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will, in great probability, immediately affect the contracted side of the body, so
as to put the muscles a little upon the stretch ; and if the cord under the arm
on the longest side of the body be removed farther from the centre, the longest
side will become a weight continually increasing, as the point of suspension is.
removed farther from the point of motion ; by which means the shortest side.



550 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO 1742.

must be lengthened. Thus the vertebrae of the back will be gradually brought
from their irregular form, to a perpendicular; and the head, that probably
leaned too much to one side, will rise upright.

The child, or crooked person, may hang suspended much longer on this
swing, than by the head in one of the semicircular swings, which cannot extend
the contracted side in such manner as this can. It may be necessary to keep
the arms down, by a small bandage round the body and arms a little above the
elbow.

By this method of swinging a child, its own weight must necessarily stretch
the contracted muscles, &c. that draw the shoulder and hip too close together,
and give liberty to the ribs to extend themselves to a greater distance from each
other ; and at that very moment of time, the too much extended side, by the
weight of the body, will be pressed closer together; and by daily increasing the
fcime that the person is on the swing, the desired effect may be produced, an
agreeable form of body recovered, and a healthy constitution restored, to the
satisfaction of the parents, and great benefit of the once crooked person.

ABC, fig. 4, pi. 14, represents the steel-yard balance swing ; d, one of the
square iron loops to which the cords are to be fixed, and which loops, one on
each arm of the balance, are moveable from one notch to another; e, a weight
to be hung upon the arm c at p, to add to the weight of the too much extend-
ed side, as occasion requires.

Concerning a golden Torques found in England. By Sir Tho. Mostyn, Bart.

N°462, p. 24. . .

This torques is a wreath of gold, weighing nearly 9 ounces. It seems to be
without alloy, being pliable. It being joined here with the pharetra, and being
very proper for carrying a quiver, makes it probable that the Gauls, from whom
the Romans took it, used it for that purpose ; but among the latter it seems to
have been worn as an ornament, rather than a thing of use. There are several
passages in the historians, which mention its being given as a reward for mili-
tary service. It is sometimes described as a chain consisting of several links ;
but this is all one piece, without any link or joints, and takes its flexibility from
the pureness of the metal. .

Of the Fire-ball seen Dec. 11, 1741. By Mr. Benj. Cooke, F.R.S. Dated

Newport, in the Isle of Wight, Jan. 25, 1741-2. N" 462, p. 25.

A gentleman was on a hill about 3 miles west of that town, and had a very

advantageous view of the fire-ball. He says, that at that time the brightness

of the sun was a little obscured by the interposition of some thin clouds, when



VOL. XLII.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 531

he saw it pass by to the eastward, at about the distance of a quarter of a mile,
and apparent height of 30 feet above the level of the place were he stood. Its
colour was that of a burning coal ; its figure a cone, whose length might be 8
feet, and diameter at the base 18 inches. From about its apex, which was its
hinder part, issued several bright streams sparkling with fiery drops, to the

length of about 4 or 5 feet, something after this manner ^ ^^^ ^^^^^^)' Its
motion was nearly parallel to the plane of the horizon, and its direction about
from south-west by south to north-east by north, without any noise, wind, or
motion of the earth attending it. The time of its appearance did not happen
to be taken notice of with the desired exactness ; but by the best observation we
can make, must be about a quarter before 1 o'clock at noon. — ^There were a few
others who saw it, to whom it appeared diflferent in shape, according to the
point it was seen from ; and perhaps its shape might change as it became nearer
consuming, and only its head, in the form of a bell, remain at last.

j4n Account, by Mr. John Eames, F. R. S. of a Booh intitled, Jacobi Theodori
Klein Historirv Piscium Naturalis promovendce Missus primus Gedani, J 740,
Ato. Or, The Jirst Number of An Essay towards promoting the Natural
History of Fishes. By Mr. Klein, Secretary of Dantzic, and F. R. S.
N" 462, p. 17.

Though the natural history of animals has been much improved, since several
of the worthy Members of the Royal Society have taken it under their con-
sideration ; yet there still remain some things to be known, in order to render
it full and complete. As particularly, concerning the hearing of fishes, it is
remarked, that in no fishes beside the cetaceous kind, have hitherto been found
any auditory passages, or ear-holes ; and whether all fish hear or not, is a
question not yet fully determined, notwithstanding the experiments alleged to
prove the affirmative. It is with this view, and in order to set this matter in a
clearer light, that the ingenious author has obliged the world with the book before
us. It consists of a dedication addressed to this Honourable Society, a preface,
an essay, and a double appendix.

