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The Philosophical transactions of the Royal society of London, from their commencement in 1665, in the year 1800 (Volume 8) online

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is much sooner done in winter than in summer. Keep the vessel in a dry place,
that the moisture of the air may not diminish the strength of the lye. The mix-
ture daily grows to a body, and when it is in the sun in summer, and on the
chimney mantle in winter, the phlegm evaporating sooner, it becomes perfect
soap in 4 or 5 days, provided the lye be sufficiently concentrated. It will be
well however, that during the time the 1 liquors are binding together, the mix-
ture be stirred with the spathula, that the water may not be kept in, but evaporate
the sooner. When the soap is made, it easily comes out of the vessel, but it
has not yet lost all that moisture it should lose ; so that though it may be used
in that state, it is better to keep it 12 or 15 days longer ; at the end of which
time, if decompound, you always find the whole oil employed ; that is to say,
out of 18 drs. of this perfect soap, you get 14- oz. of oil, and 2 drs. 23 or 24 grs.
of salt of glass-wort. So after this method a patient may easily make his own
soap, and be sure of the ingredients ; perhaps even in the great manufactories,
one day or other, they may prefer this to that which is now in use.

As to what relates to the oil of lime, (huile de chaux) spoken of in his experi-
ments, it is the caput mortuum of the sal ammoniac, after distillation of the
volatile spirit by means of quick-lime ; it is exposed in a fiat vessel to the
moisture of the cellar, whence a deliquiuin is formed, which is called oil of
lime. It is lime dissolved by means of the acid of the sea-salt, which is
contained in the sal ammoniac ; other chymists call it the fixed liquors
of sal ammoniac. Your soap-boilers are obliged to add sea-salt to their
soap, which probably comes from their making use of pot-ash in their


lyes, which they would have no occasion to have recourse to, if they employed
true salt of glass-wort, seeing this strong lye of salt of glass-wort makes soap
immediately ; besides, the salt of glass-wort contains sea-salt, as he has demon-
strated by making Glauber salt with pure salt of glass-wort and oil of vitriol.
If instead of sail of glass-wort we make use of pot-ash with oil of vitriol, it will
not make Glauber salt, but instead of it produce tartar vitriolate.

In describing this sort of soap, the Doctor had no other view, than not to
deviate from the way of making Alicant soap, and to know well the proportions,
in order to apply them to the making of the soap proposed, and to fix them
with regard to the lime and the salt of glass- wort, which for many and various
reasons is preferable to other fixed salts, as being that which forms the best,
the most detersive, and the mildest soap, as it has been found by experience in
all our manufactures.

The observations he had laid before the Academy, prove that the oil
which has passed through the lyes of lime and salts, is perhaps easier to di-
gest than any other. He there demonstrates, that the oil separated from the
soap by means of acids, as he has pointed out, is found to have acquired a pro-
perty which it had not before ; for it dissolves in spirit of wine, and perfectly
unites with it ; which it could not do while it was crude, that is, before it had
formed soap, or had been boiled with metallic limes.

Account of the Earthquakes felt in Leghorn, from the l6th to the 27 th of Jan.
1742. By the Rev. Sig. Pasqual R. Pedini, Principal of the Clergy of the
College of Leghorn. N°463, p. 77-

Jan. 16 was a very temperate day, with a gentle breeze between south and
west. A little after 24 hours, (about 6 at night, according to our English way
of reckoning) Sig. P. observed a certain dark cloud, which passed with a bad
smell, settle within a foot and a half over the tops of the houses, like the smoke
that the peasants make in an evening, when they burn their garden rubbish, or
such like. At 2 hours in the night, (8 o'clock English) they thought the pave-
ment gave way, and the chamber shook. On going to the window, he found
a small air from the south ; the dark cloud was no longer to be seen, but a thin
slight obscurity in the air. Scarcely a quarter of an hour passed, when the
chamber received a more violent motion than the former, and the candles on
the table moved from west to east. He smelt the stink no longer, but ob-
served the clouds increasing and thickening on every hand, but always with a
white hue, like the circle which is often seen round the moon, but of a prodi-
gious extent. A few minutes after 4 in the night, another violent shock be-
gan, far superior to the two former, which lasted about the time one might


say an Ave Maria ; the motion was sudden, and the shaking of the house was
from east to west. At 10 hours and a half, were perceived 2 other shocks,
with a small intermission of time, much like the 2 former. Another shock
waked him at 1 H, and another about an hour after.

