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if these pores happen to be obstructed by a disease; if the surface of these
grains be altered by any erosion ; or if the natural tone of these solids be per-
verted; the lymph brought into these grains will be retained there: it will
stretch these globules ; their substance having lost its elasticity, will easily give
way; the nutritious juice, which they will not be able to drive further, will be
there assimilated, and will contribute to the dilatation. In fine, a vesicle
will be formed filled with lymph, or an hydatid, such as those we have ex-
amined.

This congestion of lymph, or hydatids, will not fail to soften, relax, and
raise up the membrane that covers them ; and thus a bag will be formed.

* See his Traite des Sens, Rouen, 1742, 8vo.— Orig.



VOL. XLI.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 4g7

When an hydatid swells to a considerable size, the volume of the fluid will
become disproportioned to the force of the teguments ; these will be burst by
the shaking of the contained fluid, on the least motion of the body. This fluid
will extravasate into the common bag, on opening which, the waters and mem-
branes, which result from that rupture, will be found.

Most part of the glandulous grains are distributed into clusters, as is well
known to anatomists ; therefore hydatids are also found disposed in clusters,
like ovaries.

Yet the greatest number of this heap will be composed of separate hydatids;
because, when one of these globules has acquired a certain bulk, it will gene-
rally break the too feeble pedicle, which held it attached to the cluster ; and
thus it will fall into the common cavity.

This kind of eruption, or general disengagement from the surface of the
bowel, must destroy its natural texture, and reduce it exactly to the state in
which we found the bottom of the bag of hydatids.

2. ^n Observation on the singular Consequences of an incomplete Hernia, and
on the Functions of the Intestines exposed to sight.

Catharine Guilmatre, of St. Adrian, near Rouen, aged 50, had a rupture in
the right groin, for 7 years before. At Easter 1739, there happened a stran-
gulation in her rupture ; and, having no assistance, the tumour suppurated,
and opened of itself. The excrements followed the pus, and the patient es-
caped at the expence of vomitings, and a little fever.

The intestine cicatrized with the integuments, but there remained externally
an opening, through which the excrements passed. The anus ceased to per-
form its usual functions ; and, that excepted, the patient was cured.

Towards Witsuntide, there issued out at the wound, besides the excrements,
a gut 3 or 4 inches in length ; but this gut was turned inside out, that is, the
villous coat was outward, and it conveyed no excrements ; these were always
discharged through the wound, on one side, and below the gut that was come
out.

In the month of August of the same year, 173g, there came forth at the
wound another gut, turned as the first, n)aking with it a continuous canal, but
at its end supplying faeces, which had before been discharged through the
fistula ; so that, instead of the fistula, there was found, as it were, the trunk
of 1 intestines, which made a kind of fork.

The woman, tired of this inconveniency, resolved at length to seek relief.
Fortune presented her with no other than the H6tel-Dieu of Rouen. She was

VOL. VIII. 3S



498 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [anNO 1741.

brought thither in December- Mr. Le C. was then in the country : she was
told, that her distemper was incurable ; and yet she was kept there till his re-
turn, to show her to him by way of curiosity.

In effect, he found her case deserved his utmost attention ; and he had her
carried to his house, iu order to examine it more at ease, and to have drawings
taken of her distemper.

What was curious in this distemper, was not an anus formed contrary to na-
ture in the groin, that accident being pretty common ; but it was the 1 guts
turned inside out, their villous coat, and their functions, demonstrated to the
very eye ; as also the aenigina occasioned by these 1 guts, which were both of
one piece, and which notwithstanding had 2 openings, the lower of which
voided the excrements, but the upper discharged nothing. He knew of no
other person, but Mr. Cheselden, who had observed an inverted gut in a living
body: but his observation added to his, Ist, Experiments on the action of pur-
gatives : 2dly, The singular figure of this hernia, the discovery of which has an
influence on the radical cure of this disease, and on those of the same kind
which may possibly happen, as will be seen by the sequel.

