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Table 27. — Physical Analyses of Rubbish, in Washington, D.
November, 1914, to August, 1915

(In percentages by weight)



c,



Component parts


Nov.,
1914


Dec,
1914


Jan.,
1915


Mar.,
1915


May,
1915


June,
1915


July,
1915


Aug.,
1915


Newspaper


10.4


17.8


19.5


16.1


15.6


17.2


17.0


16.0


Manila paper


6.6


12.7


7.0


9.5


8.7


7.3


12.1


13.4


Cardboard


0.8

4.4


9.4
3.0


11.7

2.4


10.5

2.4


9.7
3.3


6.9
3.2


10.9
1.4


12.8
5.6


Books, etc


Mixed paper


16.6


4.4


3.1


5.0


4.6


2.8


2.4


2.6


Rags


5.9


3.7


4.5


5.2


7.2


4.3


5.0


5.7


Wood


1.2
1.5
0.3


7.4
0.2
0.3
4 6


1.4
0.4

18.5


2.8

0.7

0.3

18 4


2.6

1.2

0.5

10 4


4.1

0.2

0.0

18.6


2.6
1,0


4.1
1.1


Leather


Rubber


Screenings


12.3


11.1


Tinware


10.2


7.3


11.7


13.6


8.8


6.6


5.6


6.4


Enamelware


0.4


0.4


0.1


0.4


0.3


5.0




0.1


Metals


1.8


0.6


0.3


0.8


1.3


1.1


0.8


1.5


Bottles


11.0


8.1


7.7


9.0


7.7


8.3


8.4


7.2


Broken glass


3.8


3.5


4.0


4.7


5.2


4.3


4.8


3.5


Excelsior




0.7
1.1
0.8


0.3


0.8


0.7
0.3
1.6


0.1
0.0
1.5


0.7
0.7
1.4


0.1


Matresses, etc

Matting..


5.2
3.1


0.1


0.3


Linoleum

Straw


0.7








0.3


0.1
0.0

8.4




0.1




0.4
6.9




Dirt

Totals


16.1


14.0


4.5


10.0


11.5


8.7


100.0


100.0


100.0


100.0


100.0


100.0


100.0


100.0



as is available for heating purposes. During the summer season they use gas,
bituminous ooal, and wood as fuel for cooking.

"Group E is made up of tenement houses occupied by the working classes
who are foreign and still use their native language. These people are careless
about littering the streets and alleys, and fail to comply with notices served to
correct violations of city ordinances. Analyses show them to be careless also
about separating garbage from other refuse. They are not wasteful, however,
but, on the contrary, very saving in every way possible. Stove heat is em-



50 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL REFUSE

ployed, about 75 % of the coal burned being bituminous and of the cheapest
kind. The resulting ash is of little calorific value. In seven of the nineteen



Table 28. — Physical Analyses of Rubbish, New York City

(In percentages by weight)



Component parts


Pebcentagb Picked Out as
Marketable


Percentage op Total
Composition


City of New York


Boston.
Atlantic
Avenue
Station
(Morse)


New

York.

(Craven)

*


London.

(Russell)

*


Berlin.
(Bohm

and
Crohn)


Delancey

Slip

Station

(Parsons)


Thirtieth
Street
dump

(Stearns)


Forty-
seventh
Street
dump
(Stearns)


Stoneware » . . .












5.0
3.6


33.5
6.3


Raes


4.60




2.78


0.76


15.5
0.1

1.8


Rubber


Leather










29.7

9.2
13.1


3.8
19.7

2.2
4.2
7.0


Straw










Wood




7.3
1.3

1.4


8.91
4.10
0.76
0.39
0.57
0.39
0.03
0.23

10.94
2.64

10.35
6.16
0.55


0.12
0.35


1.4
3.3

2.9


Metals

Glass


0.86


Baecinff




Carpets














Shoes














Hats . . .














Rope and string.






0.12
23.90








Paper

Newspaper.


25.40


33.3


75.0


39.4


23.3


Manila














Pasteboard














Mixed . . .














Books






0.24








Total marketable
Total worthless. .

Totals












30.86
69.14


43.3

56.7


48.80
51.20


25.49
74.51








100.00


100.00


100.00


100.00


100.0


100.0


100.0



* International Engineering Congress, Am. Soc. C. E., 1904.
Hering. (From "Municipal Refuse," by H. de B. Parsons)



Paper by Rudolph



wards a large amount of wood is used as fuel,
wood and coal are used for cooking piirposes.



