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The Philosophical transactions of the Royal society of London, from their commencement in 1665, in the year 1800 (Volume 8) online

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hammock hangs, are fastened to the extremities of these beams, which keep
the hammock displayed ; and on the same extremities are also fastened all the
ropes, which unite in one that passes through the testern of the bed, and above
it hangs on a pulley, fixed to the cieling of the bed-chamber. The rope from
this pulley passes into another pulley, corresponding to it, hanging at some
distance from the bed, where a man is placed to pull it, and raise the hammock.

What we chiefly intend in dressing a patient in question, are, 1st. To dress
and refresh him, that is, gently to place him in a proper position, easy both for
himself, and those who attend him. 2dly, To put him into an easy situation,
that may also promote his recovery : the making of his bed often, is of great
ease to him ; but at the same time it is necessary that his wounds or ailments
may not bear on any the least thing possible ; and therefore his bed ought to be
composed of several small mattresses, or of mattresses of several pieces, each with
its tick over it ; these mattresses ought besides to be supplied with numbers of
pillows, each with its pillow-bier, so that he who waits on the patient, may
place them where it is proper, for the ease of the person, and of the part
affected. Nothing is more proper for this purpose than this hammock; the
patient may be lifted up from his bed, and suspended just above those pillows,
and higher yet, if necessary.

The bottom of the hammock is pierced in those places which answer to the
anus, or any part affected, so that the evacuations may find their passage into
receptacles between the pillows ranged accordingly. When the patient is to be
dressed or refreshed, the borders of the hammock are taken up, and the several


hooks passed tlirough, by which he is to be suspended, as appears in the figure;
and then a man, being placed at the rope that runs over the pulleys, lifts the
patient up to the height necessary for the surgeon to search and dress the
wound, and for the assistants to make his bed, which, even for the greater
conveniency, may be pulled out from under the hammock. When all is done,
the bed is pushed back again to its former place, the patient is gently let down
upon it, the cross-beams are lowered and detached both frotn the hammock, and
the block, and put out of the way into a corner of the room ; instead of it, a
rope is fixed to the hook of the block, tied into an eilet at the end, coming
down towards the bed within the patient's reach, in order to help himself when
he wants to stir a little.

The hammock being displayed, and the cross-beams taken away, the patient
is wrapped up in napkins as much as possible, to supply the sheet he wants be-
tween his body and the leather of the hammock ; he is afterwards covered with
an upper sheet, and other necessary bed-clothes.

This machine may be further improved by use. For instance : after M. le Cat
had contrived this, he thought that instead of the border or hem of the ham-
mock, might be made strong cylindrical iron rods, like curtain-rods, formed into a
square, somewhat larger than the bedstead, as fig. 12, to the 4 corners of which
are fastened as many ropes, which meet at the pulley ; in which case the cross-
beams, and the ropes depending on them, become useless ; and instead of a
hammock all of one piece, might be fixed 4 broad straps of Turkey leather to
2 sides of the square rod, which may be placed under such parts of the patient's
body as will be proper, and which leave a space between each other where it is
convenient. These straps may be fastened to the iron rods by several buckles
with rings to slide along the rods, by the help cf which the straps may be
pushed on to such places where there is occasion ; they may also thus be
stretched or slackened, or even be taken off, or changed as is thought fit.
After the patient has been dressed, and the bed made, the 4 ropes may be
taken off both from the rod and from the block, and the rod be let drop
with the extremities of the straps down upon the floor round the bedstead,
which being narrower than the square of the rod, the latter will easily slip over it.

An Account of a Treatise, intitled D. Alberti Halleri* Archiatri Regii et Elect.
Medicin. Anatomue, Baton. Prwiect. ^c. Enumeralio Alethodica Stirpium
Helvetiie indigenarum. Qua omnium brevis Descriplio et Synonyviia, Compen-

* The Rev. Mr. Coxe has favoured the world with a biographical accoant of Haller in the 2d vol.
of his Letters on Switzerland. As most of our readers must be possessed of those entertaining and
instructive letters, it cannot be necessary, on the present occasion, to enter very circumstantially into
a history ot the life and writings of this illustrious character ; who, in every department of letters
and science to which he directed his attention (and his attention was directed to a ^rcat varietur of


dium F'irium Medicarum, dubiarum Deciaratio, novarum et rariorum uberior

Historia et Jcones conlinenlur . Gottingice, 1742, 2 torn, folio, abstracted

from the Latin. By William Watson, F. R. S. N° 468, p. 369.

