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The Philosophical transactions of the Royal society of London, from their commencement in 1665, in the year 1800 (Volume 8) online

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years before, many parts of England were laid waste by the revenging Danes,
justly incensed against the English by the massacre of their countrymen in the
year 1002. The Saxon Chronicle, p. 141, acquaints us, that the county of



VOL. XLl.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 47Q

Hants, l)amrun-j-cipe, among others, was miserably harassed by these cruel in-
vaders this year of the date. It is therefore very extraordinary, that so fine a
pile, according to the age when it was builded should be raised at a time when
every thing else, sacred and civil, was plundered and destroyed by these merci-
less ravages. But probably the devastation was not quite so general as re-
presented.

If this be a genuine date, it is probably the oldest, Indian or other, that has
vet been noticed in England, perhaps in Europe ; and quite destroys the opi-
nions advanced by Scaliger, Vossius, F. Mabillon, Dr. Wallis, and other learned
men, concerning this matter.

Observations concerning the Virtue of the Jelly of Black Currants, in curing /w-
fiammations in the Throat. By Henry Baker, F. R.S. N* 459, p. 655.

In this paper Mr. B. states, that being frequently attacked with inflammation
in the throat, and not finding sufficient relief from the usual remedies, he was
at length advised by a clergyman of his acquaintance to swallow leisurely a small
quantity of black currant jelly, or if the jelly could not be got, a decoction of
the leaves in milk, or even of the bark (if it should happen in winter) used by
way of gargle. He tried the jelly prepared from the juice, and it had the de-
sired effect, and he afterwards recommended it to many of his friends, who
obtained similar relief from it. From a particular observation of its effects
during the attack of inflammatory angina, it operated by perspiration, and in
that way carried off the disorder.

Several Electrical Experiments, made at various Times, before the Royal Society,
By the Rev. J. T. Desaguliers, LL. D., F.R.S. N° 460, p. 661.

The first of these experiments were made before the R. S. May 14, 1741 ;
and were adapted to prove what the Doctor had mentioned in one of his former
papers concerning electricity, that electrics per se would not receive the electri-
city of a rubbed tube, so as to carry on to a distance ; but that, if those bodies
were changed into non-electrics, they would then receive and convey the
electricity of the rubbed tube, in the same manner as all other conductors of
electricity do.

The 2d set were made before the Society, on Thursday, May 28, J 74 1 ; in
order to prove that it is not the quantity of matter in bodies, that makes them
more or less receptive of electricity, and conductive of it, but entirely their
quality.



460 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO 1741.

The 3d set were performed before the Society, Thursday, Aug. 29, 1741,
to the following effect.

Dr. D. having found, by several of Mr. Gray's experiments, as well as some
of his own, that water is receptive of electricity, so as to be raised up in a little
cup, to emit a vapour towards the rubbed tube, to snap, and to give light ;
having also found, that when a dry tube, suspended horizontally, will not con-
duct the electricity of the rubbed tube applied to one of its ends ; and yet,
when blown into, will conduct it strongly all its length, because the electricity
runs along from one moist particle to another, though those particles are not

contiguous he thought that electricity might impregnate a whole jet of

water, whether perpendicular, oblique, or horizontal : and supposed also, that
if at any time there be electrical effluvia in or above a cloud, that virtue may be
communicated by the falling rain, to any thing that the rain falls upon. How
far this conjecture is true, will appear by the following experiment.

Having properly suspended, that is, suspended by some electric body, as
here cat-gut, a copper fountain with the spout downwards, the Doctor opened
the cock, and let the water spout into a vessel underneath: then, having excited
a great tube to electricity, he held it over the copper fountain, while an assistant
held the thread of trial, that is, a thread hanging from a stick, near several
parts of the jet, which attracted it sensibly : he then applied the rubbed tube
near the falling jet, which attracted it strongly, so as to bend it into a curve,
and sometimes cause it to fall out of the vessel below.

Concerning an Extraordinary Venereal Case. By John Huxham, M. D., F.R. S.

N° 460, p. 6Q7.

Mr. R. B. aged about 27, of a bilious, dry constitution, had for some years
before his death, contracted a virulent gonorrhoea, which was scarcely well
cured before he got a 2d, and at length a 3d. To complete his misery, being
in the fleet at Portobello, he had frequent impure conversation with some of the
negro women, who probably laboured under the worst species of pox, called
the yaws.

