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The Philosophical transactions of the Royal society of London, from their commencement in 1665, in the year 1800 (Volume 8) online

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trial -jV- It is certain the sea differs in saltness in different parts. It is in ge-
neral observed, that in hottest climates the water is the saltest. At Mosam-
bique Mr. Boyle relates an instance of a ship drawing two handsbreadth less
water than usual. On the contrary, when salt water freezes, it has been
thought to let fall all its salt ; the ice of sea-water, and the water melted from
it, tasting fresh, and being good for boiling meat and peas in. Capt. Middle-
ton, being in Hudson's Straits in July 1738, took ice from under the sur-
face of the sea, which he incited till he got 40 quarts of water, which he eva-
porated to dryness, and out cf that quantity had only 6 ounces of salt, or about

part.

• The spa was soon after recovered as good as before. — Orig.



VOL. XLI.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 515

A Rule for Jinding the meridional Parts to any Spheroid, with the same Exact-
ness as in a Sphere. By Colin Mac Laurin, F. R. S. N° 451, p. 808.

It was demonstrated long since, that in a sphere the nautical meridian line
is a scale of logarithmic tangents of the half complements of the latitudes. The
same may be computed with no less exactness to any spheroid by the following
rule.

Let the semidiameter of the equator be to the distance of the focus of the
generating ellipse from the centre, as m to i. Let A represent the latitude for
which the meridional parts are required, s the sine of this latitude, the radius

being unit ; find the ark b, whose sine is — ; take the logarithmic tangent of

half the complement of b from the common tables; subtract this logarithmic
tangent from 10.000000, or the logarithmic tangent of 45°; multiply the re-
mainder by '■ ^^ &c. and the product subtracted from the meridional

parts in the sphere, computed in the usual manner for the latitude a, will give
the meridional parts expressed in minutes, for the same latitude in the spheroid,
provided it is oblate. When the spheroid is oblong, the difference of the me-
ridional parts in the sphere and spheroid for the same latitude, is then deter-
mined by a circular ark ; but it is not necessary to describe this case at present.
Example. — If mm : 1 : : 1000 : 22, then the greatest difference of the meri-
dional parts in the sphere and spheroid, is 76.O929 minutes. In other cases it
is found by multiplying the remainder above mentioned by II74.078.

The Parabolic Orbit for the Comet of 1 739, observed by Signor Eustachio Za-
notti at Bologna. N° 461, p. 8O9.

The motion in its own proper orbit was retrograde.

The perihelion was in 55 5° 1 1'

The descending node in y 25 18

The perihelion from the node 69 53

The comet was in the perihelion June .... 9"* g** 59™

descending node July 1 8 4 57

The perihelion of the comet's orbit was within the sphere of the orbit of
Venus, and without that of the orbit of Mercury ; being distant from the sun
0.69614 parts of the earth's mean distance from the sun. The plane of the
orbit was inclined to the plane of the ecliptic in an angle of 53° 25'. The di-
urnal mean motion, according as it is interpreted by Dr. Halley in his Elements
of cometical Astronomy, was l'' 5707. 1

3 u 2



51 6 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO 1741.

Concerning an Extraordinary Skeleton, and of a Man who gave Suck to a Child.
By Robert Lord Bishop of Cork. N°46l, p. 810.

The bishop of Cork here gives an account of a skeleton of a man, whose
bones, during his life-time, were almost all grown into one entire bone, so that
now his flesh is taken from them, he is one entire skeleton. The only bones
he could move before his death, were the wrist of his right hand, and the bones
of his knees, so that he could move his legs a little ; and, when set upright,
could in about a quarter of an hour get a foot forward.

For many years before his death, he could not alter his posture in the least.
He was valued by his master on account of his honesty. The only use he was
capable of being put to, was that of watching the workmen ; for when he was
once fixed in his station, it was impossible for him to desert it.

At about 18 years of age he began to be unwieldy, and so continued growing
more stiff, till he lost all use of his limbs, and died in the 6 1st year of his age.
The posture into which he fixed at last, was somewhat like that of the Venus of
Medicis, only that his right hand was the lowest, and the left hand did not rise
higher than the elbow of the right. He was originally deformed, his left
shoulder rising higher than his right; the vertebrae of his back were exceedingly
bent inwards towards the lower part, with an inclination towards the left hip.
The OS sacrum was so bent outwards, that you had no sight of it all. His left
knee did not come down so low as the right by 3 or 4 inches. There was hardly
one bone in his body in the figure it ought naturally to be, except the bones of
his legs, which were not much distorted.

