Russell Sturgis.

A dictionary of architecture and building : biographical, historical, and descriptive online

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up hollows and defects in woodwork or stone-
work. Carpenters employ a mixture of saw-
dust and glue, or putty and chalk; masons,
one of plaster and groimd stone, or stone chip-
pings. The term is English, of French origin,
little used in the United States.

BAECKELMAN8, FRAN90I8; archi-
tect; b. April 17, 1827 ; d. 1896.

Baeckelmans built the Palais de Justice, at
Antwerp (Belgium), the churches of Sempst,
Laer, S. Armand, etc., and was professor at
the InstitiU SupMeur des Beaux ArtSf at
Antwerp.

Construction Moderne for April 18, 1896.

BAGGAGE ROOM. In the United States,
a room in a railway station for receiving, check-
ing, and handling baggage.

BAGLIONI, BACCIO (BARTOLOM-
MEO) D' AGNOLO ; architect, scidptor, and
woodworker {intarsicUore) ; b. May 19, 1462 ;
d. 1543.

The Baglioni conducted a Botega in Flor-
ence where many kinds of decorative work were
done. The organ of the Church of S. Maria
Novella (Florence), one of Baccio's earliest
known productions, has been removed. The
lower part, or "cantoria," is at the South
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BAGNIO

Kensington Museum, London, the upper part
in the Church of Rueil, near Paris. After
1495 he assisted II Cronaca (see Cronaca), and
later Antonio da San Gallo (see San Gallo,
A., I.) in the construction of the great hall of
the Palazzo Vecchio, Florence. He built the
Palazzo Bartolini (begun about 1520). As-
cribed to him, also, are the villas Bartolini and
Borgherini, and the Palazzi Ginori, Taddei,
and Borgherini. In 1498 he became Capo-
mcestro of the Palazzo Vecchio. He made a
model for the facade of S. Lorenzo from the
drawings of Michelangelo. In 1506-1515 he
built a section of the cornice gallery of the
dome of the Florentine cathedral, and in 1516,
with Antonio da San Gallo, began the loggia
opposite Brunellesco^s Spedale degli Innocenti,
Geymttller-Stegmann, Die Arch, der Ben. in
Toscana; Mttntz, Henaissanccj Vol. II. ; Vasari,
Milanesi ed., Vol. V. ; Milanesi, Letters di Michel
Angel 0.

BAGLIONI, DOMENICO DI BACCIO
D' AGNOLO ; architect and sculptor; b. 151 1.

Domenico was the second son of Baccio
d* Agnolo (see Baglioni, B.). He was consid-
ered by Vasari a more talented architect than
his brother Giidiano (see Baglioni, G.). He
built the Niccolini, now Buturlin, Palace in
Florence, and finished the Torrigiani Palace
begun by his father.

Geymtiller-Stegraann, Die Arch, der Ben. in
Toscana; Mazzaiiti, del Badia; Migliori, Fah-
briche . , . di Firenze.

BAGLIONI, GIX7LIANO DI BACCIO
D' AGNOLO; architect, sculptor, and wood-
worker; b. 1491; d. 1555.

The four sons of Baccio d' Agnolo (see Bag-
lioni, B.) continued his work. Of these, the
two -oldest, Giuliano and Domenico, attained
eminence as architects. Vasari employed
Giuliano to execute work from his designs, and
attributes many buildings to him. For Baldas-
sare Turini he built the Capella Turini in the
Cathedral of Pescia (1540), which was intended
to contain a picture by Raphael. He also
built the Casetta Campana at Montughi, near
Florence, the Palazzo Campana at CoUe in
Val d' Elsa, and the Palazzo Grifoni at San
Miniato al Tedesco (between Florence and
Pisa).

Geymttller-Stegmann, Die Arch, der Ben. in
Toscana; Vasari, Milanesi ed., s.v. Baccio d* Ag-
nolo.

BAGNIO. A. A bathing establishment;
this is the original meaning of the word.

B. A Turkish prison (presumably from the
occasional use by the Turks of their immense
baths as prisons for captives, or from the em-
ployment of prisoners as slaves in the baths).