In the morning of Jan. 17, after the last shock, there fell a little small rain,
like hail, which turned to snow in about 14 or 15 hours, which fell in such abun-
dance for an hour, that the streets and tops of the houses were quite co-
vered ; and a little more after mid-day, which continued all the remainder of
the day.

On the 1 8th there were no sensible shocks of the earthquake, but now and
then visible undulations of the ground, though of no consequence.

The igth in the morning, at sun-rise, there were between the east and south
certain clouds very thick, which dispersed as they came nearer to the solar
disk ; but there always remained a particular uncommon whitish thickness in
the air, till l6 hours, when it was entirely dissipated. At IS-f hrs. was heard a
rumbling noise, the house began to shake, and the motion continued 8 or 10
seconds: it came like a blow, and the house waved from west to east. At ig
hours exactly, followed another shock, which lasted about 3 seconds. All the
remainder of the day, quite till 23 hours, the earth was in continual motion;
and exactly at 23 hours followed another shock, like that at I84-. At 2 hours,
and at 3-|-, and 3 hours 50 minutes, were 3 small shocks ; and from that time
to the 20th of January at 234- hours, nothing was felt : at this hour there was
a small shuddering, which was not universally observed. At 5 hours 25 mi-
nutes in the night, followed a shock like that of 184^ hours of the 19th day,
with this difference only, that the house waved from south-east, and continued
between 10 and 12 seconds; there followed a strong undulation of the ground
till 21 hours of Jan. 21 ; at 23 hours of the said day, a small motion of the
ground was observed by many.

Some fishermen told him, that at the same hour on the 19th day of January,
that they had the terrible shock at Leghorn, they, being at sea between Me-
loria and Gergona, saw a small part of the sea rage violently, and raise itself to
a great height in a white foam, with a dreadful roaring, which frightened them
so far as to imagine themselves lost, though it did not directly beat upon them,
but they felt it on one side only ; which made them imagine some violent mis-
chance at shore ; and keeping their eyes always on that troubled part of the
sea, perceived it made towards Leghorn, and broke on the old fortress, which
for a little while was hidden from them. The captain of a ship, who came to
this port, says, that he saw, to his great surprize, a few miles distant from
Capo Corso, several streams running with great impetuosity different ways, and


S70 rniLosoPHicAL transactions. [anno 1742.

so very rough, that though he had a very fair wind, he expected every moment
to be lost. This must have happened just before the earthquake of the IQth of
Jan. above mentioned.

From the 20th to 23 hours of Jan. 25, the ground was in a continual agita-
tion. And on the 26th, at 23 hours, there was a much greater motion than
that of the 20th day ; but from that hour till 18^ hours on the 27th, there
was not the least motion perceptible. At this time, however, was heard a most
dreadful noise, followed by a treble shock of the earthquake in the most fright-
ful manner, and beyond measure violent ; it began by a successive motion, and
followed by a sort of blow with dreadful violence ; and at last came another
successive motion, more horrible than the former. There was heard from
under-ground a hollow terrible rumbling, as if the whole earth had broken to
pieces : it had a motion like turning and continued moving ; the houses waved
30 or 32 seconds, from east to west; part of the door-case fell, and the par-
tition walls cracked ; the mortar fell all about like rain, the furniture and cloaths
hung to the walls fell all down. He without being able to seek safety out of the
house, stood fixed, and nailed up, as it were, by the surrounding crowd of fright-
ened wretches that flocked in upon him. At last, however, he got out, and could
hardly believe his eyes when he found the houses all standing, having figured
things much worse. Every thing suffered in some degree, there not being a
single edifice but what was damaged : but those which are well built have suffered
scarcely any thing : some must inevitably be rebuilt, chiefly those which remain
leaning on one side : which proceeds chiefly from the load occasioned by their
being raised so high. What was most surprising, was the number of cracks in
the walls of the collegiate church, which were built without sparing any cost,
to make them a complete piece of workmanship, and are of an extraordinary
thickness, as might be observed in some of the openings in the building and
vaulting, which was esteemed superior to any in the town : hence we may con-
ceive a just idea of the extreme violence of the roaring earthquake. Had not
the houses been in general very good, they must have come to the ground.
The ruins consist in the roof of the church of St. John Baptist, the con-
vent of Augustine Friars, the roof of a palace called Rosciano, belonging to the
family of Borghesi of Sienna. Besides these, there are few others of conse-
quence, and but 13 people killed. There is an immense quantity of iron chains
used, to keep the walls of the houses together.

