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as the omentum was removed. It likewise removed the aorta descendens, the
left emulgent, and meseraic vessels, quite out of their natural situation ; all of
which were found pervading the centre, nearly, of this excrescence, and
smaller than natural. It adhered to the kidney strongly where the emulgent



576 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [ANNO 1 74'2.

vessels enter it, and it had detruded most of the small guts into the pelvis.
Nothing was preternatural in the stomach or spleen, excepting that the latter,
as well as the left kidney, seemed paler than usual, and this kidney also more
flaccid : the gall-bladder was shrunk to the size of a nutmeg, and einpty. The
liver had a preternatural lobule, as large as a hazel-nut, adhering to it by a
small pedicle. But otherwise all these viscera, as well as the right kidney,
bladder, &c. discovered nothing morbid.

This cancerated excrescence could not be eradicated without laceration, and
on its removal, 2 or 3 large trunks of nerves appeared naked, passing over the
iliacus internus to the thigh; which had been compressed by this tumour. The
weight of this excrescence was 4 lb. 14 oz, and allowing for what remained on
laceration, and the efflision on cutting into it, it doubtless exceeded 5 lb. On
bisection, it appeared, to the depth of half an inch from its surface, black and
gangrened, and below that it was all spongy, with cavities as large as those of
a honeycomb; and from it had issued a cancerous sanies, draining to the
pelvis.

On opening the thorax, the right lobe of the lungs was full of scirrhous
cancerated tubercles, whence a sanies had flowed between it and the pleura ;
the left lobe was much smaller than the right, was firmly attached to the pleura
and mediastinum, and inseparable without dilaceration. It had some tubercles
also. The heart appeared sound, but a large polypus was taken out of its right
ventricle, at the orifice of the arteria pulmonalis.

Another case occurred to Dr. B. cotemporary with the first of these, and so
like to both of them in the antecedent cause and symptoms, that, could he have
obtained leave to inspect the corpse, he was persuaded some such immediate
cause would have discovered itself. Crude mercury was the only medicine in
this case also, which palliated for about 10 days successively.

The diagnostics of a cancer within the abdomen, deduced from the preceding
histories, seem to be as follow : a naturally slender habit of body, accompa-
nied with some scrophulous or scirrhous tumour, with a pale complexion, and
costive disposition ; if such an one, at an age above 20, has received a violent
contusion on the loins, and, neglecting all remedies, is some time afterwards
attacked with excessive pains, afflicting now the colon, then the urinary pas-
sages, spine of the os innominatum, and pubes, at various times, always in-
creased by all internals or externals, by which the heat of the body is increased,
especially by terebinthiriate clysters; but mitigated by some singularity of pos-
ture, in which the patient constantly abides; if these be attended with a hectic
fever, without the usual degree of heat in the skin, of whiteness or dryness of
tongue, or complaint of thirst, and also without cough, high-coloured urine.



VOt. XHI.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 577

or vitiated respiration; if accompanied likewise with an affection of the sper-
matic vessels, of the thighs, and frequent pleuritic pains; the blood always
abounding with tough size ; if opiates soon lose their effect, and only, as all
other new remedies not heating, seem to give relief for 2 or 3 days; if cathartics
take place, and by frequent repetition do not produce a colliquative diarrhoea,
and the most palliative remedies are nitrous salts and mercurial; may it not be
concluded with much probability, that such a case is owing to some such cause?
may it not be pronounced an internal cancer?

Observations on Falling Dew, made at Middleburg in Zealand, on a Leaden
Platform, in the Night between the 25th and 26th of July, 1741, N. S. with
Figures of the Flakes of Snow observed Jan. 1 742. By Leonard Stoche, M.D.
N" 4()4, p. 112. From the Latin.

On glass of various kinds, there fell much dew, so as to wet it all over. — On
polished brass, but little, and only a thin vapour. — On rough unpolished brass
a little more. — On lattin, or iron tinned, a little: on the same of a blue colour,
much : on the same rough, very much ; on the same smooth, scarcely any : on
the same rusty, none. — On pure quicksilver, none. — On smooth tin, none. —
On rough lead, much: on polished lead, a little. — On white silver, none; on
polished silver, none: on silver gilded, none. — On blue porcelaine, none. — On
a stone slab, much. — On a basket, made of Indian cane finely woven, a little.
— On a smooth white oaken plank, very much; on the same of a black colour,
much less. — On a smooth fir plank, but little.