C. In France, formerly, one of the prisons
substituted for the galleys ; in French, bagne.

D. A place of prostitution (probably from
the evil reputation of many public bath houses).

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BAGUETTE

BAGUETTE. A, A small, convex, more
or less cylindrical, moulding ; a bead or chaplet.

B. In old English usage, a hip roll or mould-
ing along the angle between two adjacent
planes of a hip roof.

BAHR, GEORG; architect; b. 1666; d.
1738.

Of his early life nothing is known. It is not
probable that he visited France or Italy.
Bahr held the office of rathshaumeiater in
Dresden (Saxony), and devoted his life to the
developments of the architecture of Protestant
churches. His most important building is the
monumental Frauenkirche in Dresden, built
between 1726 and 1740, one of the most
notable domical buildings of the time.

Gurlitt, Geschichte des Barockstiles in Devtsch-
land; Schuiuann, Barock und Rococo.

BAHXJT. A. A large chest, usually some-
what ornate.

B, A species of dresser, the lower body
deeper than the upper ; hence, from a fancied
resemblance ;

C, A low parapet wall, or attic wall ; es-
pecially that which carries the roofing, and is
built up behind a gutter and balustrade, as in
€k)thic churches.

D, Any solid parapet wall. (Compare
Blocking Course.)

BAIGNOIRE. A box of the lowest tier in
a modem French theatre. The baignoires are
usually open boxes, divided by low partitions,
whose form resembles the side view of a cer-
tain kind of bath tub, whence the name. The
upper tiers (loges) have partitions reaching
from floor to ceiling.

BAILEY. A. The external wall of a feudal
castle ; hence, any similar circuit wall.

B, By extension, a court formed by such a
wall.

BAILLARD (BAILLART, BILL ART),
CHARLES; architect.

Baillard is mentioned in the Comptea as
Maistre Mcupn de Monaeigneur le Connetd-
ble, Anne de Montmorency (d. 1567). He
was one of the inspectors of the contracts made
by GiUes le Breton (see Breton, G.) at Fon-
tainebleau (1540), and by Guillaume Guillain
(see GuiUain, G.) at La Muette (1548). Pa-
lustre supposes that he was employed between
1531 and 1550 by Montmorency to design and
build those portions of the Chateau of Ecouen
which were constructed before the time of
Jean Bullant (see Bullant, J.). He was proba-
bly connected with the family of Biard (see
Biard).

De Laborde, Les Comptes des BtUimenU du
Hot; Palustre, La Renaissance en France.

BATLLT, JEAN (I.) ; architect ; d. between
1529 and 1531.

In 1500 he was employed with Jean Gar-
nache (see Gamache, J.) to direct the construc-
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BALCONY

tion of the Cathedral of Troyes (Aube), France.
In 1506 and 1507 he was consulted about the
portal and towers of the Cathedral of Troyes
which were built by Martin Chambiges (see
Chambiges, M.). In 1508 he was made
MaXtre de Voeuvre of the church of S. Panta-
loon at Troyes.

Assier, Les arts et les artistes dans Vancienne
capUale de la Champagne ; Bauchal, Dictionnaire.

BAIIiLY, JEAN (II.) ; architect and sculp-
tor; d. August 19, 1559.

Jean, II., was the son of Jean, I., and was
son-in-law of Jean de Soissons (see Jean de
Soissons). May 17, 1532 he was made Maltre
de Voeuvre of the Cathedral of Troyes.

(For bibliography see Bailly, Jean, I.)

BAKEHOUSE. A building containing an
oven and other necessary appurtenances for
baking, as in a hospital, monastery, barracks,
or the like. Under the feudal system each
manor possessed a bakehouse to which tenants
were obliged to resort.

BALCONE. In Italian architecture, a very
large and showy window or group of several
windows arranged together. The term seems
to have lost wholly the original significance of
a small projecting gallery, for which are used
the words Ringhiera, Cantoria, Loggia (see
those terms); and also ballatoio, sporto;
according to the region of Italy, and the
locality and character of the structure.

BALCONET ; B ALCONETTE. A railing
or balustrade at the outer plane of a window
reaching to the floor, and having, when the win-
dow is wide open, the appearance of a balcony.

