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GIFT OF
Pacific Coast

.Trn i rn -.< 1 n f*




BIOLOGY U&RAR1



BOOKS BY
R. BURTON-OPITZ, M. D.



Text-Book of Physiology

Octayo of 1185 pages, with 538
illustrations, 63 in colors.

Cloth, $8.00 net.



Laboratory Physiology

Octavo of 238 pages, illustrated.
Cloth, $4.00 net.



Elementary Physiology
12mo of 411 pages, illustrated.



AN ELEMENTARY MANUAL



PHYSIOLOGY



FOR COLLEGES, SCHOOLS OF NURS-
ING, OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION,
AND OF THE PRACTICAL ARTS



BY

RUSSELL BURTON-OPITZ

S.M., k.D., PH.D.

Associate Professor of Physiology, Columbia University, and

Professorial Lecturer in Physiology in Teachers'

College of Columbia University



ILLUSTRATED



PHILADELPHIA AND LONDON

W. B. SAUNDERS COMPANY
1922



BIOLOCV

LIBRARY

D



GIFT PACIFIC COAST JOURNAL
OF NURoINQ



Copyright, 1922, by W. B. Saunders Company



MADE IN U. S. A.



PREFACE



THE teachers of physiology in our Medical Schools are
greatly handicapped at the present time by the fact that the
material which must necessarily be presented to the students
in preparation for their clinical years, is so complex that it
can scarcely be dealt with in detail in the number of hours
of teaching ordinarily allotted to this science. It would
indeed be very helpful if the matriculates in medicine could
also present certain credits in elementary physiology, in
addition to those obtained in biology, physics and chemis-
try. The only objection that might be raised against the
establishment of more extensive courses in elementary
physiology in colleges is that this change would tend to
cause these institutions to lose their identity and purpose
even more than they have at the present time. Obviously,
a college is intended to disseminate general knowledge and
not knowledge of a special or professional type. Thus, a
college which permits its matriculates to crowd diverse
courses in the fundamental sciences into the first two years
of its curriculum and then passes these young men and
women on to the medical schools, fails utterly in its purpose
as a means of acquiring general culture.

It is evident, however, that the mission of physiology is
much greater than that of serving as an essential link in the
chain of medical subjects, because it also possesses an
eminently practical value as a general study. This fact
is recognized more and more from year to year. Thus,
many States now require elementary courses in physiology
in preparation for licenture in teaching in secondary schools
and high schools. These raised requirements have greatly
aided in destroying the erroneous conception of the school-
boy that physiology is essentially a discourse upon the
evil consequences of smoking tobacco and drinking alcoholic
beverages. Since physiology seems to have been presented

743521



12 PREFACE

chiefly from this viewpoint, it cannot surprise us to find that
this subject has always been distinctly unpopular with the
pupils of the secondary schools. As stated above, the
better training of these teachers will soon change this atti-
tude of the pupils, because physiology, if properly presented,
cannot fail to arouse their undivided interest.

Physiology is destined to fulfill an even more important
mission in institutions for the training of nurses and dieti-
tians. To this group of young men and women are to be
added the constantly increasing numbers of students of
physical education. Clearly, all these men and women
should be thoroughly familiar with the structure and func-
tions of the human body as compiled from data pertaining
to living matter in general. It is obvious, however, that the
material which may justly be presented to them, must be
more elementary in its character than that offered to the
students of medicine.

In order to meet the demands at this University, I
established some years ago certain courses in elementary
physiology which are now attended by more than three
hundred students during each academic year. These
courses consist of one to two hours of lecture and two hours
of practical work each week, or of about one hundred to one
hundred and twenty hours in all. The publication of this
book has been stimulated by my desire to supply these
students with a text presenting the subject-matter of
physiology in as simple and logical a manner as possible.
If I have succeeded in this, I hope that these pages will also
be favorably received elsewhere, and aid materially in the
dissemination of physiological knowledge among those men
and women who are not directly concerned with medicine
but are nevertheless entitled to the benefits that are surely
to be derived from this study,

R. BURTON-OPITZ.

COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY,

NEW YORK CITY,

February, 1922.