He returned with a very troublesome itching all over him, though no pustules
appeared ; was much thinner than usual, and had a horrible stinking breath,
and spit frequently a foul, corrupt matter. As he had no running, ulcer, bubo,
or nodes, he thought all safe. But not many days after his arrival at Ports-
mouth, post impurum cum impur^ coitum, a violent green-coloured gonorrhoea
appeared. For this he put himself under the care of a surgeon, who, after
much pains to no purpose, endeavoured to salivate him, but that also in vain.



VOL. XLI.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 481

The gonorrhcea indeed was much abated, but a bubo was risen in his left groin,
and some small verrucose eruptions about the anus.

In this condition he returned here, and put himself under the hands of Mr.
St , an ingenious surgeon, who endeavoured to bring the bubo to sup-
puration, but without effect ; for it soon receded, and presently violent pains
seized him in and about the fundament, which soon produced an exceedingly
painful phyma near the verge of the anus on the left side.

Dr. H. was now consulted, who advised to bring it to suppuration as soon as
possible, which was done in 2 days ; from whence issued abundance of purulent
bloody matter. — In a day or two more, another appeared on the other side,
which soon vented the like matter. — The verrucae also now grew more nume-
rous and larger, and many pustular and scaly eruptions appeared all over him.

Dr. H. ordered him to be fumigated with cinnabar, and advised him forth-
with to enter on a salivation. But, antecedent to it, as his humours were ex-
ceedingly tough and acrid, put him on a course of very plentiful dilution ; and
this the rather, as he was naturally of a dry and hot constitution, and besides
had lately been roasted in the torrid zone.

Dr. H. began, as usual, by giving him calomel ; which, though it neither
purged or vomited him, yet, after having taken 5 drachms, produced no degree
of salivation, nor did it make his gums sore. — However, it brought on his
gonorrhcea again : Dr. H. then ordered him once and again, 8 or 10 grs. of
turbith mineral, which scarcely puked him, and gave him only 2 or 3 stools.
Dr. H. now found indeed that mercury and he, as well as Venus, had been old
acquaintance ; so he greatly augmented the dose of the mercurials, ordering
immense quantities of thin watery diluents: notwithstanding this, there was
very little operation by stool, and scarcely any by salivation. Though his gums
and fauces were very sore and swoln, he scarcely spit 1 pint in 24 hours, and
that excessively tough and fetid. Even under this strong mercurial course, the
pustular and leprous eruptions increased daily, so as to cover almost his whole
body, even his very face. His hands and feet were vastly swoln, as in an
elephantiasis, with horrid fissures, from whence issued a very stinking ichorose
matter.

Dr. H. was quite confounded at this dreadful state of things, and seriously
bethought what further method could be taken against so terrible an enemy.
He had recourse to a warm emollient bath, in which his whole body was im-
merged ; after which he was well anointed with a strong mercurial ointment.
This was done for 3 days successively : notwithstanding which, though his
chaps grew exceedingly sore, and his throat so much inflamed and pained, that
he swallowed with extreme difficulty what he sucked through a pipe or quill, yet

VOL. VIII. 3 Q



482 PHILOSOPHICAL TKANSACTIONS. [aNNO 1741.

the spitting was very little increased, and as tough as ever : nor did the fistulous
ulcers seem in the least disposed to heal up, but vented a vast deal of stinking,
oily, sanious matter ; and even new ones broke out under each axilla, and a
very large phyma rose on the coccyx, which soon discharged the same kind of
virulent matter ; though we found the bone, and even the periosteum, quite
sound and untouched.

The scales were now grown so hard and stiff, that he could scarcely bend a
limb, or finger : also, abundance of ulcers, from whence flowed great quanti-
ties of greasy, purulent, and somewhat bloody matter, were broke out in his
thighs and buttocks. A very large tumour was also risen in his right breast,
and soon after on the left, voiding prodigious quantities of the same kind of
matter.

It was observable, that wherever any of these ulcers appeared, they ran only
under the skin, being entirely seated in, and feeding on, the membrana adiposa ;
so that the muscles and tendons underneath appeared as fair and florid as in the
most healthy constitution.