This work is so well known to botanists in every part of Europe, that to reprint

Mr. Watson's account of it now cannot be necessary. It will suffice to insert

the tabular view of this celebrated author's Methodus Plantarum.

topics), displayed a vastness of conception, a strength of reasoning, a solidity of judgment, rarely
equalled. Many instances of persons celebrated for universality of knowledge are recorded by bio-
graphical writers ; but Haller may be considered as almost the only instance, where, to the most ex-
tensive erudition, and the most unwearied assiduity, in acquiring and in teaching science, there was,
at the same time, joined the finest originality of genius. This is evinced by his poetical composi-
tions, by his botanical classifications and descriptions, and more than all by his physiological experi-
ments and inquiries.

It was at Berne that Albert Haller was bom in 1708. Here his father practised as an advocate,
designing his son for the same profession; but after devoting some years to the pursuit of general
literature, young Haller made choice of the medical profession ; to qualify himself for which, he
went first to Tubingen, and afterwards to Leyden; where Boerhaave and Albinus taught. In 1726,
he took his degree of M. D., and the year following he visited England, and afterwards Paris, where
the botanical and anatomical chairs were at that time filled by very able professors. He returned to
Berne in 1729, having previously spont some time at Basle, where, while he received instructions in
mathematics from John Bernoulli, and in the practice of physic from Tzinger, he officiated as a teacher
of anatomy, being at one and the same time both a pupil and a professor. In 1736", he accepted the
professorship of physic, surgery, and botany, at Gottiiigen. This situation he filled for 17 years,
during which, not only by his lectures, but also by numerous useful institutions, which he caused to
be set on foot, he brought that newly-established university into great repute. Not long after the
period last mentioned, Haller began to distinguish himself as an author, by various publications, the
principal of which will shortly be noticed. In 1753, he resigned his professorship at Gotlingen, and
once more took up his abode in his native city, where he became a member of the government, and
performed the fiinctions of a magistrate and a statesman, with as much credit to himself, and advantage
to the public, as he had performed those of a university teacher. In the intervals of retirement from
his magisterial and political engagements, he prosecuted his inquiries in general philosophy and medi-
cal sciences j and in particular put a finishing hand to his great and unrivalled work, entitled Elemen-
ta Physiologiae ; the materials for which he had been collecting and accumulating for a series of years.
For some years preceding his death, his health and spirits had been much impaired ; but his intellec-
tual powers appeared undiminished even to a very advanced age ; insomuch, that he continued to cor-
respond with M. Bonnet on literary and scientific subjects, till within a very short time previous to his
death, which happened in 1777, when he was in his 70th year.

Passing over his miscellaneous compositions (including his poetry, and some critical and philoso-
phical tracts), we shall only mention his principal works relating to anatomy and |)hysiology; for his
great botanical work has been already noticed in the text, to which the present observations are an-
nexed. Among his most valuable labours in anatomy, may be mentioned his Icones Anatomicae,
amounting to many folio fasciculi, and chiefly exhibiting accurate delineations of the arteries of dif-
ferent parts of the human body. Add to these, a number of anatomical tracts, first published sepa-
rately, and afterwards collectively, under the title of Opuscula, Dissertationes Selectie et Opera Mi-
nora. Besides the text book, entitled Primae Lineae Physiologiae, and his great work entitled Elementa
Physiologiae, in 8 vols. 4to. he also published a number of separate tracts, (some of which have been
reprinted collectively with the anatomical disputations before mentioned) on physiological subjects ;
such as Meraoires sur les Partes sensibles et irritables ; Memoires sur la Formation du coeur dans le
Poulet ; Memoires sur la Formation des Os ; Memoires sur la Respiration, &c. of all which an ac-
count is given by the author himself, in the 2d vol. of his Bibliotheca Anatoniica. Besides these, and
other works wholly of his own composition, (such ashisBibliothecaChirurgica, Bib.Med. Bib. Botanica,
&c.) he was editor, with large annotations, of Boerhaave's Prilectiones; of Boerhaave's Methodus Studii
Medici ; of Hippocratis Opera ; Celsi Opera, &c. To enumerate all the works of Haller would require
a great number of pages ; but the above imperfect list will suffice to show how largely he contributed
to the ad yancement of medical science, and particularly of anatomy and physiology.


Conspectus Methodi Plantarum D. Alb. Halleri.