CONTENTS



PART I

THE PHYSIOLOGY OF MUSCLE AND
NERVE

SECTION I

GENERAL PHYSIOLOGY
CHAPTER I

PAGE

LIVING MATTER 17

CHAPTER II
GENERAL PHENOMENA OF LIFE 30

CHAPTER III
GENERAL CONDITIONS OF LIFE 37

SECTION II
MUSCLE AND NERVE

CHAPTER IV
MOTION 46

CHAPTER V
THE STRUCTURE AND GENERAL BEHAVIOR OF MUSCLE TISSUE . . 59

CHAPTER VI

THE MANNER OF CONTRACTION OF MUSCLE 67

CHAPTER VII

ANALYSIS OF MUSCULAR CONTRACTION 76

13



14 CONTENTS

CHAPTER VIII

PAGE
CHEMISTRY OF MUSCLE 86

CHAPTER IX
THE NERVE IMPULSE AND REFLEX ACTION . 93



PART II

THE CIRCULATION OF THE BLOOD AND
LYMPH

CHAPTER X
THE LYMPH. . ..... . , 107

CHAPTER XI
THE BLOOD. ....../.. 115

CHAPTER XII
THE GENERAL ARRANGEMENT OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM . . . 127

CHAPTER XIII
THE HEART OF THE MAMMALS 136

CHAPTER XIV
THE FLOW OF THE BLOOD 152

CHAPTER XV
BLOOD-PRESSURE AND RELATED PHENOMENA 160

CHAPTER XVI
THE NERVOUS CONTROL OF THE HEART AND BLOOD-VESSELS. . . 171

PART III
RESPIRATION

CHAPTER XVII
THE ELEMENTARY LUNG 181

CHAPTER XVIII
THE MECHANICS OF RESPIRATION . . 188



CONTENTS 15

CHAPTER XIX

PAGE
THE CHEMISTRY OF RESPIRATION 200

CHAPTER XX
THE NERVOUS REGULATION OF RESPIRATION 210

PART IV
NUTRITION

CHAPTER XXI
SECRETION 216

CHAPTER XXII

SALIVARY DIGESTION 223

CHAPTER XXIII
GASTRIC DIGESTION 233

CHAPTER XXIV
INTESTINAL DIGESTION 245

CHAPTER XXV

THE PROGRESS OF THE FOOD THROUGH THE INTESTINES- J -ABSORP-
TION 255

CHAPTER XXVI
METABOLISM .... ._-.,:. 265

CHAPTER XXVII
THE METABOLIC REQUIREMENTS OF THE BODI ANIMAL HEAT. . 272

CHAPTER XXVIII

EXCRETION 284

CHAPTER XXIX

THE INTERNAL SECRETIONS 295

PARTY
THE NERVOUS SYSTEM

CHAPTER XXX

THE FUNCTIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM . . . 304

CHAPTER XXXI
THE SPINAL REFLEX ANIMAL. . 311



16 CONTENTS

CHAPTER XXXII

PAGE

THE BRAIN 320

CHAPTER XXXIII
THE CEREBRUM. . 327

CHAPTER XXXIV
THE LOCALIZATION OF FUNCTION IN THE CEREBRUM 333

CHAPTER XXXV
THE CEREBELLUM AND MEDULLA OBLONGATA 341

PART VI
THE SENSE ORGANS

CHAPTER XXXVI

THE CUTANEOUS SENSATIONS. TASTE AND SMELL 352

CHAPTER XXXVII
THE SENSES OF HEARING AND EQUILIBRIUM . 362

CHAPTER XXXVIII
THE SENSE OF SIGHT 375

CHAPTER XXXIX
THE COURSE OF THE RAYS OF LIGHT THROUGH THE EYE. . . .381

CHAPTER XL
THE STIMULATION OF THE RETINA BY THE RAYS OF LIGHT . . . 387



INDEX . 395



PART I

THE PHYSIOLOGY OF MUSCLE
AND NERVE



SECTION 1
GENERAL PHYSIOLOGY



CHAPTER I
LIVING MATTER

Definition and Scope of Physiology. Science is accurate
knowledge acquired by means of exact observation and cor-
rect thinking. This definition suggests that scientific
knowledge is gained by an analytical study of matter as it
exists in nature. The universe is composed of different
materials, such as earth, air, and water, which are collec-
tively designated as matter. But, this enunciation does not
betray to us what matter actually is, because our knowledge
regarding its origin and basic structure is as yet very incom-
plete. It is permissible, however, to speak of certain definite
forms of matter as bodies, and of matter of a rather conscript
character as substances.