Dr. H. now unfortunately found, though too late, there was nothing to be
done by mercury in any form ; and therefore determined to run it oflT, and try
the guaiacum method and sweating, so much recommended of old, and in some
cases so justly, by Sir Ulric Hutten, and others ; at the same time keeping up
a most plentiful dilution, attempting withal to detach the scaly cuticle by con-
tinued emollient baths, which at the same time also would partly act by dilution.
By this means the scales came off apace, just in the manner usual in the con-
fluent small-pox ; only the exuviae were here much larger, several being above
4 or 5 inches over. In about a week's time, this coat of mail was pretty well
cleared off, and his breath, from the most horribly nauseous he ever smelt, be-
came as sweet as that of an infant. Nor was the matter spit, though still very
viscid, any way fetid : for the mercury was pretty well run down by lenient
cathartics, and the sloughs of his mouth cast off.

He was now become exceedingly emaciated : wherefore he ordered him
plentiful liquid nourishment with vipers, and large dilution, avoiding every
thing that was in the least gross or fatty. But with all this he still kept to his
three pints of strong decoction of guaiacum every 24 hours, sweating at least
2 or 3 of them.

Under this method Dr. H, conceived some hopes of his recovery, as he
seemed now to gain some small degree of strength and spirit ; but still his
ulcers rather increased than abated, and continually discharged a vast quantity
of matter, though by no means so thick, putrid, or bloody; and, indeed, in a
most profuse manner from under each axilla.



fl



VOL. XLI.J PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 483

But, what is vastly surprising, notwithstanding all the past methods and medi-
cines, 1 very large chancres now appeared on the glans penis, and a very con-
siderable bubo in the left groin. A troublesome cough soon also seized him,
with shortness of breath ; and be began to expectorate a purulent, and some-
times bloody kind of matter. As the whole membrana adiposa without, had
been consumed by the disease, it was now falling on that part of it that invested
the more vital parts. But nature could support no longer. He died in the ex-
Iremest degree of a pocky consumption. But not one single bone of any part
of his body appeared to be touched, though he died with near 40 ulcers upon
him.

An Account of Coal-balls made at Liege. By William Hanbury, Esq. F. R. S.

N° 460, p. 672.

This method of making coal-balls, has been much used at Liege, as also
sometimes in England and other parts. The way is, to collect the small dust of
pit coals, which would otherwise be useless or thrown away among the ashes,
&c. and temperate it up with water and some smooth fat clay, working it up
into balls or bricks, or pieces of any size and shape.* After being dried,
these burn easily and pleasantly, making a fire that is strong, clear, and very
durable.

The proportion of the two ingredients is various, from ^ of coal and 4. of
clay, to the reverse, or -j- of coal and -»- of clay, according to their different na-
tures; or most usually the medium proportion between those, viz. half and half,
or an equal quantity of each.

A short Account of Dr. Alexander Stuart's Paper concerning the Muscular
Structure of the Heart : which was read at several Meetings of the R. S. in
May and June 1735. By Cromwell Mortimer, M. D. Sec. R. S. N° 460,
p. 675.

Dr. Mortimer premises that the sketch exhibited in this paper of Dr. Stuart's
discoveries is drawn from memory, he not having any of the Doctor's papers by

• Probably the above practice gave rise to the present modern way of making bricks, now com-
monly used about London, &c. ; which is, to mix with the clay, or brick earth, a large portion,
about a 4th, of the fine dust sifted out of the common refuse of fires, coal ashes, which usually con-
tains a considerable portion of the small fine coal, which runs through the grate among the ashes.
This fine dust intimately incorporated through the brick, not only helps it to burn readily and
thoroughly, but also gives it on the outside a pleasant grey colour, which would otlierwise naturally
be a deep red.

3a2



484 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO 1741.

hiin, except some drawings. He does not undertake to give a description of all
the parts belonging to the heart, supposing tliein already sufficiently known
from the anatomical writers ; but only explains the surprising simplicity of its
muscular structure, as the ingenious Dr. Stuart has demonstrated it from vari-
ous preparations of boiled hearts ; viz. that the heart is nothing else but a single
muscle of nearly a semicircular form, whose fibres are all parallel.

This structure the Doctor endeavours to imitate, by certain lines described
on a plane, which being cut out in a circular form, and then rolled up into the
shape of a truncated cone, gives a rude idea of the position of the fibres in the
heart, though perhaps not near so clear and intelligibly, as by proper prepara-
tion and exhibitions of the heart itself.