On shifting those bodies, which received much dew, a little higher, 2 or 3
inches above the leaden platform, the lead dried, and the bodies themselves be-
came wet beneath, as well as above. But the tin and silver being placed in
like manner, continued dry, though their place, which before was bedewed,
dried up.

Jan. 2, 1742, N. s. early in the morning, there fell flakes of snow, like fig.
5, pi. 14; their diameters, from the extremities of their points, being 4 of a
line. — Jan. 10, before noon, as in fig. 6, also 4 of a line in diameter; in the
middle of which was a hexagonal rose, like that in fig. 5, only that the oval
parts were empty. — Jan. 20, about noon, like fig. 7, being 1 line in diameter;
and fig. 8, of 14- line diameter; which last shone like Muscovy glass.

Concerning the Vegetation of Melon Seeds Forty-two Years old. By Martin
Triewald, F. R. S. Milit. Arch, to the King of Sweden. N° 464, p. 115.

Secretary Haereus, of Stockholm, having a large collection of natural curio-



VOL. VIII.



4E



SyS VHILOSOPHICAL TKANSACTIONS. [aNNO 1742.

sities, among which was a great number of foreign seeds, and finding he had
inelon seeds that were laid up in a paper in the year 17OO ; Mr. T. was curious
to try if they had retained their vegetative quality, and accordingly the 21st of
Feb. 1741, he planted '24 of them in a separate hot-bed, from which he had
21 good plants, which, after they were planted in a new-made hot-bed, showed
flowers before they began to branch themselves, and their branches were very
narrow, yet produced early and plenty of good melons. This experiment shows
not only how very long melon seeds will retain their vegetative quality, but also
that good melon seeds cannot well be too old. It is no new thing to make use
of old melon seeds rather than new, but he has never heard of any person try-
ing so old as these.

On the Differences of the Heights of Barometers. By M. Samuel Christian
Hollman, Leg. Met. and Theol. Natural, in Regia Georgia Augusta, P. P. O.
N° 464, p. 116. From the Latin.

In July and Aug. 1741, M. Hollman made several observations with baro-
meters, in a visit he made to the mountains of Hercynia in Sweden. Having
prepared a new barometer for this purpose, he divided its scale of ascent and
descent into Rhinland inches and lines, or 12ths, from the 20th to the 32d
inch. On applying it to this barometer, and comparing it with 6 others, which
he hiid by him, he found that they all showed different heights of quicksilver,
the differences extending from 2 to 12 lines, the new one being 2 lines higher
than any of the others.

On his return to Stockholm from the mountains, he compared the barometers
again, and finding still the same differences, he constructed several other new
ones, with upright tubes, of different apertures, atnong which he found also
differences of from 1 to 4 lines; those which rose the highest, exceeding one
which he called his best, by full 6 lines, or half an inch.

Aug. 12 he repeated the experiments again with his 1 5 barometers, and find-
ing again nearly the same differences, he then prepared 10 other new ones, with
upright tubes, some of them having bent glass cisterns to hold the quicksilver,
and some without. Among these the 10 heights differed from 1 to I4- lines,
and they exceeded the height of his best barometer by 4 lines.

These barometers were all made in the same manner, and great care was
taken to free the tubes and the quicksilver from all air. There was indeed some
difference in the glass of the tubes; the best barometer, in which the quick-
silver had always the least height, had its tube of green glass, with a separate
cistern made of the same glass; this barometer is N° 1 of class 1 following;
N° 2 being that which was used in the mountains of Hercynia. But that tube



VOL. XLIl.] PHILOSOPHfCAL TRANSACTIONS. 579

in which the quicksilver rose the highest, and often a full inch higher than in
N° I, was made of the whitest glass; this shows a remarkahie phosphoric light,
and has a wooden cistern ; but its heights change slower than any other, and
is N° 7 in the same class. N" 3 is a diagonal one, with a single bend, and a
bent glass cistern. N° 4 is Bernoulli's, the tube of which, is to the cylinder
fastened above, as 1 to 8. N° 5 is Huygens's. N° f) is another diagonal one,
but with a double bend, one of which is received by that part of the tube to
which the scale is applied, intercepting an angle of about 25°, with the per-
pendicular part of the tube, in the double angle of which, because of the nar-
rower width of the tube, the quicksilver must be greatly retarded in its ascent
and descent.

The barometers in the 2d class have their lubes of a different kind of glass;
which when melted at a lamp, partly loses its transparency, and its surface be-
comes covered with very small scales. In these tubes the quicksilver rises the
highest in the upright and simple barometers, excepting only that which pro-
duces the phosphorus.