He thought he might give the epithet of singular to this sort of hernia ; be-
cause, on inspection, we instantly conceived, that the gut which voided the
excrements, was continuous to the stomach, and the other to the anus ; but
how was it possible, that these 2 inverted guts should be of one piece ? Let us
imagine a gut cut through by a strangulation : there remain 2 orifices, one that
runs to the stomach, the other to the anus : if the canal of each of these ori-
fices turns inside out, and prolapses, as it happens, to the anus ; we then have
2 guts prolapsed and turned, but they are distinct one from the other, far from
being of one piece. It must be allowed, that the aenigma is puzzling : and in-
deed many surgeons saw this singularity, but not one of them accounted for it.
The reader, if he be an anatomist, has but to attempt the solution, in order to
be sensible of the difficulty.

The villous coat, and the functions of these intestines, being exposed to the
eye, aflforded a circumstance still more curious and useful. These 2 portions of
guts seemed to be 2 large living worms. They moved here and there, twisting,
shortening and lengthening themselves like reptiles. The lower gut was much
more active and sounder. Once that he handled it, it twisted round his fingers
like an eel. The upper gut, that answered the anus, had less motion, and was
beset with pustules.

The expulsion of the fgeces engaged particular regard : we remarked in its
mechanism 2 sorts of motion. The first is the vermicular motion, allowed by
most authors. In this, the gut first swells, and becomes smooth ; then grows



VOL. XLI.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 4gg

narrower, running into wrinkles, and forming waves the whole lengtli of the
gut, where these two motions happen alternately. The straitening is per-
formed behind, and on the excrements, to drive them down ; the dilatation
happens before these faeces, in order to open them a passage : for example,
when the faeces were at the orifice, through which we saw them issue, this ori-
fice was spread open.

The 2d sort of motion observed in the guts, generally preceded the one
above described. In this motion the surface of the gut, being swelled and
smooth, was rendered uneven by many small impressions, or hollows, distributed
here and there, and which seemed to be formed by little local convulsions, cir-
cumscribed by the intestinal fibres. These convulsive impressions resembled,
in little, those that are made in the abdomen, on contracting some one of its
muscles. They made the surface of the intestine a little pale, and so formed a
sort of undulation on its surface. It was chiefly in this sort of motion, that
there was squeezed out of the villous coat of the intestines, a mucilage and
serosity, which flowed from it in abundance. Both these seem to serve for
diluting the faeces, and preparing them an easier passage. The cold air did not
fail to excite these motions, and the woman felt some touches of the colic

After having made these observations on the natural functions of the in-
testines, it occurred to him to observe the efi^ect of cathartics in them. We
do not often see the inside of the guts of a living person in good health, and
freely performing its functions : he was therefore willing to make use of so
uncommon an occasion.

First, he put a little pulp of cassia on several places of these 2 portions of
gut. This medicine made very little impression on those parts ; they stirred
very little, especially the upper gut. Next, he laid on manna. This, when
somewhat dissolved ; formed a sort of froth, and then the gut was agitated by
vermicular motions, and by small convulsive contractions, much more distinct
than in the conditions he had examined it before. He took off the manna, and
strewed powder of jalap on the gut. At first it had no effect ; but, when it
was moistened, the gut was violently agitated, discharged much serosity, and
the patient complained of gripings. He removed the powder, and under it he
found a great quantity of mucilage, already gathered there.

He thought it needless to harass the woman by further trials, which would
prove much the same with the foregoing ; and therefore turned his whole at-
tention on the means of curing her of this accident, and so rewarding her for
the services she had rendered us.

At first sight of this disease, he was as far as the other surgeons from com-
prehending the aenigma of the figure of the 2 ends of the gut continuous, or

3 s 2



500 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO 1741.

of one piece. He plainly saw that they were portions of the ileum ; but he
was obliged to meditate on it a 2d time, in order to guess at the rest ; and yet
nothing so easy when a person has hit it off.

The hernia which this woman had at first, was one of those named an in-
complete hernia properly so called ; that is, a hernia where there was but a
portion of the side of the gut pinched within the ring. This strangulated por-
tion mortified ; the sound lips cicatrized with the integuments ; the rest of the
canal remained within the belly ; and the excrements, which this remainder of
the canal received, issued at its outlet towards the groin.