Science deals with the structure and behavior of matter in
accordance' with well established physical and chemical
laws. This method of investigation creates a sharp dividing
line between true scientific knowledge and that of a more or
less speculative kind. Accordingly, the person who pursues
this means of discovering and analyzing hitherto unknown
facts pertaining to matter may be termed a scientist. It is
obvious, however, that scientific knowledge may also be
2 17



18 GENERAL PHYSIOLOGY

acquired from the writings of persons who have been actively
engaged in this kind of work. No difference can be noted
between a student of this character and one seeking to
obtain a knowledge of Latin or Greek. Their methods of
study are practically identical, although the quality of their
knowledge differs. Admittedly, however, such a student
cannot justly be called a scientist in spite of the fact that the
acquisition of scientific data requires a practical trend of
mind whikshf will enable), him ; to analyze the condition and
behavior of matter 'in a'ri introspective manner. Like the
caipen^ F piiB&bef , r f he 'toe 'scientist derives his knowledge
in a practical 'way in'th'e* Workshop, and does not rely solely
on books and didactic expositions for his information.

Although it is commonly held that all matter is dynamic,
it may be stated at this time that it presents itself to the
layman essentially in two forms : namely, as living or organic
and as non-living or inorganic matter. The inanimate
material is dealt with by the sciences of physics and chemis-
try, and the animate, by the science of biology. Accordingly,
biology may be defined as the science which treats of matter
when it is in the living state. Strictly speaking, however,
matter does not retain a perfectly static condition for any
length of time. Even the stones may be said to live, because
their formation was attended with definite creative proc-
esses, while their apparently static existence is largely one
of constant deterioration. In fact, some even acquire
material and may, therefore, be said to be growing. It is
true, however, that their creation and growth present
certain details which are not directly discernible in the life
of an animal. A mass of gun powder may be made to burn
and explode. Likewise, it is a biological truism that an
animal is capable of reducing certain substances from which
it then derives a sufficient amount of energy to manifest
life. It cannot be accepted as a fact that these phenomena
of the inorganic and organic worlds are wholly different in
their nature, because the principle involved in these proc-
esses is obviously the same, although it presents a somewhat
different aspect in accordance with the kind of matter
undergoing the decomposition.



LIVING MATTER 19

While this question may be debated at some length, the
beginning student should remember that the biological
sciences deal with the phenomena presented by living matter,
while the abiological sciences treat of those manifested by
non-living matter. Accordingly, biology may be divided
first of all into two sub-sciences : namely, zoology and botany.
The former concerns itself with the gross appearance of
animals, and the latter, with that of plants. The processes
of life, however, are the same in both forms, and only when
studied in a superficial manner can we recognize definite
differences between them.

We may approach the study of living matter from two
standpoints, taking cognizance either of the structure of its
different components, or of their individual or joint action.
The maker of a clock first of all familiarizes himself with
the character and number of the wheels and cogs which go to
form the entire mechanism before he actually joins them in
an attempt to discover how they fit into one another and
move. Quite similarly, the study of the heart or eye is
scarcely feasible without first having obtained a clear idea
regarding the general arrangment and structural details of
these organs. Accordingly, we may represent the scope of
biology as follows:

Origin, development, and classification: (embryology,
zoology, and botany)



Living
Matter



Structure



General Morphology j



SnPoiMi I Gross ( anatom y)

I P ll \ Minute (histology)



T-, ,. f General Physiology
Function < i . i

[ Special Physiology

Physiology is the study of the dynamics of life. Its pur-
pose is to analyze the processes occurring in living matter.
It is true, however, that a study of the phenomena of life
cannot well be attempted without a knowledge of the abiologi-
cal sciences, because in many instances physiology consists
merely of a study of the physics and chemistry of living



20 GENERAL PHYSIOLOGY

material. It need not surprise us, therefore, to find that the
progress of physiology is closely interlinked with the develop-
ment of the aforesaid sciences, because every new physical
and chemical fact must greatly aid us in throwing additional
light upon the behavior of living matter. Since the struc-
tural sciences, such as anatomy and histology, occupy a
much more independent position in this regard, it has been
possible to advance them at a much faster rate than physi-
ology. For this reason, anatomy was able at an early date
to assume a controlling influence in medical education, its
preponderating position having been seriously contested by
physiology only in more recent years.

Physiology belongs essentially to the nineteenth century
and is, therefore, a comparatively new science. In spite of
its youth, however, . it presents a wealth of very valuable
and highly interesting information which finds its most
direct application in medicine, an art purposing the relief of
suffering and prolongation of life. Its decidedly practical
character, however, has also gained for it an unfaltering
place in general education. Admittedly, everybody ought
to attempt to gain a rather concise idea regarding the func-
tions of the different organs of his body, so that he may be in
a more favorable position to take care of what has been
entrusted to him by Nature. In the form of general knowl-
edge, physiology will aid us very materially in mastering and
eradicating those forces of nature which tend to enfeeble
us. Hence, its goal is the welfare of mankind.