On account of the inconveniences attending this earthquake, an infinite
number of people went out of the town ; abandoned the houses and shops
instantly, to seek refuge in the great piazza : so great was the consternation,
that no one knew what he was about. It was an object of the greatest compas-


sion, to see the astonishment and general confusion that prevailed ; every body
looked pale as death, without knowing what he did or said.

Before the earthquake on the IQth, the waters swelled, and then fell again ;
soon after they swelled half a yard higher than ever they were used to do. The
same night and the following, there was a strong smell of sulphur in the streets.
This smell was likewise found in the water of some wells. The sea was seen in
sundry situations, now high, and then presently very low again ; sometimes
strongly agitated, and at others on a sudden calm. On the 27th, the waters
were observed to rise as high or something higher than the igth.

It is said here, that the sea roared with such violence and smartness, that its
noise was like the firing of large cannon, A fisherman, a Frenchman by nation,
being then in his boat, found it of a sudden raised up a prodigious height, and
then it fell down so low, that he thought it had touched the bottom of the sea,
and concluded himself lost. During this uncommon motion he affirms to have
heard one of these noises resembling the firing a cannon, and afterwards felt
no storm.

j4 Demonstration of Newton s Method of raising a Binomial to any Power. By
J. Castilion, Profes. of Philos. in the Academy at Lausanne, and F.R.S.

N°464, p. gi.

Every index is either an integer or fraction, and these either positive or ne-
gative. 1 . When it is a positive integer ; then to raise the binomial to any
power of the index m, is nothing more than to write down the given binomial
as often as there are units in m, and to draw or multiply all these binomials into
one another.

2. When the index is a positive fraction, as — ; then to raise the binomial
to this power, is to raise the given binomial to the r power, and, this power
being given, to find the quantity which raised to the n power, equals the ;•
power of the given binomial.

3. But when the index is negative, either an integer or a fraction ; then to
raise the power, we must first proceed as in Art. 1 or 1, and then divide a unit
by the power so found.

M. Castilion then assumes p -\- q ior any given binomial, to be raised to any
power m. He remarks that p" and q'" will be the extreme terms of the power,
and the intermediate terms will be the m — 1 intermediate terms between those,
without the co-efficients, but as to the finding of these co-efficients, in which
consists the chief difficulty, his process is so illogical and embarrassed, and so

4D 2


far short of a demonstration of Newton's celebrated binomial theorem, that
it is undeserving of being reprinted on the present occasion.

Two Histories of Internal Cancers, and of what appeared on Dissection. By
fVUliam Burton, M. D. of IVindsor. N° aQa, p. gg.

Bartholomew Collins, a labourer in the king's works at Windsor, of low
stature, pale complexion, slender and active, about 36 years of age, temperate
in his manner of living, had, for some years, been afflicted at different times
with wandering arthritic, colic, and nephritic pains, none of which were peri-
odical or constant. During this term, when in best health, he was usually
costive, and his urine, as soon as made, deposited a calculous sediment.

In March 1733, he received a violent blow by a ponderous and obtuse in-
strument on his loins, and the spine of the os innominatum, towards the left
side, which disabled him for that day. On the next, the pain abating, he con-
tinued so well for 6 months after, as not even to recollect this accident, till
about a month before his death, though he was often asked by the physician,
whether that part had ever suffered a contusion.

In January following, he complained of an excruciating pain, extending from
the said spine to the spurious ribs on the left side, which sometimes attacked
also the intestines ; whence he became continually restless, especially in the
night, and, tossing the bed cloaths off, frequently lay naked. He could not
now lie on his back or left, viz. the affected side, but lay always on his right
side, leaning on his right elbow. In April 1734, his left knee, from a con-
traction of the muscles elevating it, was always drawn up towards the abdomen,
insomuch that he could not stand upright. His left testicle, formerly less than
the right, was now become scirrhus, and increased to double the magnitude
of this, and the left spermatic vessels felt like a knotty cord. A sort of hectic
fever attended him, the exacerbation of which, as well as of his pains, was ge-
nerally about noon and 6 in the evening.