BALCON7. A small open gallery buUt
out from a wall and supported generally by



Balcony: Istrian Stone, 14th Century, wrrn
Shafted Balusters, and Handrail cut to
THE Semblance of an Arcade; Venice.
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BALCONY

corbels or brackets. The term is generally con-
fined to an unroofed structure consisting of a
floor and low parapets only, but the balcony
passes readily into the Loggia (which see), and
no accurate distinction can be made. The
balconies with which the mediaeval and later
palaces of Venice are so abundantly provided
are generally of Istrian stone or marble to-
gether with their parapets ; those of the
eighteenth century residences of France and



Baldachin of S. Pbtsb's Church (S. Pibtro in Vaticano), Romb.

Designed by Bernini ; of bronze ; about 95 feet high (see cut of apse, S. Giorgio,
Al Velsbro.)

(Jennany had generally the floor and support-
ing corbels of stone, but the parapets of wrought
iron, in the design of which parapets a great
variety of fanciful decoration is visible. The
stone balcony projecting from the town hall in
an Italian town is called Ringhiera (which see),
that being the post from which the city
authorities used to harangue the people. A
balcony projecting into a church and connected
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BALKAN PENINSULA

with a doorway from an upper apartment or
passage, such as is used for the singers at times
of high mass, is called Cantoria (which see).
Balconies projecting into dancing rooms or halls
of reception and used for musicians are more
often called musicians' galleries. — R. S.

BALDACCHINO. Same as Baldachin;
the original Italian form.

BALDACHIN; BALDAQXnN. A. A
canopy made of a textile fabric (originally of
baudekyn ; a precious stuff"
brought from Baldacca or
Bagdad), used in processions,
placed over an episcopal chair
and throne of state, or sus-
pended over an altar where
there is no ciborium.

B. A permanent canopy,
especially above the high altar
of a church ; in this sense ap-
plied to the most massive and
permanent structures, as the
bronze baldachin in S. Peter's
at Rome which is stated to
be ninety-five feet high.

BALK. A. A heavy piece
of timber, of any kind not in
the log. A squared timber.

B, By extension from the
above meaning, in primitive
country houses of Great Brit-
ain, a loft formed by laying
planks or poles on the balks
or main timbers of the fram-
ing. Commonly in the plu-
ral.

BALKAN PENINSU-
LA, ARCHirBCTURE OF
THE (excluding the kingdom
of Greece). That of the mod-
em states or provinces of
Dalmatia and Bosnia, in the
Austro - Hungarian Empire,
Wallachia, and Moldavia,
forming the modem kingdom
of Roumania; the kingdom
of Servia; the principalities
of Montenegro and Bulgaria,
and the Turkish provinces of
Albania, Macedonia, Eastern
Roumelia, and Thrace. Its
chief topographical features
are the valleys of the Save
and Danube and the Balkan Range. Inhabited
by diverse and often hostile races, its history
has been one of constantly recurring wars and
rebellions. Its architectural chronicles are as
confused as its political, and, for the most
part, even more barren of great achievements.
Although it is classical soil, comprising the
ancient provinces of Dalmatia, Dlyricum, Pan-
nonia, Moesia, part of Dacia^ and Maoedoniai
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BALKAN PENINSULA

