Russell Sturgis.

A dictionary of architecture and building : biographical, historical, and descriptive online

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shaft or core, as in the piers separating the
aisles of mediaeval churches. This clustering of
shafts, which became general after 1200 in
Western Europe, seems to have grown out of
the use of boltels at the angles of the early
Norman and Romanesque square piers. Except
in England, the minor shafts (each of which
usually corresponds to a particular vaulting rib
or pier arch moulding) were almost always
engaged in the central mass ; but in Great Britain
they were frequently in the early English period
detached, tied together at intervals by moulded
bands forming bond stones, and marie of dark
Purbeck marble to contrast with the lighter stone
of the masonry.


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The clusteied i)ai)yru8 HtAlk or lotu.s columns
of Egyptian tombs anil temples are, proi>erly
speaking, not pillars, but columns of quatrefoil
or octofoil plan. (See Column ; Gothic Archi-
tecture; Pier.) (Cut, col. 629.) — A. D. F. H.

COACH HOUSE. Same as Carnage House.


COATINO. According to Englisli u.sage,
the aggregate of several coats of paint, varnish,
or plaster, applied in close succession ajs rapidly
as permitted by goo<l work.

In United States usage, same as Coat ; or
the operation of applying a coat.

Clustrrbd Pibrh: Norwich Cathedral, c. 1100.

COAMINa>. A frame around an opening in
a floor or roof, rising above the surrounding level
to prevent the flow of water into the opening.
Especially when around a scuttle.

COARSE STUFF. In England, the first
or rough coat of plaster applied to the masonry
or laths. It is composed of lime, sand, and
cow's or goat's hair in proportions varying
according to the quality of the lime or local
practice. In the United States, generally
called Scratch or Scratched Coat. (See Plaster ;

COAT. A layer of paint, plaster, mortar, or
the like as appUed to a wall or floor. The term

Clustkrkd Pikr: Cocenhoe, Northampton-


is restricted to a licjuid or semilitpiid substance
so applied. (See Veneer for a covering of solid


COAT OF ARMS. In heraldry, a complete
arrangement of the bearings belonging to one
person ; usually an achievement. The term is
without precise significance, for its original
meaning is the embroidered surcoat of a man at
arms in w^hich his armorial bearings were shown,
and in m(Klem usage it covers sometimes the
whole achievement, sometimes the escutcheon

COATROOM. A room where out-of-dixir
garments, small baggage, parcels, etc., may be
left on tempomry storage ; as in a hotel, a rail-
way station, or the like. (CtJii[>are Cloakroom.)

Clustkrkd Pikr: S. Mary's Abbey, York,
c. 1250.

COB. A mixture of clay, straw, and gravel,
or of similar materials, for the construction of
walls of a primitive class.

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Clustered Fikb.

COBBLESTONE. A medium-sized stone
worn round by marine or fluvial action. Cob-
blestones are used to make a very primitive
and objectionable pavement for city streets ; to
pave the gutters of macadamized roads ; and in


some parts of Yorkshire (England), as well as in
parts of the United States, to build the walls of

COB HOUSE. A house constructed with
walls of cob.

(See Farther India, Architecture of.)

COCHLEA. A winding stair ; also a tur-
ret or tower containing such a stair.

LEATED. Spirally or lielically twisted, like a
snail shell ; as, a cochleary stair.

COCK. A mechanical device for controlling
the flow of water or other liquid, either at any
point in the line of pipe (stop cock), or at an
outlet end of a pipe line, in combination with a
nozzle or discharge spout at a plumbing fixture
(bibb cock, faucet). Cocks are designated by
the fixture for which they are intended (as a
basin or bath cock); by the seiTice which they
are intended to render; by their mechanical
construction (ball cock, compression cock, three-
way cock, ground key cock, self-closing cock) ;
or by the fluid flowing through them (water,
gas, steam cock). (See Faucet.) — W. P. G.

Bibb Cock. (Sometimes abbreviated
" bibb.") A fitting for the discharge of water
into fixtures, usuaUy with a bent down nozzle.

— W. P. G.

chitect and archieologist ; b. April .28, 1788;
d. Sept. 17, 1863.

C. R. Cockerell was the second son of Samuel
Pepys Cockerell (see Cockei-ell, S. P.), and in
1809 became an assistant of Sir Robert Sniirke
(see Smirke, R.) during the reconstruction of
Covent Garden theatre, London. In 1810 he
commenced a tour of Greece, Asia Minor, Sicily,
and Italy. April, 1811, with Baron Hallervon
Hallerstein (see Haller von Hallerstein), archi-
tect of the king of Bavaria, Baron Stackellxjrg
(see Stackelberg), and others, Cockerell went to
-^gina and excavated the niins of the temple
of Minerva (then called temple of Jupiter Pan-
hellenius). In 1812 they excavated the niins
of the temple of Aix>llo Epicurius at Bassie,
near Phigaleia in Arcadia. The frieze of this
temple was bought by the British Museum in
1813. Cockerell published the results of his
investigations under the title Tlie Temple of
Jupiter PanhelJpnius at j^gina and of AjmUo
Epicurius at Bassce, near Phigaleia in Ar-
cadia (London, 1860, 1 vol., folio). His studies
of the Temple of Jupiter Olympus at Agri-
gentum were published in 1830 with other
monographs by W. Kinnard, T. L. Donaldson,
W. Jenkins, and W. Railton in a volume sup-
plementary to the Anti(piities of Athens by
Stuart and Revett. He was appointed sur\eyor
of S. Paul's cathedral in 1819. About 1830
he began the National Monument in Edinburgh,
which was never completed. In 1833 he suc-