Having considered the auditory organs, with the seat of them, in the ceta-
ceous, cartilaginous, and spinose kinds of fishes, it appears, that these lapilli
or ossicula differ from each other both in structure and substance ; for in ceta-
ceous fishes, whose skeletons are truly bony, and which, in certain respects,
may be compared to truly lignous trees, both the os petrosum, and auditory
organs, are in these, as in other animals, perfectly osseous or bony : whereas
the cartilaginous fish, whose skeletons are elastic and cartilaginous, they may be
compared to the keratophyta species of sea plants ; and these fish, instead of



552 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO 1742.

an OS petrosum, have something analogous, but cartilaginous ; and the auditory
bones are of a tartareous kind of friable and easily macerable substance.*

A Journal of the Shocks of Earthquakes Jelt near Newbury in New- England,
from the Year i727, to the Year 1741. % the Rev. Mr. Matthias Plant.

N° 462, p. 33.

Oct. 29, 1727, about 40 minutes past 10 in the evening, there was heard a
great rumbling noise ; and before that, the bricks on the hearth rose up about
three quarters of a foot, and seemed to fall down and roll the other way, which
was in half a minute attended with the said noise or burst. The tops of the
chimneys and stone-fences were thrown down ; and in some places the earth
opened, and threw out some hundred loads of earth, of a different colour from
that near the surface, something darker than the white marl in England ; and
in many places, opened dry land into good springs, which remain to this day ;
and dried up springs, which never came again. It continued roaring, bursting,
and shocking our houses all that night. Though the first was much the loudest
and most terrible, yet 8 more, that came that night, were loud, and roared like
a cannon at a distance. It continued roaring and bursting 12 times in a day and
night, till Thursday in the said week, and then was not so frequent ; but on
Friday in the evening, and about midnight, and about break of day on Satur-
day, 3 very loud roarings : we had the roaring noise on Saturday, Sunday,
Monday, about 10 in the morning, though much abated in the noise.

Nov. 7, about 11, it roared very loud, and gave our houses a great shock;
and continued shocking from 3 times to 6 every day and night, till the 12th of
November, when it was heard twice in one hour in the afternoon.

Nov. 13, two hours before day-break, the roaring was loud, and shook the
houses ; and so for several days after.

January 3, 1727-8, about 9 at night, an easy shock.

January 6, there were 5 shocks, attended with the roaring.

January 24, it roared exceedingly loud.

January 28, 2g, 30, several more shocks, with the roaring.

February 21, 29, the same.

March 17, 19, also the same.

April 28, 1728, a small noise.

May 12, a long and loud roaring, that shook the houses.

May 17, 22, 24, several more shocks. ->

• For further information respecting the organ of hearing in fishes, the reader is referred to the
writings of Camper, CompareUi, (de Aure interna comparata. Patav. 1789-) and Scarpa ; also to a
paper of Mr. J. Hunter's inserted in the 72d vol. of the Phil. Trans, and to Dr. Monro's work on the
Physiology of Fishes.



VOL. Xtll.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 553

June 6, 8, and 11, the same.

July 3, and 23, very loud and long, and shook the houses. — Also March
19, 1729. — Sept. 8, and 29, the same. And the same in the months of
October and November.

Similar shocks and noises were also in most of the months of the following
years 1730, 1731, 1732, 1733, 1734, 1736, 1737, 1739, 1740, 1741.

An Account of Mr. Sutton's Invention and Method of Changing the Air in the
Hold, and other close Parts of a Ship. By Ricliard Mead, M.D., F.R.S.
N° 462, p. 42.

It is found by daily experience, that air shut up and confined in a close place,
without a succession and fresh supply of it, becomes unwholesome, and unfit
for the use of life. This is more sensibly so, when any stagnating water is pent
up with it. But it becomes still worse, when such air is used in respiration,
that is, becomes moister and hotter, by passing and repassing through the
lungs.

These bad effects, in different degrees, according to the different manner in
which air is inclosed, are observed in many cases; particularly in deep wells and
caverns of the earth, in prisons or close houses, where people are shut up with
heat and nastiness : but most of all in large ships, in which, with the stench of
water in the hold, many men being crouded up in close quarters, all the men-
tioned circumstances concur in producing greater mischief than would follow
from any of them singly.