During the summer season



REFUSE MATERIALS



51



"Group F is composed of the homes of a mixed population of native white,
foreign born, and colored people, also of cheap rooming houses occupied by
persons who do light housekeeping. They are careless about littering the

Table 29. — Physical Analysis of 21,034 lb. of Refuse,
Collected from All Parts op Toronto, Ont., October, 1914

(From Enginecrino News-Record, February 7, 1918, p. 259)





Wei


JHT


Vol


D.\IE


I'ouiwis
per


Classification










cubic




Pounds


Percentage


Cubic feet


Percentage


foot


Glass and crockery


771.25


3.52


22.30


1.90


28.2


Metals


81.50


0.40


7.50


0.52


10.9


Paper and cardboard. . .


4,653.00


22.12


682.40


47.58


6.8


Tins


398.25


1.90


49.55


3.47


8.0


Rags


420.75


2.01


42.53


2.98


9.9


Bones


150.00


0.72


4.70


0.33


31.9


Vegetable matter


10,185.00


48.53


390.72


27.21


26.1


Bread


156.75


0.75


11.06


0.89


14.1


Fish


240.50


1.15


6.10


0.41


39.4


Wood, boxes, and baskets


235.50


1.12


40.60


2.89


5.8


Linoleum


113.25


0.54


17.29


1.27


6.6


Grass, flowers, and weeds


187.75


0.89


25.91


1.80


7.2


Shoes


92.50


0.44


6.66


0.48


13.9


Sawdust and dirt


2,196.00


10.44


66.79


4.66


32.8


Ashes


1,079.00


5.13


31.20


2.18


34.6


Excelsior, straw

Totals and averages. . .


73.00


0.34


20.46


1.43


3.6


21,034.00


100.00


1430.77


100.00


14.7



Table 30. — Physical Analyses of Ashes and Rubbish
Collected in January. New York and Chicago

(Percentages by weight)





Fine
ash


Coal and
cinders


Clinker


Glass


Rubbish


Garbage


Borough of Richmond,
New York, average of
five Januarys

Chicago, one January. . .


53.5

49.88


27.1
34.00


2.9
11.59


6.6
1.84


9.9
1.70


0.00
0.99



streets and alleys, and separation of garbage. Wood and bituminous coals are
used for fuel during all seasons of the year.

"Group G (not included in the accompanying table) is made up of the



52 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL REFUSE

homes of a mixed population of American and foreign-born persons ranging
from the middle to the laboring class. No separation of garbage from other
refuse is asked, owing to the inaccessibility of these districts to the reduction
plant. All grades of coal and wood are used for fuel.

"In one of the 60 loads no ashes were found. Seven loads in group G were
not used in the table owing to the non-separation of garbage from other refuse.
The loads averaged 5 cu. yd. each.

"In certain wards there were proportionately larger amounts of com-
bustible refuse than in others, due to ward burners not being operated and to
the frequency of service given, whether daily, twice a week, or weekly. In
many localities the residents have portable rubbish burners. In a large num-
ber of apartment buildings there are installed crematories in which both gar-
bage and rubbish are consumed. This is particularly true during the winter
season.

"The total weight of rags in the sixty loads analyzed was 2640 lb. They
were obtained largely in wagons from ward groups B and C, representative of
the wealthy and middle class. In wagons of groups D and E but small quan-
tities were found. Rag pickers, with their carts of about a cubic yard capa-
city, flourish in the former groups.

"Old Newspapers. — It is difficult to secure a reasonably accurate estimate
of the output of newspapers rejected by the public. Janitors, generally, save,
bundle and hold papers until they acquire a considerable quantity, which they
sell to paper or junk dealers. Both in the case of elevated railroads and steam
roads carrying suburban passengers, at each terminal the papers are gathered,
baled and sold in car-load lots. The total circulation of the daily morning
and evening papers is 1,265,400, weighing 1660 tons. Based upon these figures
the annual tonnage would be nearly 520,000 tons. Added to this are the
Sunday editions, bringing the total very close to 600,000 tons per year of this
sort of refuse.

"Peddlers canvass the districts embraced in ward groups B and C offering
brooms and other household articles in exchange for fairly good old shoes.
These are sold to a class of cobblers and small dealers who repair and sell them
at a small price. Discarded shoes from the other groups are of practically no
value, having been worn beyond repair.

"Little metal of any kind was obtained in the loads analyzed. Cast iron
and scrap iron were to a small degree in evidence. This class of waste is
generally sold by householders and janitors to junk dealers.

"Rubbish in the streets and in the alleys is picked over by a class of men
who gather anything that has a ready commercial value. The number of men
who are thus employed is large; nearly all junk dealers are ready to furnish
them with carts or bags. The work is systematized, the men working in
definite districts.

"Recovery of Valuable Matter. — Trade waste is a term applied to refuse
discarded by factories, manufacturers, hotels, and other places of business,
which is not removed by the city. From this class of refuse, practically every-
thing of value is extracted by the owner, janitor, or a contractor. Certain
owners or agents have the cinder output removed from their premises without
cost under private contract, by including their salable refuse. Garbage from



REFUSE MATERIALS 53

hotels, caffe, and restaurants, rich in meat grease and bone, is of commercial
value and is sold or given in exchange for soap or other articles of value.