He was one entire bone from the top of his head to his knees.

His head seemed regular, and the sutures pretty distinct, though more
united than in common skulls. His jaw-bones seemed entirely fixed, and
grown together, as were also the teeth in the hind part of the jaw. His fore-
teeth were very irregular, which left a vacancy for him to suck in his food at.
Out of the back of his head there grew a bone, which shot down towards his
back, and passed by the vertebrae of the neck at about an inch distance : this
bone united to the vertebrae of the back, and the scapula of the left shoulder,
from whence it disengaged itself again, and continued distinct, till it divided
into 2 towards the small of the back, and fixed itself into both the hip-bones
behind. The vertebrae of the neck and back were one continued bone.

In the fleshy part of his thighs and buttocks Nature seemed to have sported
herself, in sending out various ramifications of bones from his coxendix and
thiigh-bones, not unlike the shoots of white coral, but infinitely more irregu-
lar ; some behind, and some before ; some in clumps and clusters, and others



VOL. XLI.] PHILOSOPHICAL TKANSACTIONS. 517

in irregular shoots of 8 or 9 inches in length. You could not pass your hand
between his two knees, which inclined much towards the right, his left shoulder
having been the highest. One of the bones of his left arm was once broken by
a fall, and nature had shot out another bone a little above the bending of the
arm, which united to the broken bone, and made it much stronger than it was
before, though the bone seemed more liable to decay about the place where it
was formerly broken. All the cartilages of his breast, 4 only excepted, were
turned to bone. These 4 served to move his breast in respiration.

Out of his heels there frequently grew bones like the spurs of a cock, 2 or 3
inches long, which he shed as a deer does his horns. When he was dissected,
there was a bone found in the fleshy part of his arm, quite distinct and disen-
gaged from any other bone ; it was very thin, about 4 inches long, and 4-th
part of an inch broad, with several ramifications. Yet while these J)ones were
growing, he never complained of any pain in his muscles. '

The bishop met with a man at Inishanan, about 10 miles from Cork. He
was about 70 years of age, by birth a Frenchman, but was a refugee on ac-
count of his religion; was bred a gardener, and had been industrious, till de-
prived of his strength by age.

This man affirmed he had once suckled a child of his own. His wife, he
said, died when the child was about 1 months old : the child crying exceed-
ingly while it was in bed with him, he gave it his breast to suck, only with an
expectation to keep it quiet ; but he found that the child in time extracted
milk ; and he affirmed, that he had milk enough afterwards to rear the child.
The bishop looked at his breasts, which were then very large for a man ; and
the nipple was as large or larger than any woman's he ever saw.*

Concerning the Casarian Operation performed by an ignorant Butcher.

N''46l, p. 814.

Sarah Mc Kinna, who now lives at Brentram, 2 miles from the city of
Clogher, in the county of Tyrone, was married at the age of 16 years. Before
her marriage she never had the appearance peculiar to women ; but in a month
after her marriage, those appearances showed themselves properly. Ten months
after her marriage, she found the symptoms of pregnancy, and bore a child at
the expiration of the usual time. Ten months after she was delivered of an-
other ; and each time had a speedy and easy delivery.

* No mention is made that the organs of generation were examined, so as to afford positive proof
that this person was a man. But admitting the person to have been a man, there appears to have
been no other evidence but the man's own assertion, that a child had been supplied with milk from
his breasts. The largeness of the breasts and of the nipples can by no means be admitted as a proof
thereof.



518 VHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNN0 1741.

Two months after her second delivery, symptoms of pregnancy appeared
again, and increased in proportion to the time ; but at the end of g months
those symptoms began to abate, and in a little time she had no other reason for
thinking she was with child, but an absolute stoppage of her catamenia. Nor
had she, during the space of 6 years and some months, any one return of
them ; but for the greatest part of that time, especially the first 4 years, she
was perpetually afflicted with most violent pains in the middle region of the
abdomen.

Some time in the 7th year after her last pregnancy, which ended in such an
unusual manner, a swelling in her belly, and other symptoms, made her con-
clude she was again pregnant. About 7 months after this uncertain account, a
boil, as she thought, appeared about an inch and a half higher than her navel.
During this time of her pregnancy she often found the symptoms of her being
quick with child, till about 6 weeks before this boil, as she called it, appeared.
It was attended with very great pain.