The several courses of the fibres may be easily traced in a boiled heart ; and
if they are not found to answer to the directions of the lines on the paper-cone
with the strictest mathematical exactness, when rolled up, it must be ascribed
to the form of the heart, which is not exactly conic, though nearest reducible
to that figure ; and because the base is not a plane as in the paper-cone, but of
a convex round form; and the tendinous circle round it is of a smaller diameter
than the middle part of the heart.

By this structure and circumvolution of the fibres, the muscle which con-
stitutes the heart, by a simple contraction of its length, by those external
fibres which encompass both ventricles, contract the diameter of the heart,
while by the internal fibres, that form the septum and inside of the left ventri-
cle, it shortens its length, or draws the apex up nearer to the base : this is done
without any contrariety in the action of these fibres, or destroying the force of
each other ; but, on the contrary, they being all parallel to each other, and a
continuation of the same fibres, assist each other in their action.

The Doctor supposes this contraction is not caused so much by the influx of
the nervous spirits, as by the influx of the arterial blood, through the coronary
arteries into the substance of the heart ; and that the contraction of the auri-
cles comes from the same cause ; which will be alternate with that of the heart,
because the lateral branches, which arise out of the trunk of the coronary
artery, that encompasses ihe base of the heart and both auricles, are on one side
distributed into the substance of the heart, and on the other side into the coat
of the auricles; and will be alternately compressed, and alternately free, as the
auricles and ventricles are alternately full or empty of blood.



VOL. XLI.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTrONS. 485

Concerning the Foramen Ovale being found open in t/ie Hearts of Adults, and
of the Figure of the Canal of the Urethra. By M. le Cat* M. D., F. R. S.
^c. N°46o, p. 681.

In the winter of 1734 M. le Cat opened a great number of dead bodies of
men grown, and did not find the foramen ovale open in any of them. The
oldest of the male subjects, in which he found it open, was a lad of 15 years
of age. Of 20 bodies of women, which he examined, in 7 he found the fora-
men ovale open.

Among the number of openings that remain of this foramen, there is a great
variety in their shape, and in that of the cicatrices or adherences of the valve:
however, they may conveniently be reduced to three sorts.

The second sort of foramen ovale open in the adult, differs from the first
sort, in being more sunk, in, or more approaching the shape of a funnel. The
same foramen ovale of the second sort, seen on the side of the left auricle,
differs from the same side of that of the first sort, by the valve beginning to
make the goose-foot by its different attaches, which much resemble the columns
of the mitral valves of the heart. The foramen ovale of the third sort open
in the adult, differs from the preceding two, by the foramen ovale, nearly
forming a funnel. The same foramen ovale viewed on the side of the other or
left auricle, differs from the preceding ones, by the goose-foot formed by the
valve being much more compounded.

The women in whom was found the foramen ovale of the second and third
sort, were about 6o years of age.

The necessity M. le Cat was under of sounding frequently, and the diffi-
culties he sometimes met with in this nice operation, made him resolve scrupu-
lously to examine the figure of the canal of the urethra. On this he made a
number of experiments, two of which are here described.

1 . He melted resin with wax, and injected this liquid through the urethra.
He filled the bladder but half way with it, in order to preserve all the wrinkles
of the canal. When the injection was cold and solid, he cut through the ossa

» Claude Nicholas Le Cat taught and practised surgery at Rouen. He was, as Haller has re-
marked, a man of considerable ingenuity, but was ratlier too confident in his own abilities, and too
fond of inventing new hypotheses. He cultivated anatomy, physiology, and pathology, with great
assiduity; nevertheless, it is suspected that some of his anatomical observations were made inaccu-
rately, and many of his opinions are regarded as paradoxical. He wrote a number of dissertations,
such as a Treatise on Muscular Motion ; another on the Cause of Menstruation ; another on the Cause
of the black Colour in Negroes ; another on Lithotomy, &c. but his principal works, are his Traite
des Sensations et des Passions, and his Theorie de I'Ouie. A pension et des lettrcs de noblesse were
conferred upon him by Lewis XV. M. le Cat died in 1768, aged 68.



486 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO 1/41.

innominata. He dissected the left side of the canal and bladder, and the sec-
tion of these parts gave him fig. 4, pi. 10, the explanation of which is as
follows :

A represents the glans; b an elbow, which the ligamentum suspensorium
causes the penis to make ; c folds, or wrinkles, of the bulb or of the gulf of
the urethra; d the entry or straits of the prostate; e the gulf of the prostate,
or the verumontanum; f elbow, or straits of the entry into the bladder; g a
section of a portion of the bladder; h a section of the pubis; i the root of the
left corpus cavernosum cut through.