I. Sunt ilore staminibiu et petalis destitutae, setnine solo donatae ; ut Conferva.
Staminibus veris et petalis destitute. / \- Sf^i^'bus omnino nullis. ut Lichen,
flore aliquo et semine donata: .Al Stammum analogis corpuscul.s praed. *, utMu,c..
^ L3. EpipuyllosperinaE; ut Osmunda, Polypodium.

1 . Staminibus coalitis a fructu remotis, coniferx, ut Larix.

2. a fructu remotis, Juliferae ; ut Salix.

III. Petalis destitutae, semine flore

3. Non Juliferae, isosteraones , ut Rhamnoides.

4. Meiosteraonesj ut Alchemilla.

. „-'u J » ^ 5. Diplostemones ; ut Knawel Raii.
et veris staminibus donatae,^ /; d i » . t^.l i

6. Polystemones ; ut Tithymalus.

7. Aquaticae variae ; ut Cbara, Limnopeuce.

8. Tristeraones, flore plerumque bifolio } ut Gramina.
9- Graminibus adfines ; ut Cyperoide*.

_IV. Seminibus, flora, staminibus et petalis, donatae.

'" '"1. Tuba destitutae, Orchidex ; ut Orchis, Helleborine.

2. praeditae, r 1 . Fructu sub flore tristemone, ut Gladiolus.

Liliaceae, 1 2. —^■^—^-^ hexastemone, ut Colchicum.

3. Fructu intra/ '• Monopetalum ; ut Muscari.

florem l 2 Hexaoetalum- / Sohtariura; ut Lilium.

' L ■ ^ ' t 2. Conglomeratum ; ut Cepia, Porrum.

1.2. Dicotyledones pelaloideae.

~1. Plerumque multisiliquae ; ut Veratrum, Butomus.
C I. Petalis circa ovarium ortis ; ut
2. Gymnopo- j Adonis, Trinitas.

lyspermae. j 2. e calyce ortis ; ut Cary-

^ ophyllata

1. Monoco-1

3. Pomiferae


•^ 3. Isostemones, ■<


1. Polystemones, ^

1. Umbilicatae, ut Ribes, Rosa.

2. Non Umbilicatae J ut Prunus,

4. Multiloculares ; ut Tilia, Heliantbemuin.

5. Staminibus coalitis; ut Malva.

2. Diplostemones ; ut Oxys, Geranium.
~1. Placentiferae, ( 1. Vasculiferae ; ut Evonyrous.

2. Flore fructui innato Gymno-
dispermae; ut Umbelliferae.
1. Dipetalo; utCircaea.
2.Tetrapetaloidese ) ut, As-

2. Flore fructui innato,-^ perula.
3. Quinquefido; ut Opu-


3. Flore circa fructum posito.

4. Cucurbitaceae; ut Bryonia.

5. Solanacex ; ut Alkekengi, Solanura.

6. Asperifoliae ; ut Echium, Symphytum.

7. Dicarpae ; ut Asclepias, Pervinca.
1,8. Hexapetalae ; ut Berberis.

4. Meiostemones ; ut Ligustrum, Veronica.

5. Staminibus ad petala sesquialteris ;

Siliqua breviori.

ut Tetrapetalae Cruciata:






6. Staminibus ad petala duplis sesquitertiis; ut Papilionaceae.

1 1. Capsula uniloculari, ut Oro-

7. Flore monopetalo, staminibus ) banche.

quatuor inaequalibus, j_2. Biloculari; ut Digitalis.

t'3. Seminibus quatuor nudis.

8. Floribus uni aemini insidentibut congregatis ; ut Papposae, Capitatae,




Some Account of the Phoca, F'iiulus marinus, or Sea- Calf * shown at Chaiing-

cross, in Feb. 1742-3, By. Ja. Parsons, M.D. F.R.S. N° 469, p. 383.

The figures of this animal, given by Aldrovandus, Johnston, and others,
being profiles, lead us into 2 errors ; 1st, they make a cubit in the fore-limb,
which is not visible in any shape, from the surface of the body ; and, 2dly,
make the posterior parts terminate in two fins, which on the contrary are really
webbed feet, like those of water-fowl, consisting of 5 toes, each having 3 arti-
culations, and ending with nails of a darkish colour.

The nails of the fore-paws are very considerable, being like the paws of a
mole, contrived for crawling upon land, and partly for swimming, by a nar-
rower web between each toe ; but the hinder feet are extensive webs, serving
alone to drive or row the creature in the waters.

Rondeletius, as cited by Gesner, blames Aristotle for saying this animal has
nails ; which is strange, as that historian is one of great reputation ; for it has
very considerable ones.