The 3d class contains those barometers having very white glass tubes, that
suffer no alteration from the fire, and are all straight and simple. The differences
among these amount only to l-J- line; and their greatest height only exceeds the
least of the others by about 4 lines.

Are we therefore, asks M. Hollman, to seek for the cause of this difference
in the diversity of the glass tubes? Is not the surface of one more rough and
uneven than that of another, and does it not therefore more or less resist the
ascent of the quicksilver by its friction? or is it from any other cause?*

Class i. Baromer used July 27 and Aug. 12. Class hi. 10 Barometers made Aug. 12, the

N° Aperture Height first 5 having no annexed cisterns, but the last 5

1 \ line 27 inch. 1 1 lin. having bent glass cisterns.

2 i 28 1 N" Aperture Height

3 i 27 11 1 I line 27 iuch.ll^lin.

4 28 4 2 I ,

5 28 . . . 5 3 IJ

6 i 28 ... . 7i 4 2J

7 i 28.... 9 5 \i

Class ii. 8 Barometers new made July 27. 6 1\

1 2 28.... li 7 i

2 2 28 4 8 1

3 If 28 4 9 li

4 1| 28 2i 10 i

5 l| 28 . . . 2 Now, since difterent barometers have such'dit-

6 1-1 28 ... . 2 ferent heights, M. H. concludes we ought to think

7 1 28 ... . 2 about harmonic barometers as earnestly as about

8 I 28 ... . 4 thermometers, before we can accurately collect

* Probably the diversity and smallness of the tubes have a great effect on the heights.

4 e2



27...


.. IH


27...


. 11+


28..


..


27..


.. Ui


28..


..


28..


..


28..


.. 1


27..


.. lll


27..


.. lU



580 I'HILOSOPHICAL TBANSACTIONS. [aNNO 1742,

from their annual observations their mean heights in different places, and thence,
among other things, the elevations of those places above the sea.

Concerning Polypi taken out of the Hearts of several Sailors just arrived at
Plymouth from the West-Indies. By John Huxham, M. D. N" 464, p. ]23.

During the very dry, cold weather in February and March last, several of
the men brought home in the Deptford and Dunkirk men of war, from the
West Indies, were seized with short, importunate, asthmatic coughs, without
any expectoration, violent and almost continual palpitation of the heart, with a
perpetual intermitting, trembling, fluttering pulse, and a constant anxiety,
pain and sinking of the heart, as they expressed it. They breathed with ex-
cessive difficulty, and could scarcely lie down in bed without suffocation. Their
heads, as it were, sunk between their shoulders, and they had very dead,
heavy countenances. Some had pains of the side, though very little apparent
fever.

Upwards of 20 persons were in a very short time carried off towards the end
of March in this manner, notwithstanding the most proper and diligent care,
by bleeding, vomiting, blistering, attenuants, diluents, &c.

On this, Mr. Wyatt, first surgeon of the hospital, ordered 2 of the dead to
be opened. They were about 40 years old. He found monstrous polypi in
both their hearts, and directly had the hearts carried to his own house, and
soon acquainted Dr. H. with the whole matter; when they very carefully
examined them. The polypi were very nearly of the colour of the buff formed
on the surface of highly pleuritic or rheumatic blood, when quite cold or
rather whiter. They were vastly tough, and seemed to be formed of various
lamina very closely connected, though here and there a bloody vein, as it
were, was interspersed. They were not only firmly attached to the fleshy
columnae of the heart, but were also sunk and inserted strongly into the inter-
columnia, or sulci, and that even to the very bottom of the ventricles. These
roots, if we may so call them, were of a whiter colour than the body of the
polypus.

One of these polypi weighed a full ounce, not including its ramifications in
the arteria pulmonaris and the cava, but as it was taken out of the right auricle
and ventricle ; for it was one continued mass, and strongly adhered to both.
The polypus taken out of the left ventricle of the same heart, was also very
considerable, and rather more firm and compact than that of the right, but of
the very same colour, and firmly implanted into the sides of the ventricle, quite
down to the mucro cordis. Its branches were shot a great way into the sub-



VOL. XLII.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 581

clavian and carotid arteries, but very little down the aorta. One of the semi-
lunar valves of the aorta was become bony.

There were likewise found very great polypi in the right and left cavities of
the other heart, of the same colour, firmness and tenacity, but hot quite so
large ; and they respectively branched their appendices a great way into the
pulmonary artery, aorta, &c.