Protoplasm. The term protoplasm is derived from the
Greek words "first form," and is applied in a general way to
all types of living matter. In the words of Huxley, it
constitutes the physical basis of life. This material presents
itself as a rule as a semi-fluid, viscous entity, possessing a
reticulated appearance, very similar to that of a cluster of
soap-bubbles. Hence, however simple its organization may
be, it always consists of a relatively resistant framework and
a homogeneous watery ground substance.

When living matter is subjected to chemical analysis,
its constitution immediately undergoes certain very funda-
mental changes which soon make it impossible for it to



LIVING MATTER 21

manifest its ordinary processes of life. But in spite of the
destruction of its function, such ,an analysis invariably proves
that it is not composed of a single substance, but of several,
which are combined in such a way that they may interact
with one another producing a chemical basis for life. Living
matter is somewhat like a proteid, because it always contains
the element nitrogen. In addition, it embraces carbon,
hydrogen, oxygen, sulphur, and phosphorus. Chiefly by
admixture, it may also acquire calcium, sodium, potassium,
silica, and other elements. Accordingly, protoplasm or
living matter is made up of six primary constituents to which
others may be added until it embraces sixteen of the elements
now known to chemists. We do not know precisely how these
constituents are arranged to give rise to protoplasm and
hence, it is quite impossible at the present time to form it
artificially in a test tube. And even if we should succeed
some future day in producing it, we would still be confronted
by the problem of causing it to undergo those peculiar
changes which enable it to evolve its characteristic life
processes.

The Origin and Evolution of Protoplasm. While most
astounding discoveries have been made in recent years, it is
very doubtful whether the origin and character of the uni-
verse will ever become fully known to us. In the abiological
as well as biological sciences the number of known facts is
really insignificant in comparison with the totality of still
unknown facts. It is questionable whether this relationship
will ever be reversed. The scientist is an optimist in this
regard, as may be gathered from his attempt to explain the
formation of the now perfectly conscript bodies of the solar
system by the nebular hypothesis. Likewise, the biologist
has endeavored to elucidate the origin of life upon this planet
by stating that protoplasm originated at a time when the
cooling of the earth favored the molecular union between
several of its most essential constituents. One globule of
living substance so formed then gave rise to two, and these in
turn to more complex entities. This direct descent of the
species has been more fully established by Darwin, but natur-
ally, the facts presented by this scientist deal only with the



22 GENERAL PHYSIOLOGY

production of definite modifications and new types and
cannot justly be applied to the origin of protoplasm.

The earth is inhabited by a most perplexing variety of
protoplasmic entities. Some of these appear as extremely
small particles of living matter, pursuing a free and independ-
ent existence, while others are composed of several particles
bound together to lead a communal life of the simplest type.
When ascending the scale of the Animal Kingdom from the
protozoa to the amphibia, reptilia, fish, birds and mammals,
we eventually arrive at comparatively large masses of living,
matter which owe their existence chiefly to the fact that
their protoplasm is divided into a multitude of small globules,
each of which is rendered more compact and stable by a firm
investing membrane. In the absence of this organization,
the larger aggregates of protoplasm would soon split into
much finer particles; in fact, even the smaller ones would not
hold together without a certain compactness of their surface
layers. It is essential, therefore, that protoplasm assume a
definite structural unity, and unity of structure invites
unity of purpose or function. A particle of protoplasm of
this kind constitutes a cell. Accordingly, it must be evident
that the term protoplasm is a very general one, being syno-
nymous with living matter, whereas the term cell refers to
conscript entities of protoplasm capable of independent
function.

In the higher forms, many of these globules of organized
protoplasm are united with others into larger masses or
tissues. Hence, a tissue may be defined as a collection of
cells possessing similar characteristics. Again, several
tissues may be combined to form an organ. Accordingly,
an organ may be said to be an aggregate of several tissues
fulfilling a common purpose, but this definition should not
convey the impression that the functions of its components
are absolutely identical, because every organ consists first
of all of a framework or web, the purpose of which is to give
lodgment to its real functional element. In the case of the
kidney, for example, it should be noted that its most import-
ant structural unit is the urinary tubule, while its capsule
and internal septa of connective tissue merely lend compact-



LIVING MATTER 23

ness to the entire structure. In addition, every organ con-
tains a certain amount of nervous tissue which controls its
function, and also numerous nutritive supply channels in
the form of bloodvessels and lymphatics.