She sent for one O Neill, a butcher. This man came to her the Sunday
after her message, and found her in an expiring condition. By this time the
imposthumation had broken, and an elbow of the child had forced itself through
it, and appeared in view. At the request of herself and friends, he undertook
to administer relief to her, and made so large an incision above and below the
navel, as enabled him, by fixing his fingers under the jaw of the foetus, to ex-
tract it ; in which operation he met not with the least impediment. He after-
wards looked into her belly, and seeing something black, he put in his hand,
and extracted, by pieces, a perfect skeleton of a child, and several pieces of
black putrefied flesh. After the operation, he swathed her up ; and in 6 weeks
she pursued her business about the house.

She had been in good health ever after ; only she had a navel rupture, owing
to the ignorance of the man in not applying a proper bandage.

Of a new Invention of expanding Fluids, by their being conveyed into certain
heated Vessels, where they are immediately rarefied into an elastic impelling
Force, sufficient to give Motion to Hydraulopneumatical and other Engines, for
raising Water, and other Uses, &c. By John Payne. N°46l, p. 821.

To produce a great power at a small expence, is what every body desires in
moving machinery : and is what, by this new invention, we have proved by
experiments and practice, to be a great improvement, when applied to that
noble invention the fire-engine. The following is a short description of the
vessels and machinery contrived for that purpose ; viz.



vol.. XLI.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 5ig

A pot or vessel made of wrought or cast iron, nearly the figure of a cone, its
diameter at the base being 4 feet, with holes round the edge, for nails or screws
to fasten a globular end of copper of about 5^ feet diameter. There is then
placed in the inside a small vessel, which Mr. P. calls a disperser. This vessel
has spouts round the sides fixed to it, and the bottom resting on a centre-pin ;
and in the middle of this basin is a socket, with holes near the bottom, to let
the water pass from above, through an iron pipe of about 7 feet long, the lower
end of which is placed in the socket, so as the end of the pipe will be always
immersed in water in the basin, to prevent the expanded fluid from returning
up the pipe ; and the other end of this pipe goes up through the copper-head,
which is inclosed very tight, but so as it may easily be moved with a circular
motion, in order that the water which is conveyed through this iron pipe down
into the disperser, may be dispersed or showered round, on the sides of the
red-hot pan, or ignited vessel, in a very exact manner.

This evaporating vessel being completed, they then take 1, 2, or more of
these vessels, thus furnished, and place it or them in a reverberatory arch or
canal, for conveying the intense heat of a strong fire, the flame of which en-
compasses the metal pot or pots, and brings them to a red heat ; and in that
condition they are continually kept, while in use, with the water running from
a cistern or vessel, where the water is heated, through a guage-cock, down the
iron pipe, into the disperser, which conveys it to the sides of the ignited ves-
sel, when it is immediately rarefied or expanded into an elastic steam or vapour,
fit for application to give motion to sundry sorts of machinery, &c.

In fig. 5, pi. 1 1, A represents a copper globe, 12 inches diameter ; b, b, two
brass cocks, one opposite to the other, fitted very tight ; c, a handle or bale,
fastened to the globe, by which it may be hung or held up ; d, a small valve
or clack, fitted to the upper cock, of one inch diameter.

The whole thus fitted, weighed 12lb. 9-^ oz. avoirdupois; and, filled with
water, it weighed 45lb. 7 oz. from which deduct the metal, the weight of water
is 35lb. 13i oz. which is about 4 gallons.

This vessel Mr. P. hung over the large vessel f, in which water was rarefied
into steam ; and by the pipe e, at the large cock g, which being open, as also
the other cocks b, b, the stream had a free passage through the globe a, by
which the stream excluded or forced out the air that was in the globe, and by
its elastic quality supplied its place ; when both cocks b, b, were suddenly shut,
and the globe a taken down and hung over a vessel of cold water, with the
lower cock b, immersed in water, and then opened under water ; on which the
water rushed violently into the globe till it had supplied the vacuum, when the
cock was again shut, and the globe, with the water, put in the scales, and then
found to weigh 44 lb. g oz. which take from 45 lb. 7 oz. the whole weight, as



7 « 7
TTTt



520 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO 1741.

before, there remains only 14 oz. the difference, which shows that all the air
was nearly excluded out of the globe by the steani : in ounces it stands thus
which is very nearly a perfect vacuum.