The patient, being recovered, quitted her bed, and by little and little oc-
casioned the turning inside out, and fall of the portions of the intestinal canal,
situated above and below the open part. By this inversion, the remaining coats
of the opened gut came out likewise. This part is situated between the 2 por-
tions, one of which answers to the stomach, and the other to the anus ; and
with these 2 portions it makes but one and the same part, or a continued plane:
it was therefore found, out of the belly, between these 2 portions, and formed,
as it were, the trunk of these 2 branches.

The portion, or branch, corresponding with the anus, must have had less
motion, and be less sound ; because it is deprived of the share of life that
would come to it from the continuity of the fibres that were pinched and carried
off by the strangulation, and that it is continually exposed to the air. The
other portion is full of life, because its continuity with the stomach makes it
enjoy all the life that this communication can furnish it with ; and that besides
it remains within the abdomen, while the patient is in a recumbent posture.

In order to give the pupils of our Hotel-Dieu a clear notion of the formation
of this singular rupture, he made one just like it on a dead body. For that
purpose he made an incision in the abdomen, at the place of the rings. He
passed into it a gut, in which he made an opening. He sewed the lips of this
opening to those of the wound of the belly ; and having turned inside out the
portions of gut placed above and below this opening, they afforded a bifurcation
of guts continuous, and entirely like that of the observation.
!' A disease well known is sometimes half cured. This same portion of gut that
supplied the faeces, and that was so lively, was drawn back into the belly, when
the patient lay down, as already said ; and the other only constantly continued
out. This circumstance made him conceive hopes of curing this accident.

He reasoned in this manner: it is but first making this last gut enter in, and
bringing the disease to its first state : then, seeing there was a pretty large portion
of a canal still remaining between these 2 guts, as appeared by the size of the
trunk of the branches forined by them ; what remained to be done, after the



VOL. XLI.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 501

whole was reduced, was to close the exterior orifice of this demolished canal ;
that is, to close the opening made by the strangulation and mortification ; and
he conceived that this last operation was very feasible. The next thing to be
done was to refresh the lips of the fistula formed by the integuments of the
abdomen, which are thick enough, and on which shall be afterwards made a
gastroraphia proportionate to these parts.

The great difficulty was to reduce this end of gut, which was become hard,
and full of tubercles. He had already made a fruitless attempt, both with
cataplasms to repair the damages, and with manual operations proper for making
it re-enter. He was actually watching a favourable moment for this operation.
If he succeeded he intended to stay for making a 2d operation, till this gut has
remained long enough in the belly to repair itself, and resume its functions. In
order to that, he would content himself for the first 8 days, with keeping it in
the belly, applying resolving fomentations, and giving proper clysters. Then
he would put into the opening of the intestinal canal, that would answer to the
fistula, a silver canula of the same bore with the gut ; in order to push this
portion of a canal into the belly, to support it therein, and re-establish its com-
munication with the portion newly reduced. This silver canula would be fixed
by a plate of the same metal, guarded with plaster and linen, and placed on the
fistula, where it should be secured in its situation by a bandage. He would
then redouble the use of the clysters, and when he should be certain of the
re-establishment of the communication of the 2 guts, and the functions of the
portion continuous to the anus ; then he would withdraw the silver canula, and
would perform the operation, as abovesaid.

Concerning the Circulation of the Blood, as seen in the Tail of a Water-Eft,
through a Solar Microscope. By the Rev. Mr. Henry Miles. N" 460, p. 725.

This paper is now of no consequence, since it is well known that the com-
mon water-newt is one of the most favourable subjects for exhibiting a general
view of the circulation, which appears to peculiar advantage in the tail of the
male animal.

Concerning the true Delineation of the jisterisms in the ancient Sphere. By the
Rev. Ebenezer Latham, V. D. M. and M. D. N° 460, p. 730.

This is a method of fitting up the celestial artificial globe, by furn>sning it
with a moveable and temporary axis, which may be shifted occasionally, and set
in a position answerable to any former age and position of the heavens, allowing
after the rate of 50" a year for the precession of the equinoxes. In such situa,-?



502 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO 1741.

tions of the sphere, we may contemplate many of the astral descriptions given
by the ancient poets ; thus explaining and illustrating many obscure passages in
their writings. Mr. L. gives instances of many such quotations, and concludes,
the inspection of the globe, when it is fixed in a proper position, will convey
the best idea of all these appearances ; for we derive this advantage from the
new construction of it, that it will enable us to place the several phsenomena
before every eye ; by which means those who have the least acquaintance with
these studies, must be greatly surprised and pleased to observe the ancient ac-
counts minutely verified. It is a sort of living over again the former ages,
allowing 1° 23' 30' for every 100 years, according to Ricciolus and Flamsteed,
which is a sort of mean between the other computations.