"In the sixty loads analyzed, fine ash, cinder, and clinker comprised
49.3% by weight of the whole, and rubbish the remainder. Rubbish, exclud-
ing garbage, was 29.8% of the whole. The weight of ashes per cubic yard
was 1185 lb., and the percentage of combustible material was 58.3. The
material having a commercial value was 14.8%.

"The weight per cubic yard of rubbish is considerably higher than that
of other cities, due to its containing yard cleanings and larger amounts of
garbage. The term yard cleanings used in the Chicago classification of
waste does not appear in the reports of other cities. This material remained
in the screen in the analyzing process and was separated from the cinders by
picking."

In some cases it is desirable to separate the fine ash from the ashes
when collected, leaving a larger proportion of cinder or unburned
carbon, and larger interstitial air space. By doing this, combustion is
increased, the necessary capacity of the furnaces is reduced, and a
more serviceable t)urning mixture is obtained. The cost of screening,
however, sometimes makes it uneconomical.

In some cities, especially along the Pacific Coast, the refuse con-
tains many tin cans. A mechanical analysis should be made, to show
their quantity, as their presence is an important item for considera-
tion in several methods of disposal.

Tests have been made at Milwaukee and New York to determine
how much moisture can be drained or pressed out of garbage. The
tests at Milwaukee, made by Professor Sommer, extended over 24
hours. Different quantities of garbage were placed in a salt barrel, and
the quantity of water draining out was recorded. The results of this
test are shown in Table 31. The maximum quantity of moisture
which drained out under a pressure of 24 in. of garbage was 9.33%
of the original weight.

Compression tests were made by the Lederle Laboratories for the
Parsons, Hering, Whinery report to New York City. The tests and
results (Table 32) are given in the report as follows:

"One cubic yard of garbage was placed in a cylindrical vessel, 3 ft. in diam-
eter and 4 ft. deep. Weights of 438, 1,059, 1,694, and 2,330 lb., correspond-
ing, respectively, to 60, 150, 240, and 330 lb. per sq. ft., were placed on the
garbage, and the water drawn off at recorded intervals of time and measured.

"The second test produced so much more liquid than the first that it
was thought advisable to subject garbage collected on a Monday to the initial
test of 60 lb. pressure. The result is given in the third test."

Further data referring to physical analyses may be found in Chap-
ters XIV, XV, and XVI.



54 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL REFUSE



2. Chemical Analysis. — The chemical analysis of refuse is difficult
to obtain accurately. It should include a determination (1) of the
ingredients in refuse which are valuable in soil fertilizing; (2) the
quantities of grease which may be recovered; and (3) the quantities
of carbon and hydrogen capable of oxidation to produce heat. It
should determine, also, the moisture in the refuse material, the quan-
tity of true ash, and the calorific value of the materials.

Table 31. — Determination of Free Moisture in Garbage, Milwaukee,

1907



Date


Quantity of Garbage


Quantity of Water
Drained Out


Weight, in
pounds


Heights in

barrel,
in inches


In pints


Percentage by

weight of

original

garbage


September 17th. . .
September 18th. . .
September 19th. . .
September 20th. . .


50
100
150
200


8
16
24
32


0.33

7.50

14.00

15.00


0.67
7.50
9.33
7.50



The difficulty in obtaining these data with fair accuracy is due to
the difficulty of securing representative samples, because the materials
vary from one year to another, from season to season, and according
to the localities where collected. Most analyses do not cover periods
of more than a few weeks; therefore, the results are not usually truly
representative, but only show the composition under stated conditions.

Garbage at Milwaukee, Wis., was analyzed in 1907 by Professor
Sommer, and in 1910 by Greeley; the results of the two analyses are
as follows:



Source




Percentage


BY Weight




Moisture


Volatile
matter


Fixed
carbon


Ash


Sommer


78.0
70.6


17.6


8.4
4.1


13.6

7.7


Greeley





These analyses show the importance of securing proper represen-
tative samples, as the portion analyzed by Professor Sommer appears



REFUSE MATERIALS



55



Table 32. — Liquid .Sqijekzjod imou New YoitK Gakhacr hy Pkksst're

(Parsons, Ilering, Whinery Report, 1907)





Pressure,

in
pounds

per

Bfiuare

foot


Time from
Start op Test


Quantity of Liquid

S'juEE?.EO Out
FROM Start op Test


Hours


Minutes


Pounds


Ounces


First Test:


60




15






Monday's garbage col-
lected Tuesday; bulk,
1 cu. yd.; total weight,
677 lb.


60

60

150

240


7

17

6


45
15


4

7


3

8




240


30




19




Totals


330


5


30


24


8




59


45


47


11


Second Test:


150




15


21




Sunday's garbage, col-
lected Monday; bulk,
1 cu. yd.; total weight,
1122 lb.