The animal was a female ; and the viscera, examined after its death, were as
follows :

The stomachs, intestines, bladder, kidneys, ureters, diaphragm, lungs, great
blood-vessels, and pudenda, were like those of a cow. The hairs of the whis-
kers are very horny and clear. The spleen was 2 feet long, 4 inches broad,
and very thin. The liver consisted of 6 lobes, each hanging as long and lank
as the spleen, with a very small gall-bladder. The heart was long and flabby
in its contexture in general ; having a large foramen ovale, and very great co-
lumnae carnosae.

In the lower stomach were about 4 pounds weight of flinty pebbles, all sharp
and angular, as if the animal chose them of that form for cutting the food.
Probably this may be common to all the larger sea-animals, as they swallow
many considerable fishes whole, that after some maceration in the first sto-
mach, they may be more easily ground small by these pebbles in the other, for
the nourishment of the creature.

The uterus is of the horned kind, each cornu being considerably thicker than
the body or duct leading to them : it is very fibrous, and the fibres seem all
longitudinal with the uterus and cornua, making a muscular appearance. The
ovaria are very large, being granulated on the surface with the ova, under a
very thin membrane ; and the opening into the tubes leading to the cornua is a
* great hole. A drawing of this part is annexed, as it is very remarkable.

Dr. P. refers the Society to the under-mentioned authors for the other pro-

• The species here described by Dr. Parsons is the Phoca barbata, Lin. Gmel. and the Great Seal
of Pennant.


perties of this animal ; such as their love to their young, their manner of copu-
lation, inconstancies to their females, virtues in the skin of preserving persons
from thunder, who carry part of it, as Suetonius relates of Augustus Caesar,
who dreaded it very much ; and also of such consent between the skin of this
animal and the sea, that though it be dried and kept in the most secret place,
whenever the sea is much disturbed, the hairs rise up on the skin, and lie
smooth when it is calm; with many other particulars, which, if not fabulous,
are very curious; viz. Aristotle, Pliny, Aldrovandus. Rondeletius, Gesner,
Wolfgangius, Johnston.

As to the particular figures of the animal, that of Aldrovandus seems to have
been taken from a stuffed skin, having the hinder feet like a fish-tail, and not
at all like the creature. Rondeletius's figure has as little truth as the former ;
and that given by Gesner, in his corollary on Rondeletius, is worse than any ;
having the fore-parts upright like a Sphinx. This last author has another figure
of the phoca, which is rather like a lump-fish, and almost triangular. These
could never convey a just idea of the creature to such as delight in natural

The animal is viviparous, and suckles its young by the mammillae, like qua-
drupeds, and its flesh is carnous and muscular. This was very young, though 74.
feet in length, having scarcely any teeth, and having 4 holes regularly placed
about the navel, as appears by the figure, which in time become papillae.

Fig. 1. pi. 15, represents the phoca lying on the right side, that the belly,
and parts of generation may be the better observed, a the fore-feet and breast ;
B the umbilicus and holes of the mammas ; c the external orifice of the vagina
and the anus ; d the hinder feet, which are webbed ; e the tail-
Fig. 2 shows the uterus taken out and extended, a the body of the uterus
or vagina ; B the cornua uteri ; c the holes leading into the slender tubes that
end in the extremities of the cornua ; d the ovaria ; e the continuations of the

The Ambe of Hippocrates, for reducing Luxations of the Arm with the Shoulder,
rectified. By M. le Cat, M. D. F. R. S. Abstracted from the French by P. H. Z.
F.R.S. N''469, p. 387.

M. le Cat first describes the ambe of Hippocrates, which consists of a hori-
zontal lever a, and of a fixed point b, fig. 4. pi. 15, made of a piece of wood
standing vertically, to the extremity of which the lever is joined by a hinge.
The patient sitting, and his hurt arm being raised, the machine is pushed for-
ward under the arm-pit, so that the vertical piece of wood is applied along the
ribs, where the lever enters into the arm pit up to the end of the luxated bone,
or even farther. This circumstance is essential, and even recutninended by

4p 2


Hippocrates. Sect. 6, p. 783, Fcesii. The arm is tied to this horizontal piece,
and then the assistant bears upon the scapula and the clavicula, as is seen in
the figures of Scultetus, pi. 21, while another presses down the lever, and thus
makes the bone come into its place again.