I shall not now suggest some other purposes, that might be served by this
method. It is sufficient to recommend the invention, that it throws so much
light on the common classics, to which this examination is confined.

An Aurora Australis, seen at Rome, Jan. 27, 1740. By the Abbot Didacus de
Revillas, Prof. Math, et F.R.S. N" 46o, p. 744.

The sky being all over cloudy, at &^ afternoon a reddish light appeared be-
tween 45° and 55° of s. E. amplitude. It was about 8° high, and 10° broad.
About half an hour after, the light became more vivid, and then sensibly di-
minished again ; which it did several times till 9 o'clock.

A new Plotting-Table, for taking Plans and Maps in Surveying : invented in the
Year 1721. By Henry Beighton, F. R. S. N° 46l, p. 747.

This new plotting-table, is nothing more than the old plain-table, with some
new contrivances or improvements, which are here described at great and un-
necessary length.

Mr. B. says one of the chief objections against the plain-table, was the dif-
ficulty in shifting of papers ; for you were almost necessitated, when you were
at work on a sheet on the table, to put in all the work that is to be contained in
it, because it is very impracticable to put it on the table in the same precise posi-
tion again, and this although it were with the utmost inconveniency, in pur-
suing some grand station, on circumscribing the whole. This is entirely ob-
viated ; and I have remedied all the other objections against it, in a very simple
and easy manner, which I contrived in the year 1721, for making a correct map
of the county of Warwick ; by which, with good success and expedition, I
completed and published the same in the year 1728; and call the instrument
the plotting-table.



VOL. XLl.j PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 503

Concerning a large Piece of the Thigh-bone, which was taken out, and its Place
supplied by a Callus. By Mr. -IVm. Wright, Surgeon, at Bradford in York-
shire. N°46i, p. 761.

This was part of the os femoris, taken out of the thigh of a young man, 20
years of age, about the end of March 1738. His name was Hird Ramsden, and
he Hved at Braithwait, near Kighley. His lameness was occasioned by a fever,
which fell into his thigh, where it imposthumated, and was afterwards opened ;
but, not healing again, left 3 or 4 carious or fistulous ulcers, which discharged
a great quantity of sanies, and fetid matter, by which he was reduced almost to
a skeleton. In this condition he had been 6 or 7 years before Mr. W. was con-
cerned for him, and was considered as incurable. He examined his ulcers with
his probe, and found in one of them, which was on the inside of the thigh, a
rotten bone : he dilated the orifice with gentian and sponge tents, and after-
wards laid it open about 3 or 4 inches : he then dressed it with tincture of
myrrh, and dossils of dry lint ; and at every dressing, over the carious bone the
powder of rad. aristol. myrrh, and euphorb. in order to promote exfoliation :
with these applications the bone began to loosen, which looked much larger
than he expected. He was afraid of making another incision because of the
crural artery, which lay very near the place where the bone was taken out : he
therefore chose rather to do it gradually by dilating the orifice, than run the
risk of another incision. The same dressing was continued, and the spongy
flesh kept down with the powder of mercur. praecipit. rub. et alum. ust. aa. At
every dressing he raised the bone with a hooked instrument, and in about 4
months time he got it quite out. The cavity was afterwards kept open for some
time, with dossils of dry lint, to make way for some loose pieces that were left
behind. The ulcer, after it was well digested, healed up in a little time.
During this time his knee was very much contracted, which was afterwards ex-
tended by the use of emollient fomentations. At the date of this account he
was perfectly sound, and in a good state of health, walked straight, and his
thigh was not shorter than the other.

Of a monstrous Foetus, resembling a hooded Monkey. Communicated by Mr,
William Gregory of Rochester. N° 46l, p. 764.

A woman, aged 44, of an athletic body, conceived with child a little before
Christmas 1730; on which ensued all the usual symptoms of pregnancy. Soon
after conception, some fellows who travelled the country, with a bear and a
monkey, placed themselves before the woman's door, to amuse the populace.