More of the sailors dying in the very same way soon after, the thorax of
another was opened, that of a young man about 20. In the right auricle and
ventricle of his heart was found a large tough subrubicund polypus, not quite
so white as those mentioned before; but there was no such concretion in the left.

Now though Kerkringius and others have endeavoured to explode the notion
of the formation of true polypi in the heart and blood-vessels ; yet Malpighi,
Bartholine, Tulpius, Pechlin, and others, have given us incontestable instances
of the existence of true polypi in the heart, in the strictest sense ; and we
have here 3 unquestionable evidences of the like nature : such, indeed, espe-
cially the 2 former, as Dr. H. never has before met with amidst the very
numerous dissections he had ever been present at.

Dr. H. adds that he had the first lieutenant and purser of the Dunkirk under
his care in very severe pleuro-peripneumonies, whose blood was as viscid as he
ever saw; and they were with very great difficulty saved, nor could they be
brought to expectorate till the 7th day of the fever.

It may be observed also (Dr. H. continues) that the above ships came home
from a very hot climate into a very cold one, in the midst of winter, and that
a long continued course of north-easterly winds kept on, and even increased,
the cold to a great degree ; that pleurisies, peripneumonies, &c. are commonly
the effects of such a constitution of air; that the blood of such as labour under
these disorders is always extremely sizy ; and that the heat of the weather in
the West Indies, and large and long continued use of spirituous liquors, had
greatly condensed the blood of these men ; and that, in the blood-vessels of
the thorax of such as die of these distempers, polypous concretions are not un-
commonly found.

jin Extract of a Topographical* Account of Bridgnorth in the County of Salop;
containing an Account of the Situation, Soil, Air, Births and Burials of that
Place, and of some Tumuli Sepulchrales near it. Communicated by the Rev.
Mr. Stackhouse. N° 464, p. 127.
Bridgnorth is situated on the River Severn, on the west of the ancient forest

• Taken from the original papers of the Rev. Mr. Richard Cornes, late minister of the parish of
St. Mary Magdalen in Bridgnorth. — Orig.



582 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNNO 1742.

of Morfe, and was built, according to Camden, by Edelfleda, lady of the Mer-
cians ; but encompassed with a wall, and fortified, by Robert de Belesme, Earl
of Shrewsbury ; and afterwards favoured by King John, and other kings, with
many and great privileges granted in their respective charters.

The town is divided by a stately stone bridge, of 7 arches, over the Severn
into two unequal parts ; the lesser part, that lies upon the east of the river, is
called the low Town, and consists of two streets, one extending from the
bridge to the very foot of Morfe, and goes by the name of St. John's-street,
from a religious house there in times of popery, dedicated to St. John the
Baptist.

The high town lies on the western bank of the river ; and rises gradually to
a considerable height.

A Table of Birth and Burials for 12 Years, in the Parish of St. Mary Mag-
dalen, which contains about 520 Families ; and of St. Leonard, containing
■ about 550 Families ; ivhich, allowing 5 to each Family, amounts to 260O In-
habitants in the Parish of St. Mary, and to 2750 in the Parish of St. Leoriard;
in all 5350.

In the Parish of St. Mary Magdalen. In the Parish of St. Leonard.

Births. Burials. Births. Burials.



54 119 Small Pox. 1 727

72 77 1728

52 74 1729

65 78 1730

75 36 1731

64 41 1732

70 46 1733

69 77 1734

46 56 1735

60 32 1736

67 11 1737

61 53 1738



68


100 Small Pox


72


61


54


78


84


65


70


53


47


49


79


65


64


90


72


57


79


39


71


56


62


65



755 711 822 778

Total increase 88.

In July 1740, he inspected several tumuli on Morfe, where the soil is strong
gravel. Monifaucon, in his Antiquities, tells us, that the old Cimbri, or old
inhabitants of Denmark, were wont to throw up heaps of gravel on their graves;
and that the more remarkable the persons were, the larger were the tumuli over



VOL. XLII.] PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. 583

them. It was therefore imagined, that this might possibly be a burying-place
of the Danes, who, it is generally owned, were descendants of those people.
On opening some of these tumuli, some few bones were found, but mostly in
a petrified state. The tumuli are from 8 to Q yards in diameter, at their
bases.

Concerning some extraordinary Effects of Lightning. By tJie Right Hon. Robert
James Lord Petre, F.R.S, N° 464, p. 136.