After various medicines had been tried in vain. Dr. B. was consulted, April
4th, 1734. The patient at that time complained of an intolerable pain, on any
pressure, about the region of the left kidney ; whereupon a maturating cata-
plasm was applied in the day-time, and a plaster at night. Emulsions, whey,
and such like, were the chief internals he used till April 8th, when crude mer-
cury was recommended to him, of which he took 1 oz. night and morning,
which gave so much relief as to encourage the continuance of that medicine
only to the 17th, when the pains returning, he was bled once in 2 or 3 days,
to 4 or 5 oz. and treated with the subacid, cooling regimen, and paregorics.



till April 29th, when he first mentioned a scirrhous tumour, as large as a hen's
egg, situate on the left mastoid muscle of the neck. On comparing this with
the testicle, neither of which tumours were in the least diminished after applica-
tions for that purpose, it was conjectured, that either the pancreas or mesenteric
glands were cancerated. Various other remedies were tried ; but he became
more and more emaciated, till May 21st, the day of his death.

May 22d, on removing the integuments of the abdomen, the musculi recti
appeared livid. The omentum was destitute of fat. The intestine contiguous
to the left OS innominatum was tinged with green. Nothing besides appeared
morbid in the viscera in situ, at first view. The situation of the pylorus seemed
lower than usual. The colour or texture of the liver were not remarkably pre-
ternatural. The spleen was of the largest size, and adhered in its hinder part
so strongly to the peritonaeum, that it could not be separated without lacera-
tion, and there remained in the place of adhesion, a thick, callous, and almost
horny membrane, as large as a half-crown. The pancreas was very small, and
seemed composed of small scirrhi. The left kidney was twice as large as na-
tural : its substance about the pelvis was corroded by a semipurulent cancerous
sanies, that was in part collected between the surface of the kidney and its con-
taining bag. Its internal structure was not much amiss: but the fomes morbi,
the most singular and surprizing phenomenon in this subject, was a number of
large conglobate, steatomatous, cancerated glands, reaching from the recep-
taculum chyli to the lowest vertebrae of the loins, so connected together as to
represent a pancreas affixed to the vertebras of the loins, and upper anterior
part of the left psoas muscle : it was 4 times as large as his pancreas, and as
large as the right or sound kidney. The aorta descendens pervaded the middle
of this preternatural substance lengthwise. From this mass, as a fountain,
flowed that cancerous sanies, which had made its way to the left kidney, and
also corroded the superior carneous part of the left psoas major, and iliacus in-
ternus, so that one might easily rend their gangrened flesh like rotten linen.
Some of this green ichor collected near the os innominatum had laid the spine
of it quite bare. The left spermatic vessels were knotty, tumefied, and livid.
The mesenteric glands were scirrhous. The descending trunk of the aorta was
smaller than usual ; and, dividing it, we extracted a small polypus. The exa-
mination of the other cavities was not permitted.

Thomas Trinder, a taylor, at Windsor, in his 29th year, was of a pale com-
plexion, with red hair, of a middle stature, and thin habit, addicted to smok-
ing from morning to night, and now and then to hard drinking. Eight years
before his death, he was thrown in wrestling, so as to pitch the small of his
back on the corner of a chair, by which at first he was much hurt in that part ;


but on the abatement of his pain, he became from that time subject to fits of
the colic, in which he said his bowels seemed to be drawn to his back-bone,
and usually received ease by binding his waist as tight as he could. He had also
frequent recourse to Geneva, and such liquors, for relief, but seldom found
any, till a swelling, as large as a hen's egg, appeared like a rupture in his right
groin. These fits were not of above 24 hours duration, but the inguinal tumour
lasted 2 or 3 days. He was often afflicted with stitches under his left breast,
which were removed by bleeding.