504 PHILOSOPHICAL TKANSACTIONS. [aNNO 1741.

The monkey had a hood on, which reached to his shoulders, of which the wo-
man took great notice; and all the time the monkey was playing his tricks, in
turning over a stick, &c. the woman could not keep her eyes off him. A short
time after, the woman met a man of a thin, pale, dismal aspect, on whom she
looked very earnestly, and thought his face exactly like the monkey's. When
the woman was quick with child, and the foetus began to move, the woman felt
it turn over and over, many times successively, just as the monkey turned over
the stick, and always in the same manner. In the 7th month of her pregnancy,
she was taken ill, with a vomiting, gripes, and looseness, which soon ceased
without the help of medicine; on which her belly decreased, and the foetus did
not move so often, nor so strong, as before. The woman began to be very
uneasy, thought her case dangerous, and that she was not with child; on which
she consulted Mr. G. who was of opinion that she was with child. After this
time, the child within her stirred always less and less, till at the end of 10
months from the time of her supposed conception, and when she had not felt
the child move for 6 weeks before, she was delivered of the foetus, having the
appearance abovementioned, and the navel-string twisted as if by the foetus
turning over.

The Case of Mary Howell, who had a Needle run into her Arm, which came out

at her Breast. N°46l, p. 767.

Mary Howell, late of Oswestry, Shropshire, spinster, had, on the 3d day of
March 1732, a small needle, which she had stuck on the sleeve of her gown,
by her accidentally running against a door, driven, with some thread twisted
about it, into her left arm, about 6 inches below her shoulder; and a young
woman endeavouring to draw it out, broke off its eye, and left the needle in
her arm ; on which she directly applied to Mr. Tomkins, a surgeon, in the same
town, who endeavoured to extract it, but could not, without laying her arm
open, which she would not suffer. About a month after which, she felt a
gnawing pain above the place where the needle ran in, and up to her left
shoulder, which continued 3 or 4 days, and so returned by fits, till at length,
after about 7 years, she felt a gnawing pain at her stomach, which made her
very sick, and retching to vomit, and continued to afflict her, especially in the
mornings, for some days, after which she fancied a pin was got into her right
breast, in the under part: and 1 days after applied to Mr. Robert Nanney, sur-
geon, in Fetter-lane, who the same day lanced the breast, and extracted the
needle.



VOL. XLI.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 505

Mr, Alexander Ornie's Pectoral Syrup, sent in a Letter to Sir Hans Sloane,
Bart. i£c. from Calcutta, dated Jan. 25, 1733. N°46l, p. 769.

R Nantsjera Patsja Horti Malabarici cum toto q. v. incis. et contus. coq. ex aqme

font. q. s. colaturce forliter express, adde sacchari par pondus, et coque ad sy-

rupi consistentiam absque clarificatione.

Some uses of the pectoral syrup. — A drop or two, with a little honey, given
to new-born infants, greatly helps the necessary cleansing of the bowels. Three
or four drops are a safe puke for them, and cleanse the stomach and bowels from
that phlegm that causes their gripes. — It is of great service in most asthmas,
and has relieved, when the best remedies have failed. When the fit is violent,
give a large spoonful of it, which will soon procure a vomit or two. When
the fit is moderate, 2 tea-spoonfuls 3 times a-day will be sufficient. — In fevers
that are attended with a laborious breathing, it has been found serviceable. —
It is excellent in the small-pox, as well to vomit in the beginning, as to help on
the necessary salivation in the confluent sort. — It helps coughs, and promotes
expectoration.

From these few hints, a physician will be able to adjust its use in other dis-
tempers. Mr. O. would not have recommended it, had not repeated experience
convinced him of its usefulness: and that it might be of benefit to posterity,
he meant to physicians that were really such, he gave the receipt of it to be
sent to the president and censors of the College of Physicians, London.

Concerning the Seed of Fern. By the Rev. Mr. Henry Miles, of Tooting.

N°46l, p. 770.

In Boerhaave and Gaubius's edition of Swammerdam's Biblia Naturae, sive
Historia Insectorum, in Dutch and Latin, 2 vols. fol. at Leyden 1737 and 1738,



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