Thrace, and the Epirus, — the last three espe-
cially rich in historical sites, — its centimes of
disorder and Turkish misrule and the univer-
sal treatment of its ancient monuments as
quarries have combined to destroy the great
works of antiquity, leaving only foundations
and shattered fragments of their masonry. It
must not be forgotten, however, that no thor-
ough archjeological research has yet been under-
taken within its boimdaries. Relics of antiquity
abound throughout the peninsula, especially
prehistoric walls of cyclopean construction, serv-
ing as foundations for Roman, Byzantine, mediae-
val, or Turkish fortresses, and preserving the
lines of ancient towns and citadels. It is note-
worthy that the villages of Bosnia to this day
retain the plan of Greek towns with their
citadels, walled agorce with gates, and external
or suburban streets of tombs. The best pre-
served and most important classic remains are
the great theatre of Dodona (Dramisios) in the
Epirus, exceeded in size by only two Greek
theatres in Europe, — those at Sparta and
Athens, — and by two or three in Asia Minor ; a
stadium six hundred feet long, and two theatres
at Nicopolis (Prevesa) ; at Salonica, the ruinous
triumphal Arch of Constantine (or Theodosius ?),
and the stupendous ruins of Diocletian's palace
in Dalmatia where is now the town of Spalato.
The Vardar gate or Arch of Marcus Aurelius
at Salonica was demolished in 1869 ; the ruins
of the unique Hippodrome Gate, calletl the
" Incantada," formerly in the same city, were
removed to the Louvre by Napoleon III. The
palace of Diocletian, erected 303-305 a.d.,
near the ancient Salona, on the plan of a forti-
fied camp, covers a rectangle of 520 by 630
feet, surrounded by a massive wall with sixteen
towers and four gates admitting to the two
chief intersecting avenues ; and comprises
within its area a temple, a domical mausoleum,
now the Cathedral of Spalato, a basilica and
numerous courts and hails. It is especially
remarkable for the disregard of Roman tradi-
tions in its arcades borne directly on columns,
its entablatures bent up around arches, like
archivolts, and its details of mouldings and
carving affording a foretaste of the Byzantine
style. Roman aqueducts (one 30 miles long
near Prevesa in Epirus), bridges (piers of
Tnyan's [Constantine's ?] bridge at Turn Sev-
erin), forts, and towers, may be traced in ruins
throughout the peninsula, or in substructions
of mediaeval or modem buildings.

From the fifth to the fourteenth century the
Byzantine style prevailed throughout the whole
region, except in Dalmatia, where it was early
supplanted by the Italian Romanesque and
(Jothic. Most of its monuments, however, are
of small size and internally adorned with fres-
coes instead of mosaic, and the monasteries
which abound in the Epirus, Servia, Wallachia,
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BALKAN PENINSULA

and Macedonia rarely possess architectural in-
terest, being in most cases wholly devoid of
any pretention to artistic design (Meteora con-
vent in the Epirus; Sveti Prochor in Servia;
S. Naum in Macedonia; Rilo in Bulgaria;
Nemoieshti in Roumania), except sometimes for
their chapels. One of these, that at Kurt^
d'Arjish in Roumania, is of remarkable external
beauty. Erected in 1514 by the Prince Negu
Bessaraba in a style betraying Muscovite influ-
ence, it measures 90 by 50 feet, and consists of
a square nave with a 16-foot cupola on a high
drum, and a triapsal chancel with a dome of
about the same size ; two spirally fluted turrets
adorn the front, and the whole exterior is richly
decorated with wall arcades and panels.

The chief centre of architectural interest in
this region is, of course, the city of Constanti-
nople, whose monuments cover the whole period
of its existence as a capital. Practically noth-
ing remains of the period preceding its change
of name imder Constantine (330 a.d.) from
Byzantium to Constantinople, except the
substructions of the Hippodrome (at Meidan)
and some scattered fragments of architecture
and sculpture. The bronze serpent-column from
Delphi and the Egyptian obelisk, in the Hippo-
drome, do not properly belong to the city^s his-
tory. Of the early Byzantine period also but
little has survived ; the " Burnt Column " of
Constantine, the shaft of Theodosius (fifth cen-
tury), despoiled long ago of its gilded bronze
covering, and the column of Marcian, are the
most important objects. The great monuments
of the mature Byzantine style, and of its de-
cline, are briefly described in the article Byzan-
tine Architecture. There are some fifteen or
twenty Byzantine churches still extant, the
greater part being used as mosques, and of
small size. Among them may be mentioned,
besides the great Hagia Sophia (532-538), S.
Sergius (now Kutchuk Aya Sofia, 520 a.d.)
the Church of the Holy Peace (Hagia Eirene or
" S. Irene ") of the sixth and eighth centuries,
now used as an armory; the Kahrid Jami
(mosque) originally the Church Mon^ tes Choras,
of the tenth century, with fine mosaics; the
S. John Studios basilica (Emir Akhor Jami) ;
the Theotokos or S. Theodore, and the Panto-
krator churches, both late; and two immense
cisterns ("Yer^ Batan Serai" and "Bin Bir
Direk" or Thousand and One Columns) with
domical vaults earned by countless superposed
columns.