The reason of these bad effects. Dr. Mead thinks, is partly by the air losing
its elasticity in such circumstances, and partly by being impregnated with noxi-
ous effluvia,* either from unwholesome substances of any kind, or from the in-
fectious breath of diseased bodies ; hence it will become quite poisonous and
deadly. It is proposed at present to find out a remedy for this evil in ships
only: but by making alterations according as particular places require, the same
may be applied to any houses or parts of them, as prisons, the sick wards in
hospitals, &c.

Now it is a natural consequent of the elasticity of the air, that when it is
rarefied in any part, (which is most effectually done by heat) the neighbouring
air will rush that way, till this part is brought to be of an equal density and
elasticity with itself; and this again will be followed by the air next to it: so

* Air under the circumstances abovementioned becomes unfit for being respired, not only in con-
•equence of being loaded with noxious effluvia, [and with carbonic acid gas] but also in consequence
of the abstraction of a portion of its oxygen, which is absorbed by the blood during the respiratory
action.

VOL. VIII. 4 B



694 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO 1742.

that, if a conveyance for air be laid from the hold or well of the ship, and a
rarefaction of the air therein be made ; the foul air from this place will run or
be drawn out that way, and fresh air from the adjacent parts will succeed in its
room.

ft is on these principles that the following scheme was offered to the
Lords of the Admiralty, and Commissioners of the Navy. And the means
to be employed are shortly the following : that whereas in every ship, of any
bulk, there is already provided a copper or boiling-place, proportionable to the
size of the vessel, it is proposed to clear the bad air by means of the fire used
under the said coppers or boiling places, for the necessary uses of the ship. —
Under every such copper or boiler, there are 1 holes, separated by a grate ;
the first of which is for the fire, and the other for the ashes falling from it ; and
there is also a flue from the fire-place upwards, by which the smoke of the fire
is discharged at some convenient place of the ship. Now the fire once lighted
in these fire-places, is only preserved by the constant draught of air through
these 1 holes and flue ; but when the said 2 holes are closely stopped up, the
fire, though burning ever so briskly before, is immediately put out.

But if, after the shutting up the abovementioned holes, another hole be
opened, communicating with any other room or airy place, and with the fire ;
it is clear, that the fire must again be raised and burn as before ; there being a
like draught of air through the same, as there was before the stopping up of
the first holes : this case differing only from the former in this, that the air
feeding the fire will now be supplied from another place. ~^

It is therefore proposed, in order to clear the holds of ships of the bad air,
that the 2 holes abovementioned, that is, the fire-place and ash-place, be
both closed up with substantial and tight iron doors ; and that a copper or
leaden pipe, of sufficient size, be laid from the hold into the ash-place, for the
draught of air to come in that way to feed the fire. And thus it seems plain
that there will be from the hold a constant discharge of the contained air ; and
consequently, that the air so discharged must be as constantly supplied by fresh
air down the hatches, or such other communications as are open into the hold ;
by which the same must be continually freshened, and its air rendered more
wholesome, and fit for respiration.

And if into this principal pipe so laid into the hold, other pipes are let in,
communicating respectively either with the well or lower decks, it must follow,
that part of the air consumed in feeding the fire, must be respectively drawa
out of all such places, to which the communication shall be so made.



VOL. XLII.J PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 555

A Representation of the Parhelia seen in Kent, Dec. 1 9, 1741, communicated
by the Rev. Mr. H. Miles. N° 4(52, p. 46.

This paper contains no additional observations on parhelia ; nor does the re-
presentation or figure exhibit any new appearance.

Experiments, by fVay of Analysis, on the Water of the Dead Sea ; also on the
Hot Spring near Tiberiades ; and on the Hamm^am Pharoan JVater. By
Charles Perry, M. D. made on his Journey through the Holy Land, i^c
N" 462, p. 48.

I. On the JVater of Asphallites, commonly called the Dead Sea.

Exper, 1. — On steeping or infusing some scrapings of galls in it, after stand-
ing a long time, it turned of a bright purple colour.

Exper. 2. — On the instillation of ol. tartari per deliq. it immediately became
troubled or muddy, and seemed as if goblets of fat were fluctuating in it. This
unctuous matter, on long standing in repose, came gradually into closer con-
tact, and at last subsided.