It is usually stated that bone, muscle, and blood are tissues,
although it is apparent that a muscle, such as the biceps, is
really made up of several tissues and should, therefore, be
designated as an organ. It embraces a certain amount of
connective tissue in which a large number of muscle cells are
embedded, and in addition also nervous tissue, bloodvessels,
and lymphatics. Quite similarly, it may not be evident
at first sight that blood is a tissue, because it is made
up of many independent cellular elements which are
suspended in a fluid intercellular substance, known as
the plasma. Blood is as truly a tissue as bone, the only
difference discernible between them being that the latter
remains stationary, whereas the former is moved from
place to place.

When several organs are joined to form a single entity, we
obtain what is known as an organism. Consequently, an
organism may be defined as a colony of organs, each of which
unfolds its own peculiar function in order to maintain the
welfare of the whole. In the highest forms, these organs are
arranged in groups, giving rise 4 to systems, such as the circu-
latory, respiratory, nervous, digestive, excretory, and gen-
erative ; but while each system embraces a number of different
organs, its functional product is uniform in character.
This fact is well illustrated by the circulatory system which
embodies a pumping station or heart, and a large number of
membranous channels by means of which the nutritive fluids
are distributed to all parts of the body. Likewise, the
digestive system is composed of several membranous recept-
acles for the accommodation of the food, while a series of
glandular organs furnish powerful secretions which are
intended to simplify it. What is true of animals is also true
of plants. Thus, the roots hold the plant firmly in the
ground and are chiefly responsible for its nutrition, while
the stem gives lodgment to the leaves in which certain chemi-
cal processes are effected under the influence of sunlight. The



24



GENERAL PHYSIOLOGY



flowers give rise to the fruits which embrace the seeds or
reproductive elements.

This division of labor is evident even in the simplest
organisms, such as the paramoecium. Its movements are
evoked by the. contraction of specialized filaments of proto-
plasm, the cilia, while its digestive function is instigated in
an indentation of the integument, the gullet. Another
specialized mechanism is the contractile vacuole which
appears to subserve the movement of the intracellular
material and excretion. Hence, even such simple protoplas-
mic entities as the protozoa are true organisms.

The Cell. Whether protoplasm is organized to form a
single free-living entity or a simple constituent of the tissues




FIG. 1. The structure of protoplasm. An epidermal cell of the earth-
worm. (After Butschli.)

of the most complex animal or plant, it always presents
certain structural and functional characteristics. A small
particle of living matter possessing sufficient organization
to be independently active, is known as a cell. Accordingly,
it may be said that a cell represents the simplest type of
individuality of living substance. It constitutes a unit in
structure and function. As originally applied, the term
protoplasm referred merely to the viscous ground-substance



LIVING MATTER



25



of cells. We now know, however, that this constituent is
quite unable to unfold its life processes unless mixed with
certain other elements which are briefly designated as nuclear
material. In analogy with the general conception that a
cell is a walled space, similar in its outline to those forming
the honeycomb or nests of certain insects, it has also been
held that these fine globules of protoplasm are invariably
surrounded by a delicate membranous capsule. This is not
always the case, because such organisms as the amoeba do



Attraction-sphere enclosing two centrosomes



Plastids lying in the
cytoplasm



Nucleus



Karyosome,
net-knot, or
chromatin-

nucleolus




Vacuole



Passive bodies (meta-
plasm or para plasm)
suspended in the cy-

toplasmic raeshwork



FIG. 2. Diagram of a cell. (Wilson.)

not possess a distinct enveloping membrane. In the face
of these still debated questions, it seems advisable to obtain
first of all a clear conception of the structure of one of the
more familiar types of cells, for example, of those composing
the acini of the liver, pancreas, or salivary glands.

A cell of this kind is invested by a clearly differentiated
wall, while its interior is occupied by a clear, homogeneous,
viscous substance which is known as cytoplasm. Somewhere
in this ground-material is embedded a dense, dark object,



26



GENERAL PHYSIOLOGY



generally rounded in outline, which is known as a nucleus.
Within the latter is often found a still smaller globule of



Online LibraryRussell Burton-OpitzAn elementary manual of physiology for colleges, schools of nursing, of physical education, and of the practical arts → online text (page 1 of 30)