2dly, He again excluded the air out of the globe with steam as before, and
both cocks B, B, being closed with the globe full of steam, he put the globe in
the scales, and it weighed 12 lb. 104- oz. He then opened one of the cocks,
and let in the air, on which the scale descended; and, by adding weight in the
other scale, it was found to weigh 12lb. 11 oz. ; which showed that the weight,
not the pressure, of the air the globe contained, was 4- an ounce avoirdupois.

3dly, the globe being filled with steam, as before, and condensed with cold
water on the outside of the globe, and the metal again made very dry, and the
air let into the globe, the water from the condensed steam was found to weigh
4 penny-weights.

4thly, The globe filled with steam, as before ; only now he continued the
globe longer with the steam passing through it, by which it acquired a greater
degree of heat ; for he found by those experiments, that the least degree of
cold less than the steam, a part would be condensed again into water, by which
the quantity could not be certainly ascertained, which would exclude the air out
of a certain space, which is the chief end of this experiment. But in this ex-
periment he succeeded better ; for, on weighing the globe, when the steam was
condensed, the air let in, and all cold, it was as follows, viz. 15 lb. 3 oz. 2 dwts.
Troy, the weight without the steam being 15 lb. 3 oz. ; so that the weight of
the water condensed from the steam, or the water converted into a strong elastic
steam to fill the space of this little globe, is but 2 dwts, or -^V of an ounce Troy
of water, by which -rV of an ounce Troy of water fills, when converted into
steam, 925 cubic inches of space in a vessel, so as to exclude nearly all the
air.

He repeated this experiment several times, and found it nearly the same; and
by immersing the cock in water, and opening it again, as in the first experi-
ment, he found the weight of water to be nearly as above, and to make about
-!^ void or vacuum ; so that 1 ounce Troy of water makes 9250 cube inches of
steam, of equal force with the like number of inches of air ; and with this re-
mark, that the weight of the steam is much less than the weight of common
air ; for in this globe the air weighed -i- oz. avoirdupois or g dwts, Troy ; and
the steam, which filled the same space, only 2 dwts. Troy, which is but little
more than -i-th part, and shows how very small the particles of water are when
so divided by the force of fire, and of what force. From which he concludes,
that 1 cubic inch of water will discharge or force out 40O0 inches of air from a
vessel of that content.

5thly, Proceeding as before with steam in the globe a ; he condensed it, as



VOL. XLI.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 521

in the third experiment ; and then tried the pressure of the atmosphere on
the clack or valve d, and found it required about lOlb. Troy, to lift the clack
from its tube of I inch diameter.

dthly. He excluded the air with the steam, and instead of the clack he screwed
on very tight a plate, on which he placed a glass receiver, as usual, with the
air-pump; and then, turning the cock, the air under the glass receiver expanded
itself into the globe, by which he had equally a share of the vacuum partly
made in the globe, and could thereby make many experiments that are made
with the air-pump, &c.

Observations from Experiments made by J, Payne. — 1. That a pot or vessel,
of the size and shape here mentioned, will (being kept to a dark-red heat, and
the water regularly dispersed) rarefy or expand 50 gallons of water, wine mea-
sure, per hour.

1. That a cubic inch of water will make in practice 4000 inches of steam ;
or that the elastic steam of one cubic inch of water is sufficient to exclude the
air out of a vessel that is in content 4000 inches.

3. That the above 50 gallons will produce 46,000,000 cubic inches of elastic
steam per hour, which is per minute 770,000.

4. That the 2d pot or vessel, as in fig. 7, will rarefy or expand 40 gallons of
water, wine measure, per hour, and will produce 36,960,000 cube inches of
elastic steam, per hour, which is per minute 6l6,000 inches.

5. That both, being united together, make ], 386,000 cube inches of steam
every minute, from 346 inches of water.

6. That, by an experiment made by a fire-engine, 40 gallons of water per
hour, made into elastic steam in this method, will effectually give motion to a
24 inch cylinder fire-engine.

7. That, by true experiments, made at Wedgbury and Newcastle on Tyne,
ll2lb. of pit-coals, will, and is sufficient in this method, to expand or rarefy
go gallons of water per hour into an elastic steam or vapour.

8. That, by the best accounts and observations he could get and make, they
consume under their boilers, to make the same quantity of steam, 3 cwt. of
pit-coal, in working a fire-engine one hour.

9. That 95 gallons of water per hour, expanded or rarefied into steam, will
work a 36 inch cylinder engine.

10. From these observations Mr. P. concludes, that this new invention will
save at least 60 per cent, in pit-coals, to work a fire-engine.