Exper. 3. — On the instillation of sp. of vitriol, it deposited a milk-white
greasy sediment; which, after 12 hours repose, occupied a 5th part of the
vehicle or liquor.

Exper. 4. — Being mixed with a solution of sacch, saturni, it let fall a small
quantity of a greyish powder.

Exper. 5. — Being severally and separately mixed with solution of sublimate,
with sp. sal. ammoniac, and with sugar of violets; it neither fermented, de-
posited any sediment, became turbid, nor changed colour ; except only from
the sugar of violets, which turned it of a dark green.

Observations. — This water is highly saturated with salt, insomuch that any
measure of it preponderates fresh water under equal surfaces, in the ratio of 5
to 4. It has also a wonderful acrity, insomuch that being held in the mouth
for a short time, it constringes it as alum does.

Dr. P. could not, from the above experiments, and the appearances which
resulted from them, conclude, that this water is impregnated with any thing
more than mere salt,* which is of a very acrid, alkaline nature; and something
else, which may be of a compound nature, partly sulphureous, and parly bitu-
minous. But, it may be presumed, that it neither partakes of steel, alum,
nor vitriol, nor yet of a pure, genuine sulphur : and consequently it can afford

* The water of the Dead Sea is remarkably salt and bitter. Besides common salt (muriate of
soda) it contains a very large proportion of muriate of lime and muriate of magnesia, to which last
srfts its bitterness is owing. See Memoirs of the French Academy of Sciences for 1778.

4b 2



556 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS, [aNNO ] 742.

no Other, nor better effects, to such as may bathe in it, than other sea- water ;
except only, that its greater degree of salt, and superior weight, may some-
what heighten the same effects.

II. On the hot Spring Water near Tiberiades.

Exper. 1. — Oil of tartar, per deliq. jss being mixed with gissof the water, it
became troubled and muddy ; and after standing 12 hours in repose, ^ths of the
whole, from the bottom upwards, appeared like white wool : but this woolly
water, being separated by filtration, and left to dry, seemed no other than a
yellowish ochre.

Exper. 2. — Dr. P. mixed jss sp. vitriol with §iss of the water, and, after 12
hours standing still, he found a large sediment of a white unctuous matter.

Exper. 3. — Solution of sublimate jss being mixed with §iss of the water, it
became turbid and yellowish, and yielded an earthy sediment in small quantity ;
whence he concluded it contains a sal murale.

Exper. 4. — One ounce and half of the water, mixed with 3ss of a solution
of sacch. saturni, deposited a greyish sediment of a laterilious matter, in small
quantity.

Exper. 5. — One ounce and half of the water, mixed with 3ss sp. sal. am-
moniac, turned turbid, of a colour between green and blue; and after 12 hours
repose, yielded a woolly sediment of 4 digits deep.

Exper, 6. — One ounce and half of the water, mixed with 3ss sacch. violar.
became troubled, and of a dark-yellowish colour.

Exper. 7. — One ounce and half mixed with jss of scrapings of galls, became
of a fine violet colour ; but when shaken, was as deep as ink.

Observations. — This water then appears to contain a good deal of a gross
fixed vitriol, some alum, and a mural salt of a limy quality.* It is too salt and
nauseous for internal use ; but by bathing in it, must be good for all cutaneous
distempers, and especially for the scurvy and leprosy : for it will powerfully de-
terge, scour, and clean the excretory pores; and it may, by its weight and
stimulus, restore them to their natural state, strength, and elasticity. It may,
by the same means, restore the lost or impaired tone of the solids in general : in
consequence of which, it may thin the blood, help its circulation, and promote
the natural digestions and secretions ; and thus, finally, it may be useful in
rheumatisms, dropsies, jaundices, and nephritic diseases.

III. On the Hammam Pharoan Water, near Corromondel, on the Way to

Mount Sinai.

Exper. 1 . — This water being mixed with the scrapings of galls, manifested

• These conclusions respecting the composition of this mineral water are extremely vague and un-
satisfactory. The same remark will apply to this author's observations on the Hamman Pharoan water.



VOL. XLII.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. > 557

no sensible change at first ; but after long standing it became somewhat
greenish.

Exper. 1. — On the instillation of sp. sal. ammoniac, it became turbid ; and
on standing some time in repose, deposited a dark-greyish powder, in small
quantity.