But in the middle of Nov. 1735, his colic became so violent, that he could
not lie in his bed, nor sleep without opiates. Nov. 21, Dr. B. found him in
the use of some carminative pills sent by an apothecary. He had frequent
retchings to vomit, and was very costive. His pains seemed confined to the
intestinal region, and were most acute in the evening, continuing to harass him
till 5 or 6 in the morning. His pulse beat seldom under 100 in a minute, at
night generally above. He was not very hot nor thirsty. His urine at this
time was rather defective in quantity, than amiss in respect of colour or sepa-
ration. His tongue was foul towards the root, but not very white.

After this, his disorder resembled a nephritic one, his chief complaint being
of pain about the region of the kidneys, and along the descent of the ureters.
The pain removing from the loins fixed itself at the os pubis and in the thighs
Nov. 29, but being abated about the os pubis by proper medicines, the pain
afterwards mostly afflicted the left thigh and hip. P>om this time he generally
sat up in his bed, leaning forward to the left, and for the most part cross-legged,
finding himself easiest in this posture. He could not lie any time on his right
side. The quantity, colour, and sediment of his urine, much the same now as
when he was in health. It was made without the pain, which, soon after the
nephritic symptoms commenced, he complained of at the root of the penis.
And now his disorder resembled the lumbago and sciatica, affecting the left
side mostly; whereupon, Dec. 2, he was put in the use of a diuretic and ape-
rient electuary, with terebinthinate clysters. To this time he had very few
stools without clysters, and those generally very small and fetid. Dec. 5, the
fever and pain increasing, a cooling aperient apozem, with a paregoric draught
pro re nata, were continued till Dec. Q, when examining the thigh where the
pain now afflicted him most. Dr. B. found some small scirrhi in the groin,
which were sensible enough to the touch, though not to the sight; and from
that time apprehending him of a scrophulous habit he prescribed accordingly.

Dec. ] 8, he first mentioned a tumour he had discovered near the navel. It
appeared not as he sat, but when laid on his back, there was a protuberance
larger than a turkey's egg, 4 finger's breadth on the left side of the navel, ex-


tending 2 above it, and 4 below it. By its situation, resistance to pressure, and
the unevenness that from under the skin was communicated to the touch, its
disappearing when he was in an erect posture, and its not being diminished by
discutient fomentations, it was judged to be a scirrhous tumour, which had
long existed there unobserved by the patient, till it increased too much to be
longer undiscovered. The emplast. de ran. et cum mercur. was applied out-
wardly ; and concluding there was an internal cancer. Dr. B. was encouraged,
from the preceding case, to order him hydrargyr. §j every morning. On which
there was such a remission of his pains, that during almost a fortnight, he got
more rest without opiates than before with them; insomuch that being greatly
revived, and regaining some appetite, he got down stairs 2 or 3 times. Think-
ing the plaster increased his pain, indigo blue linen was applied in its stead.
The mercury came away by stool, and he had now one almost every day, and
sometimes twice a day, without a clyster. His grand complaint now was of a
most troublesome cardialgia, especially when he lay down, which was somewhat
mitigated by powders of cret. britan. cum pauxillo sal. absinth. From the first
use of the mercury he seemed to be recovering, till after about 12 days, when
omitting it for a few days, he relapsed into his former or a worse condition;
and though he was somewhat easier on the repetition of it, the good effects
lasted not long. He drooped daily from the 4th of January, and on the ]3th
died, emaciated and almost exanguis.

On dissection, nothing preternatural appeared in the integuments, abdominal
muscles, or peritoneum immediately under them. But under all these, where
the protuberance had been observed, and immediately under the omentum,
which was destitute of fat and its lower part mortified, there came in view
an anomalous substance in situ, seemingly as large as a very large potatoe;
which, when the circumambient viscera were removed, was found to be a scir-
rhous, fungous, cancerated excrescence, rooted, as it were, to the left side of
the vertebrae, quite from the diaphragm down to the pelvis, of a monstrous
bulk, occupying near one-half of the abdomen, lying like a tortoise with its
head towards the pelvis, and its back to the umbilicus. It was in the upper
part covered by and firmly cohered with the colon, which in the whole conti- •
guity was black and mortified. It was strongly attached to the peritoneum on
the left side of the lumbal vertebrae, having displaced the left kidney, and
brought it forwards to the left side of the navel, so that it came in view as soon

Online LibraryRoyal Society (Great Britain)The Philosophical transactions of the Royal society of London, from their commencement in 1665, in the year 1800 (Volume 8) → online text (page 66 of 85)