In fig. 6, pi. II, A, A, represent the two pots ; b, b, the two copper heads
or globes ; c, c, the two sink pipes, for waste water, not evaporated ; d, d,
clacks or valves, to keep out the air; e, e, the two dispersers and spouts; f, p,
the stools with a centre-pin, on which the dispersfjr rests; g, g, the two^iron

VOL. VIII. 3 X



512 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO I74I.

pipes, in which the water is conveyed to the cistern ; h, a cistern of hot water;
I, I, two cog-wheels, to turn the disperser ; k, a steam-pipe, in which is con-
veyed the steam to the cylinder ; l, the cylinder of the fire-engine ; m, m,
leaden pipes, that convey hot water from the cistern to the disperser.

j4n Examination of fVestashlon Well-waters, a Well about 4 Miles from that of
Holt. By Ambrose Godfrey Hanhewitz. N''46l, p. 828.

Obs. 1. — Mr. G. H. took 4 oz. of the Westashton water, with as much milk,
and set them on the fire ; as soon as they boiled, the milk began to curdle,
which denotes a brackish salt of a neutral nature. The water changed syrup of
violets green.

2. Some powder of galls infused in this water, gave it a tinge of a brown
purple ; by which it appeared that this water was chalybeate.

3. A fixed alcali, as ol. tartar, per deliq. and a volatile one, as sp. sal. ammo-
niaci, caused a white precipitation ; which denotes an aluminous cretaceous earth.

4. A solution of salt of lead, caused a cream-like, or a troubled milky
colour.

5. The usual acid spirits, viz. spirit of salt, nitre, and vitriol, caused no
alteration ; which shows that the water is itself impregnated with an acid.

6. The water, being evaporated to a pellicle, deposited saline crystals of a
rough or austere taste, being of a styptic nature ; and separated a martial yel-
lowish ochre, which was attracted by the loadstone, and was an absorbent, for
it fermented with acids. The remaining brine, being evaporated to dryness,
left a salt of a lixivious alcaline taste.

7. Some of these salts being put into water, 3 parts out of 4 dissolved very
readily ; but -^-th part would not dissolve at all, but was of a talcky nature, and
unalterable in the fire.

Hence he observes that chalybeate waters, as long as they retain their natural
sulphureous gas, are capable of keeping suspended, or floating in them, these
talcky substances ; but that boiling drives away that sulphureous gas, on which
this talcky substance subsides, and cannot again be dissolved in water, but re-
mains fixed against the power of the fire ; for it suffers no alteration on a red-
hot iron, neither emitting flame, nor melting, as neither does talc itself.

8. These chalybeate-waters contain somewhat of the same nature as our
cathartic Epsom salt, only not so mild on the tongue ; for by this examen,
when their gas is gone, they are found to contain 1 sorts of such like earths ;
the one absorbent, fermenting with acids ; and the other fixed, or talcky : and
that this substance is really talcky, is confirmed by the digging up of much
talc in sinking this well.

All the salts of the medical waters are more generally alcaline than acid,



YOL. XLI.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 52S

being of a martial nature, impregnated with sulpiiur, which gives them a mu-
riatic taste.*

Hence Mr. G. H. concludes that this Westashton water is a very good
chalybeate water ; and, by report, more plentiful and more constant all the year
round, than the well at Holt, which spring diminishes much at a certain time
of the year ; but both seem alike for their virtues, and physical use, being both
alike martial.

An Examination of the Cheltenham Mineral Water. By Conradus Hieronymus

Senckenberg. N° 46 1 , p. 830.

From his experiments Mr. Senckenberg inferred that the Cheltenham
mineral-water contains Glauber's salt, (sal mirabile Glauberi) mixed with com-
mon salt. As for the bitterness of this water, there is (his words are) no other
reason for it than the terra cretacea, which is proved by the Epsom salt, where
the terra alkalina salis communis, is joined with the acidum vitriolicum ; and
after the same manner in the sal mirabile, the alkaline earth causes the bitter
taste. He adds that from 1 lb. Troy of this water, he obtained 29 grs. of the
said salt, and 3 grs. of earth. -f-

Of a new Purging Spring discovered at Dulwich in Surrey. By Mr. John
Martyn, F.R.S. N° 46l, p. 835.

Dulwich is a village about 6 miles south of London, at the foot of that ridge
of hills which divides the counties of Kent and Surrey. The purging springs,



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