150
150
150
150


1
5
6


30
30


32
40
68
73






150


35


30


82






240




15


1


8




240




30


4






240


1




6


8




240


3


30


14


8




240


6


30


20


8




240


24


30


54






330




15


1


4




330




30


2


8




330


1




5


8




330


3




14


8




330


24




43




Totals


330


27


30


50


12




87


30


186


12


Third Test:


60




15


21




Sunday's garbage, col-
lected Monday; bulk,


60
60


1


30


32

45




leu. yd.; weight, 1333
lb.


60
60


3

6




67
86




Totals


60


17




103






17




103





56 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL REFUSE



to have included substances containing a comparatively large propor-
tion of ash.

Most refuse materials contain some ingredients which are useful
in the fertilization of soil. This is particularly true of manure, as
pointed out in Chapter XII, but garbage and ashes also contain small
quantities of plant food. The chief elements of fertilizing value are
phosphoric acid, ammonia, and potash. Coal ashes contain a very
small quantity of potash, and therefore have only a slight fertilizing
value. Garbage, on the other hand, has a decided value as a fertilizer
for poor or sandy soils. Yet this value is less than is shown by the
analyses, or than is popularly supposed, because the animal and
vegetable matters must first be decomposed before they are available
for plant food. The grease content in garbage is even detrimental to
its immediate value as a fertilizer, as it tends to clog or " fat " the soil,
thus preventing the necessary penetration of air.

In the reduction method of garbage disposal grease is extracted and
water is driven off. The fertilizing elements are concentrated into a
dry residue called tankage. In some cases, special analyses have been
made in order to show the value of garbage for this method of dis-
posal. The quantity of grease contained in garbage varies from about
1 to 7% of the weight of the raw material, and the residual tankage
varies from 10 to 20%.

Although the foregoing analyses are not extensive enough to show
fixed variations in the chemical composition due to the location or
season, or to the character of the population, nevertheless, the result-
ing differences certainly exist. In warm seasons and in warm climates
less meat and more vegetables are eaten. In such cases, the quantity
of grease in the garbage is less, because it is derived principally from
the animal matter. In 1910, in Columbus, Ohio, where the garbage
is treated by reduction, the grease recovery in summer was 1.1%;
but in winter it amounted to 1.5%. Partly on this account, reduc-
tion works in southern cities, as a rule, have not been profitable.

The quantities of grease, in percentages of the garbage, for several
cities have been as follows:



City


1914


1915


1916


1917


1918


1919


Detroit!






2.4


3.0


2.9




Cleveland


2.95


2.81


3.06


2.83


2.36


2.55


Columbus


2.74


2.21


3.08


2.3


2.16




Minneapolis ....








1.02







! Data for 4 months of each year.
^ Average from all wards.



REFUSE MATERIALS



57



To design refuse incinerators properly, the analyses of the refuse
materials should show the content of carbon, hydrogen, water, fine
and true ash, volatile matter, and the British thermal units. These
elements are required in order to compute the heat value, the quantity
of cUnker, and the cross-sectional areas necessary for the furnace
ducts and flues. The hydrogen may assist in estimating the calorific
value of the material. Tables 33 to 36 give analyses of refuse showing
these constituents.



4.0



Moisture



g 3.0
(S 2.0



0^ 16



»2100

•32000

■S t^ 1900

S a 1800

n S 1™

2 1600



H 1500













-1- III


t III


Ash








1 ■ 1 1 1 II


1 1 1 1 1 II


Combustible Matter










1 1


Calorific Value


















1909



1910



Eth«r Extract



5 19
g 18



tt



\mh



Phosphoric Acid



2.70
2.00
2.50
2.40
2.30
2.20

1

, 1-
1
1













^


itrogen


















.


.
































































1


























1























Potash



.3




1














































.0




























.9




























.8
.7


_


_












_






_




_x



s



33a-

►3 1-5 -"I



1909



09 1910



Fig. 7.



-Average Monthly Variation in Consituents of Garbage in Four Ohio
Cities, and Calorific Values.



Note. — Averages, May to August, 1909, for Cleveland, Columbus, and Dayton; aver'
ages, September, 1909, to June, 1910, for Cincinnati, Cleveland, Columbus, and Dayton.



Fig. 7 shows the average monthy variation in percentages of mois-
ture, ash, combustible matter, calorific value, ether extract, phos-
phoric acid, nitrogen, and potash in the garbage of four Ohio cities.

Table 37 presents chemical analyses of the garbage in Cincinnati,
Ohio, at various times from March to December, 1917, together with
averages for each month.



58 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL REFUSE



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REFUSE MATERIALS



59



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Online LibraryRudolph HeringCollection and disposal of municipal refuse → online text (page 6 of 61)