him in his own house above an hour, in
hopes of his growing better ; but his disorder still continuing, and the man be-
ing too weak and feeble even to stand, he sent him in a chair home to his own
lodgings; where he was put into bed, and after midnight fell asleep, and awaked
the next morning perfectly well ; excepting that his arm was still swoln, and
the flesh pitted, as if it had been dropsical. His arm was bound up in papers,
dipped in his own medicine; and this was all, as far as the Doctor could observe
or learn, that was applied to it.

The same day they caused 2 young chickens to be bitten ; one died in 2
hours, and the other in 4 hours time. A third was bitten 3 times, and then
had the medicine applied ; but it died at the end of 10 hours. The flesh of

p 2


this last was grown very black, and there was much extravasated lymph between
it and the skin, which stunk intolerably ; but Dr. A. could not perceive, that
the viscera were at all discoloured.

July 4. — Another fowl, half grown, was bitten in 1 places, and the medicine
was applied : half an hour after which, the fowl eat meat, and seemed much re-
covered, but was dead in 14 hours time.

July 6. — Two half-grown cocks were bitten ; the first was bitten but once,
yet violently, and turned black immediately ; it had the medicine applied, eat
meat afterwards, and seemed pretty well ; yet died in 20 hours. The other
was bitten 2 or 3 times, but hardly wounded, and not half so much discoloured
as the former : they bathed the wound with viper-oil, but the fowl died in
little more than 1 hours,

July 8. — Two young pigeons were bitten; the one had viper-oil applied im-
mediately, but sickened, and died in 4 hours : the other had olive-oil applied,
and recovered perfectly ; the flesh beginning to return to its natural colour in
about an hour's time.

July 17. — The woman was bitten in the public hall of Brazen-Nose College,
in presence of Dr. Frampton, Dr. Frewin, and several other physicians. Dr. A.
and many others. It had been suspected, that they played some tricks with
their vipers, and made them spend their rage and venom beforehand : to obviate
which a physician of the company had provided some fresh vipers, which he
himself had caught a day or two before, and kept in his own custody till that
time. The woman was bitten twice by one of these, and received 3 wounds,
one in the thumb and 2 in the fore-finger. Her hand was soon swoln and
spotted, and her finger turned black. After 23 minutes, she applied the medi-
cine to her hand, but not farther than the swelling went ; in which she was
perhaps to be blamed, and probably the following illness was in some measure
occasioned by it. She walked home very well in appearance: but about 3 hours
after the bite was received, she grew very sick, and in great pain ; was seized
with vomiting, purging, and fainting-fits, which continued all night, insomuch
that her life was despaired of: nor had she any sleep till noon the day following.
Dr. A. saw her about 6 that evening, when she awaked, and he found her very
well in spirits, but complaining of most acute pains in her finger. Her arm,
shoulder, back, and breast, on that side, were much swoln and inflamed : all
-those parts thus affected were bound up in papers soaked in the medicine. After
this there appeared on her finger 2 large bladders, full of a black corrupt mat-
ter ; and this not only on the wound, but one of them on a distant part of the
finger from it. She could not be persuaded to open them, which the Doctor
believes would have eased her considerably.


July "20. — The swelling was considerably abated, and almost reduced entirely
into her hand, which began to pit : but she complained still of her finger, and
coulii hardly endure to have it dressed with fresh papers. She continued in bed
till the 22d, for the sake of keeping her hand in an easier posture ; and then
she came abroad.

The same day that the woman was bitten, they caused a fowl to be bitten ;
but the wound was not deep, and little more than a scratch. Nothing was ap-
plied to it, and it died in 20 hours. A large puppy was also bitten the same
day, 3 times, in the head ; it had the medicine applied, but died in about
an hour.

It was known that the man and woman kept themselves fasting those days
when the experiment was to be tried on them : this occasioned a suspicion that
they might take some antidote to prepare their bodies : for which reason.
Dr. A. ordered the man to bring him some vipers after dinner, under pretence
of making some further experiments on dogs. He had provided at the same
time some fresh vipers without his knowledge, and then proposed to him to be
bitten by one of them, and apply his medicine immediately. His hand was be-
smeared with the medicine in applying it to a young dog, on which an experi-
ment had just been made. Two vipers were tried on the man, but neither
would bite him : one of them attempted it several times, and spilt his venom,
but always caught back his head again, as if there had been something in the
hand ofFensive. Suspecting that the smell of the medicine might occasion it,
they made him wash his hand, after which another viper bit him immediately :
but whether this conjecture was right or not, must depend on further trial.
The man received the bite on the joint of the thumb, and the blood issued at
the 1 orifices. He applied the medicine instantly : the thumb appeared black,
soon, the hand was swoln, and the flesh pitted immediately. He drank a mug
of ale after it, and then went home to bed. Next morning his whole arm was
swoln ; but he was so well, that he went 6 miles out of town, and came home ,
again in the evening. Dr. A. saw him again in the morning, when the swell
ing was almost gone above the elbow, but the flesh pitted below : the wound
had blistered, but the bladders were filled with a water, and not any thing of
that black matter which appeared on the woman's finger. They caused the
young dog, beforementioned, to be bitten the same day, and applied the medi-
cine : another dog was bitten 3 times in the nose, and nothing applied : both

Online LibraryRoyal Society (Great Britain)The Philosophical transactions of the Royal society of London, from their commencement in 1665, in the year 1800 (Volume 8) → online text (page 14 of 85)