But the distinctive character of the aspect of
the city is derived from its mosques, erected
since the capture of the city by Mehmet II. in
1453. These number some hundreds, nearly
all vaulted with domes on pendentives, and
provided with from one to four slender minarets
with tapering spires. Their domes, unlike the
Persian and Indian, are of the Byzantine type
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BALKAN PENINSULA

with low curvature, each crowned with a cres-
cent finial; and their outlines, rising from
buildings of brilliant white — in m&ny cases of
marble — and contrasting with the taper mina-
rets, produce a silhouette of extraordinary pic-
turesqueness. Each of the larger mosques
(Jami) is preceded by a large courtyard, sur-
rounded by domed arcades, and many of them
have as accessories tombs, schools, and hospi-
tals. They are impressive, not by richness of
detail, which is often meagre, but by their
amplitude and loftiness, and by the noble scale
of their parts. The chief among them are the
Mehmediy^, by Mehmet 11. (1453) ; the Sulei-
manyd (1553), by Suleiman I., the "Magnifi-
cent " ; the Ahmediy^ by Ahmet I. (1608), the
only mosque with six minarets ; the Yeni Jami
(1665) ; the Nouri Osman (1755) ; and a num-
ber of smaller ones with rich interior veneering
of tiles {e.g. Rustem Pasha). The more modem
mosques show the degrading effect of late Italian
influence in their vulgar detail and misuse of
stucco; but the Shah Zade is an exception,
and some of those along the Bosphorus are
picturesque objects. The same is true of the
palaces and kiosques, mostly of late date and
debased style, but not without bits of good de-
sign. A number of richly decorated marble foun-
tains possess considerable architectural merit.
There are no civic or private buildings of any
real architectural importance.

Except in Constantinople, the most impor-
tant group of Byzantine monuments is at
Salonica (Thessalonica), the oldest of these
being the Rotunda, or Church of S. George, a
circular temple having internally seven niches
and an apsidal chancel, with a dome richly
decorated in mosaic. It dates probably from
the time of Constantine, though possibly frx)m
that of Tr^an. Hagia Sophia, now a mosque,
measuring 140 by 113 feet, with a 33-foot
dome, recalls its larger prototype at Constan-
tinople, though of much later date. S. Bardias
(Kazai\jilar mosque), built in 987, the pictu-
resque churches of S. Elias and of the Apostles
(both mosques at present), and the small but
elegant church of S. Pantelimon, all exemplify
the later phases of Byzantine design with their
small domes on high dnmis, and their pictu-
resque use of brick and stone. Salonica also
possesses two basilicas, the Eski Djuma, of un-
known date, with three aisles and a gallery,
and the larger five-aisled S. Demetrius, dating
from 520 A.D. In the former are incorporated
Ionic columns of a supposed Greek temple of
Aphrodite.

The monasteries of Mt. Athos (Hagion Oros)
on the Acte promontory, not far from Salonica,
also deserve mention, not only as the most
ancient monastic group in Europe, but also
because Byzantine traditions are still preserved
in their local art, frescoes of Scriptural subjects
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BALKAN PENINSULA

being still painted according to manuscript
formulae handed down from the eleventh cen-
tury. The chapels of these monasteries, and
the church of Karyes, the chief town of Acte,
are worth a visit. Among other Byzantine
edifices may be mentioned, in Roumania, at
Jassy, the Church of the Three Saints ; at Kim-
polung, a monastery, fort, and river tower
(1240) ; at Tismana, a monastery (1366), with
a beautiful chapel ; at Tirgovist, a church with
rich carving ; in Servia, at Kurshumli^, a small
but elegant domical church, with a nave, now
in ruins ; at Studenitza, an interesting Byzan-
tine church ; at Skopia, in northern Macedonia,
a Byzantine aqueduct ; at Ochrida (Albania),
the ruinous, but once beautiful, church of Hagia
Sophia, and the cathedral, both ascribed popu-
larly to Justinian, but probably of later date ;
at Goertcha, a richly frescoed church with a
splendid altar of carved wood.