And after noticing M. Petit's remarks (in his Treatise on the Diseases of the
Bones) on this subject, he proceeds to state, that the capital defect in the
ambe of Hippocrates, is that it pushes the head of the bone into its cavity, be-
fore the extension and counter extension are made. The dangerous conse-
quences of this defect, are, according to M. Petit, 1st, that the reduction is
very difficult, because the bone is not conducted by the same way it took in lux-
ating itself, and that obstacles are met with from the parts that surround it,
even the scapula itself, on which it articulates. 2dly, in making such efforts
for surmounting those obstacles, we run the risk of turning inwards the carti-
laginous edge of the cavity of the scapula, or the capsula ligamentosa. The
second defect of the ambe of Hippocrates is, that it cannot move the luxated
bone but from below upwards ; consequently this machine is only proper in lux-
ations directly downwards ; and yet it is certain, that the arm luxates itself
both outwards and inwards ; and even it is known to all practitioners, that
luxations forwards are very frequent. Here we have a great number of luxa-
tions of the arm, where the ambe becomes useless. Now, if the ambe of Hip-
pocrates be useless in all luxations outwards, and in luxations inwards, which
are very frequent, if it be dangerous in luxations downwards, the only ones it
is fit for, it must be owned that this machine, so much cried up by Hippocrates,
is yet very imperfect.

These imperfections are real ones, but the advantages it has are so constant,
and so superior to those of any other practice, that one naturally inclines not to
part with it, but becomes desirous to remove those defects it has, without which
it would certainly be, as Hippocrates asserts, the most perfect of all machines
used in reducing a luxated arm. For supposing an ambe, which makes a suf-
ficient extension and counter-extension, before it leads the bone into the ca-
vity, or at the same time it does so, and which also might lead it from the
right to the left, and from the left to the right, as well as from below upwards,
it is certain there can be no method to be compared to this ; because there is
none in which concur at once so much force and expedition, joined to such
simplicity, regularity, and safety, that are quite singular. For that method in
which a surgeon only employs his own strength, and that of his assistants, is
commonly insufficient ; and the other, in which he helps himself with the
pulley, is perplexed with a great apparatus, is long, and still very much wants
the hands of the surgeon, and of his assistants : all which are circumstances
that render the method more complicated, and less sure.


Hence M. le Cat was induced to contrive a new ambe, in which he has en-
deavoured to rectify all the defects before mentioned.

Description of the new u4mbe.-^The basis of the whole machine is an elbow-
chair all of solid wood, fig. 3, pi. 15. higher than others usually are, in order
to give room to the lever to play the more freely, which cannot be lowered any
farther than to the floor on which the elbow-chair stands. To prevent any
uneasiness to the patient from that height of the chair, it has a foot-stool that
makes part of the chair, and brings the seat to its usual height.

Each arm of the chair is pierced with a round hole, to receive the stem or
foot of the ambe. If the luxation be on the right side, the foot is run through
on the same side; and vice versa. The patient is tied partly to the back of the
chair, partly to a piece joined to the chair on that side where the ambe is
placed. This solid union of all the pieces of the machine among themselves,
and with regard to the patient, furnish its action with all the force and certainty
possible. The ambe of Hippocrates can play but to a small extent : it is sepa-
rate from the chair in which the patient sits, and he is left to the care of the
assistants ; all disadvantageous circumstances, which are remedied by the new

In that of Hippocrates, the body of the patient has no other support against
the extension of the lever than the very vertical piece, fig. 4, on which the
lever rests ; this piece is narrow, has no proportion, or no union with the figure
of the body to which it is applied, and consequently must change his position
on that piece on the least effort the patient makes.

The foot of M. le Cat's lever has no connexion with the patient's body : there
is between the foot and his body a particular piece called the bodice, represented
in fig. 1 , pi. 1 6, made to fit itself to the body ; and in order to render that applica-
tion easy, the part which touches the body is quilted. This bodice is fixed to the
arm of the chair between 1 large iron cheeks, a, b, fig. 3, pi. 1 5, by 2 strong iron
pins, which run through them, and are stopped at their extremities with nuts
screwed on. The concave part of this piece, where the body enters, is placed
perpendicularly under the end of the lever, yet so that the lever be a little far-
ther advanced towards the patient, than the bottom of the bodice, that the lever
may thrust itself the better in under the arm-pit. As there are cases where the
head of the lever ought to be very short, or very near the point it rests on, and
others again on the contrary, where that extremity of the lever ought to be
longer, and farther off the point of its rest, the bodice of course ought to be
set more backward or forward, as the end of the lever is, the direction of whicli
it follows every where. For this reason 2 rows of holes are contrived along

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