Exper. 3. — Four ounces of the water, being mixed with siss sacc. violar.
manifested no change, except what would necessarily result from the tincture
of violets.

Exper. A. — Being mixed with a solution of sacch. saturni, it became im-
mediately very turbid ; but on standing some time in repose, it deposited a large
dark-brown sediment, leaving the vehicle troubled and whitish.

Exper. 5. — On mixing a solution of sublimate with it, it became immediately
yellow ; but, after standing at rest, it deposited a woolly unctuous matter, in
small quantity.

Exper. 6. — Being mixed with ol. tartari per deliq. it became of a chyly colour
and substance, or of a turbid pearly colour.

Exper. 7. — Being mixed with sp. of vitriol, it manifested no change, either
of colour or transparency.

Observation. — He concludes from the phenomena which appeared on
analyzation, that this water is impregnated with a good deal of a gross earthy
sulphur, a neutral salt, a small quantity of alum, but no proportion of vitriol.

This cannot be used inwardly, it being nauseous beyond expression : it
smells somewhat like rotten eggs, but much worse. But, used by way of bath,
it may cleanse the skin of all foulnesses, purge and deterge the cutaneous
glands from all foul noxious humours : it may reinforce the natural heat and
vigour, where they are decayed, and may restore the impaired digestions : and
hence, finally, it may promote virility in men, and fecundity in women. It
may likewise be useful in the gout ; as also in epilepsies, and other diseases of
the nervous class.

An Account of the Case of William Payne, with what appeared on examining
his Kidneys and Bladder, when his Body was opened. By Mr. George Bell,
Surgeon. N° 462, p. 54.

William Payne, aged about 71, had been afflicted with the stone in his blad-
der, and other calculus complaints, for several years ; he had taken Mrs. Ste-
phens's medicines for 1 5 months. He was subject also to a scrotal rupture on
the left side, from which however he suffered no great inconveniency, unless on
neglect of his truss, which he had been directed to wear; and even then, if the
intestines came down, he used to return them with ease.



S58 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO 1742.

About the beginning of January last, lie was attacked with a severe fit of
the stone, attended, on every attempt to make water, with a strong tenesmus,
that forced into the scrotum a considerable quantity of the intestines, which
exceeded his skill to reduce. Mr. B. found the tumour large and unequal, but
without much tension or inflammation; his pulse low, with clammy sweats; he
complained of violent pains in his back, propagated through the whole length
of the ureters, accompanied with nausea and vomitings; he felt exquisite pain
about the neck of his bladder and glans, with an unusual weight inperinaeo;
he had frequent inclinations to make water, but seldom made above a spoonful
at once, and that drop by drop, with much pain, and sudden stoppings; the
urine was extremely fetid, sometimes mixed with purulent matter, at others
tinged of a coffee colour.

He had received, just before, a clyster, which produced 2 stools, and encou-
raged him to hope might facilitate the reduction of the rupture. He attempted
it by all necessary means possible, but without success; for though the largest
part receded and gave way, yet a considerable portion remained, which he could
not possibly return. He therefore concluded, as the intestines performed their
office, and were free from tension, inflammation, &c. that the parts adhered:
so left him, with directions for a bag-truss to support them.

January the 22d, being informed of his death, he applied for leave to open
him, which was granted. In examining the contents of the abdomen, he found
the left kidney quite wasted, scarcely any thing remaining except the coats,
and those filled with blood and purulent matter; the ureter very much enlarged
above its natural capacity, and full of the same. The right kidney was ulce-
rated in several places, and full of purulent matter, mixed with grit; several
hydatids appeared on its external surface, the ureter was somewhat enlarged.

He next examined the bladder, which was exceedingly large, and contained
above 3 pints of clear urine: on opening it, and introducing his hand he found
2 smooth flattish stones, somewhat larger than common Windsor beans; he
discovered a third in the neck of the bladder, which probably had been forced
there during the paroxysm, and appeared to be the immediate cause of his
death ; it was about the size of a filbert, and had quite blocked up the passage.

On dissecting the hernial bag, the first part that presented was a large piece
of fat, about -i- lb. and immediately underneath it lay a large portion of the
colon, about 10 inches in length: the internal surface of the peritoneum was
strongly attached to the colon by several filaments, and to the scrotum by its



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