Dalmatia, though for a time a Byzantine
province, belongs architecturally to Italy rather
than to the Orient, and what few edifices be-
tray the Byzantine style are of the ninth cen-
tury, those of earlier date having been destroyed
in the barbarian incursions of the seventh cen-
tury. Among its circular and domical build-
ings are the Baptistery and S. Donato at Zara,
S. Niccolo and S. Croce at Nona (oir. 810);
S. Stefano and S. Giacomo in Feline at Ragusa.
S. Lorenzo and S. Domenica at Zara, and
S. Barbara at Trau are bajsilican churches,
and S. Pietro Vecchio at Zara has a double
nave. All these date from the ninth and tenth
centuries, and are rude in execution, but their
bold and vigorous design shows traces of Lom-
bard and Italian Romanesque influences. These
became dominant in the twelfth and thirteenth
centuries, in a series of remarkable churches
thoroughly Italian in character, and quite equal
to contemporary Italian buildings. The cam-
panile and the chapter house of S. Maria at
Zara (1105) are Lombard in style; the nave
of the Duomo at Cattaro (1123) is more Ro-
manesque with its alternating clustered piers
and single columns. The works of the thir-
teenth century display a more fully developed
Romanesque style, earlier exemplified in the
elegant east end of S. Grisogono at Zara
(1175). To this period belong the nave of the
Duomo at Trau (1213-1240), the campanile
at Arbe, and the Cathedral of Arbe (1287).
The Duomo at Zara is perhaps the finest of
these works : its nave dates from 1250-1285 ;
its facade (1324) is an especially admirable
example of the style, with its wall arcades, its
two wheel windows, and fine portal. These
wheel windows are characteristic of the Dalma-
tian Romanesque, which makes good use also
of arcaded cornices, wall arcades and arcaded
galleries on the exterior, and of fantastic sculp-
tured monsters and deeply recessed portals on
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its facades. The Duomo at Trau deserves
especial notice for its fine east end and west
portal. S. Maria Infiinara at Cattaro (1220),
called La CoUegiata, and the tiny Church of
S. Luca beside it retain a trace of Byzantine
tradition in their pendentive domes over the
central bay of their naves. The Italian Gothic
is exemplified in the campanile and sacristy at
Trau, a fine Grothic Franciscan cloister at Cur-
zola, the imposing Pal. del Rettore at Ragusa
(1435) and the cloister arcade of the Domini-
can convent at the same place, with rich late
tracery, and in a number of buildings at
Sebenico in the Venetian style. The Duomo
at Sebenico (1430-1556), a three-aisled church
without transepts, is remarkable for having no
protective roof to the barrel vault of the nave :
vault and roof are a single structure of stone.
The octagonal dome and many details of this
church belong to the early Renaissance. S.
Chiara at Cattaro has a Renaissance fa9ade
with the inevitable wheel window : at Trau the
Baptistery and Chapel of S. Ursini (1468), by
A. Alexici of Durazzo, are in the style of the
Renaissance, and so is the Loggia at Sebenico
(1552). The Middle Renaissance is hardly
represented in Dalmatia, except by the Porta
di Terra Firma at Zara by Michele San Michele
(1543); and the later works of the debased
Jesuit style hardly deserve mention. The re-
vived classic style spread into Servia in the
seventeenth century, but it was carried by
Italians who introduced the worst practices of
the Decline, and its productions in Servia pos-
sess little or no beauty or interest.

Under Turkish dominion mosques were
erected throughout the Balkan provinces, and
their domes and minarets form to this day the
most conspicuous features in the silhouette of
the chief towns such as Sertyevo in Bosnia,
with one hundred and fifty mosques, Salonica,
Adrianople, Sofia, Philippopolis, Rustchuk,
Shumla, and even Bucharest (see Moslem Archi-
tecture). Among them all the Selimi^ mosque
at Adrianople is preeminent, and is perhaps
the crowning achievement of Turkish architec-
ture. It was built by the great architect
Sinan, during the reigns of Selim I. and Sulei-



Online LibraryRussell SturgisA dictionary of architecture and building : biographical, historical, and descriptive → online text (page 17 of 74)