2. He injected another subject with very thick glue, entirely filling the
bladder with it through the canal of the urethra, till it was somewhat stretched.
He let this injection remain till the next day, and then found it solid and elastic.
He cut the parts round it, as he had done in the preceding subject; and after-
wards he made an exact division of the injection: he put one half of it on pa-
per, in order to have its shape exactly ; and thus he obtained fig. 5, having
added, in pricked lines, a pretty exact section of the adjacent parts.

A represents a section of the bladder; b a section of the pubes; c the cavity
of the abdomen; d the peritonaeum; e the integuments of the abdomen; p
the space between the pubes and the peritonaeum, taken up by the cellular mem-
brane, being the place of the incision in the high operation of lithotomy; g
the rectum; h the glans; i the corpus cavernosum ; k the urethra; l the elbow
of the ligamentum suspensorium ; m the bulb or gulf of the urethra ; n the
straits and elbow at the entry of the gulf of the prostate; o the gulf of the
prostate; ppp sort of elbows, or blind cavities, found in it; a the straits of
the entry into the bladder.

Remarks on the Weather, and accompanying three Synoptical Tables of Meteoro-
logical Observations for 14 Years, viz. from 1726 to 1739, both inclusive.
By Geo. Lynn, Esq. N° 460, p. 686.

Mr. Lynn having, for 14 years, kept a constant register of the altitudes of
the barometer and thermometer, the quantity of rain, the course of the winds,
&c. the first 5 years of which have been already communicated to the Royal
Society. He now sends the remaining Q years at large, ending Dec. 1739, in
the same method as formerly. But, believing it would be of good use, both
here and abroad, if the mean heights of the barometer, thermometer, and
quantity of rain in every month of the whole 14 years, with the collateral
means, both of the months and years, were brought all into one view together,
he has ranged them accordingly in a small table. On the whole it appears,



VOL. XLI.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 487

that the mean height of the barometer, for the whole 14 years, is 2Q.58 inches;
the mean quantity of rain annually, 23 inches; and the mean altitude of the
thermometer 56,52,48, that is, at the coldest time of the day 56, at the hottest
48, and their mean 52. The thermometer made use of, was that of Mr.
Hauksbee, and kept constantly in the same place. And the altitudes of the
thermometer are taken but twice a-day, viz. at the coldest, which is at sun-
rise, or sometimes a little after; and at the hottest, viz. between 2 and 4 in
the afternoon : by which method are gained the proportional heats for every
month in the year, and their difference, as also between that of day and night,
for 13 years together.

Mr. Lynn was not a little surprised to find, in casting up the column of the
mean altitudes of the thermometer collaterally, that as those for July, being
the hottest month, are 4 1 .354-,30, so the altitudes of June and August, on
each side of it, come out exactly equal to each other, and also those of May
and September; these last only differing in their morning and evening heats or
altitudes, which does not alter their medium of 44-i-. The following are some
few remarks added on the weather.

When there is a haziness in the air, so that the sun's light fails by degrees,
and his limb is ill defined, it is a pretty certain sign of rain, especially if the
mercury falls. The like haziness, at night, is still more a sign of it. It is
observable, that though the mercury, in the summer months, does not so much
vary in its altitudes, as at other times of the year; yet in that season we have
the most rain; it should seem therefore, that the different warmths, and con-
sequently rarefaction of vapours, in the upper and lower currents of the air,
and those currents mixing, and sometimes wholly interchanging, are then the
more immediate causes of the rains, if not also of thunder and lightning. —
Black fleecy clouds, formed on a sudden flurry of the wind, are generally suc-
ceeded by a shower: and, the shifting of the wind in a little time almost round
the compass, in hot weather, is often succeeded by a thunder-shower. — Several
times, when the mercury has been a good while high, and so continues, there
has fallen misling rain ; especially about the new and full moon, with an easterly
breeze, which the borderers on the coast of Lincolnshire and Norfolk call tide-
weather, and may be occasioned by the vapours arising from the tides, which
then cover a vast wash of sands in their neighbourhood. — Those vapours some-



Online LibraryRoyal Society (Great Britain)The Philosophical transactions of the Royal society of London, from their commencement in 1665, in the year 1800 (Volume 8) → online text (page 56 of 85)