One Tuesday morning, June 32, 1742, between 3 and 4 o'clock, we had at
Thorndon some of the most terrible thunder ever heard. It beat down a
chimney at a farm-house just by, and the lightning also struck two large oaks
in the park, which stand about 40 or 50 feet apart. It seems remarkable, that
the greatest damage appears to be done on the east side of one tree, though it
is certain that the storm all came from the south-west. This tree is extremely
shattered, and split from the top to the bottom ; and on the south-west side,
just by the root, there is a large hole made in the ground, about 6 or 7 inches
diameter, and about 12 or 15 inches deep. But in the other tree still there is
something more particular ; for there, without shattering or splitting the tree
in the least, or so much as disturbing a single branch, though there are a great
many on it, the lightning has taken off the bark about 5 inches wide, in a com-
plete spiral line, from about 40 feet high, down to within about a foot of the
ground, where the width diminishes to about 2 inches, and so goes quite off:
in the centre of the 5 inches, it has entered the wood about 4 of an inch deep,
and about an inch and half wide : this hollow it has in great part cleared out
entirely, and the rest is left hanging like pieces of broken or untwisted ropes ;
this hollow also diminishes near the ground, and dies quite out exactly at the
ground : the spiral line is exactly regular, and goes just once round the tree, or
but very little more, and is exactly of an equal width all the way. The surface
of the bark of both the trees is remarkably touched for about 10 feet from the
ground, as if it were shot all over with small-shot, each of which seems to have
taken off little scales or outside pieces of the bark, from an inch and half or 2
inches broad and long, to a quarter of an inch.

Of a Meteor seen at Peck ham, Dec. 11, 1741. By Thomas Milner, M. D.

N° 464, p. 138.

Dec. 11, 1741, at 7 minutes past one in the afternoon, a globe of light,

somewhat larger than the horizontal full moon, and as bright as the moon ap-

. pears at any time while the sun is above the horizon, instantaneously appeared,

in a clear blue sky, about the s. s e. moving towards the east with a continual



584 PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. [aNN0 1742.

equable motion, and leaving behind it a narrow streak of light, whiter than the
globe itself, throughout its whole course. Towards the end it appeared less
than at the beginning of its motion ; and within 3 or at most 4 seconds, it
suddenly vanished. Its apparent velocity was nearly equal to half the medium
velocity of those usual meteors commonly called falling or shooting stars.

The narrow luminous streak remained very distinct after the globe was gone;
and gave a fair opportunity for taking the elevation of this phenomenon above the
horizon, at the beginning and end of its motion, &c. which was found to be 20°.
This luminous tract, or path, seemed a right line, not quite parallel, but a little
inclined to the plane of the horizon, viz. highest towards the east. It was at
first very narrow, and pointed at each extremity ; but soon grew broader, and
within 20 minutes after the appearance, it was exactly like a long bright
rare cloud, discontinued in two places, above 3 times its first breadth, and a
little more inclined to, and elevated above the horizon, than it was immediately
after the motion of the globe.

Some Conjectures concerning Electricity, and the Rise of f^apours. By J. T.
Desaguliers, LL. D., F. R. S. N° 464, p. 140.

It is proper first to mention, by way of preliminary, that Mons. Du Faye's
assertion, of 2 sorts of electricity, is found to be true by observations and ex-
periments, viz. that bodies endowed with the vitreous electricity repel each
other, and attract those that have the resinous electricity : on the contrary,
those that are endowed with the resinous electricity repel each other, but attract
those that have the vitreous electricity.

Dr. D. supposes particles of pure air to be electric bodies always in a state of
electricity, and that of the vitreous kind. 1st, Because particles of air repel
each other without touching, as has been deduced from experiments and ob-
servations.

2dly, Because, when the air is dry, the glass tube rubbed, or only warmed,
throws out its effluvia, which the air drives back to the tube, whence they dart
out anew, and so move backwards and forwards with a vibratory motion, which
continues their electricity.

adly. Because the feather made electric by the tube, and darted from it,
keeps its electricity a long time in dry air ; whereas, when the air is moist, the
moist particles, which are non-electric, being attracted by the feather, soon
make it lose this electricity, which also happens even to the tube in a little time.

Hence it will be easy to account for a famous experiment of the late Mr.
Hauksbee, which is this — Having pumped out all the air from a glass globe, he
caused it to turn on its axis very swiftly, by means of a rope with a wheel and



VOL. XLII.J PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS, 585

pully ; then rubbing the glass with his hand during its motion, there appeared
a great deal of light of a purple colour within the globe, without any light or



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