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ceeded Sir Johu Soane (see Soane, Sir J.) as
architect of the Bank of England. He was
elected associate of the Royal Academy in 1829,
and in 1836 Royal Academician. From 1840
to 1857 he was professor of architecture at the
Royal Academy, London. In 1847 he suc-
ceeded Harvey Lonsdale Elmes (see Elmes, H.
L.) as architect of S. George's Hall, Liverpool.
His designs for the sculpture of the pediment
of this building were published in the papers of
the Royal Institute of British Architects (1863-
1864, p. 17). Cockerell was president of the
Royal Institute *of British Architects in 1860-
1861, Chevalier oi the Uyion d'llonneur, mem-
ber of the American Institute of Architects,
etc. He was buried in S. Paul's cathedral.
Much of his success was due to his skill in
drawing the himian figure.

Sidney Smirke, Professor C. H. Cockerell, in
R. I. B. A. papers, 1803-1864; Obituary in
Builder, ISm, p. 683.

chitect; b. 1833; d. Nov. 7, 1878.

A son of C. R. Cockerell (see Cockerell, C.
R.). He built the memorial column at Castle
Howard (England), and the Freemasons' Hall
in London.

Obituary in Builder, Nov. 16, 1878.

tect; b. about 1754; d. July 12, 1827.

Cockerell was descended from Paulina, a sis-
ter of the famous Samuel Pepys, author of
Pepys's Diary, and secretary of the admiralty
in the reign of Charles II. He was a puj)il of
Sir Robert Taylor (see Taylor, R.). He was
surveyor of the East India House, and held
other important offices. (See Cockerell, C. R.)

Redgi-ave, Dictionary of At'tists.

COCKING. Same as Caulking.

COCKLE. A. The same as Cochlea and
Cochleate ; used either as a noun or adjective ;
helically winding.

B. A kiln or furnace for diying ( 1 ) hops ;
(2) porcelain ware or biscuit after it has been
dipped in the glaze, and before the burning.

COCKLOFT. The loft or garret under a
roof, above the highest ceiling; usually waste
space, or useil for storage. A story in the
roof, finished for occupancy, with ceilings, win-
dows, etc., is not a cockloft.

COCKPIT. A. An enclosed area for cock
fighting ; hence, by extension, a buihling for
such a purpose.

B. The pit of a theatre. Obsolete ; in use
as late as the close of the sixteenth century ;
so called from its form and general appearance,
resembling that of A.

C. In local English usage, the Treasury or
Privy Council Chambers, from the popular name
of the building opposite Whitehall, Westminster
(London), in which these offices were formerly




Bergamo, "Moro Lombardo" (Miintz) ; archi-
tect and sculptor.

In a document dated July, 1476, the design
and construction of the fine church of S.
Michele in Isola at Venice is ascribed to
"Moretto di Lorenzo da Venezia" (Moschini,
op. cit). In 1482 "Moretto" took charge of
the works at the campanile of S. Marco, and
June 1 2, 1 483, was chosen proto-maestro of the
new church of S. Zaccaria (Venice), begun by
Antonio Gambello (see Gambello, A.). He built
the great stairway of the Scuola di S. Marco.
In the memoranda of a lawsuit between his
heirs and the authorities of the church of S.
Maria Formosa (Venice), in 1506, Mauro di
Coducci is mentioned as the architect of that
building. The names Moro, Moretto, Moreto,
appear frequently in the Venetian records at
this time, but they do not always refer to the
architect Coducci.

Paoletti, Rinascimento, Vol. II. ; Miintz, Ren-
aissance ; Moschini, Guida di Venezia,


COELMANN, BdlDIUS ; architect.

Egidius Coelmann rebuilt the choir of the
Liebfrauenkerke at Amsterdam, which had
been destroyed by fire in 1452.

Galland, HoUandische Baukufist und Bildnerei.

CCENACULUM. In ancient Roman
houses, the supper room, and hence often any
upper room or suite of rooms, because the ccena
was commonly eaten in an upper room. It is
also applied to a banqueting room, and in a few
instances to boxes in the upper tier of a circus.

COFFEE HOUSE. In England, in the
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, a kind
of tavern, esf)ecially devoted to the taking of
coffee and chocolate, indulging in conversation,
etc. The custom is obsolete except in history
and literature. At the present time, a place of
refresliment, often one from which alcoholic
drinks are excluded.

COFFEE ROOM. In England, and until
very recent times, the principal eating room and
sitting room of a hotel ; the hotels not being
large, or affecting much elegance before the
middle of the nineteenth century, there was little
in the way of reception room or drawing-room.
Ladies were supposed to have a sitting room of
their own, and gentlemen guests met friends in
the coflee room, which served also for meals.

COFFER. In classic and neoclassic archi-
tecture a recessed panel, usually square or
octagonal. Such panels are common in the
inner surfaces of cupolas, wagon vaults, and the
like, and are, in original Roman construction, as
in the Pantheon, the basilica of Maxentius, etc.,
a sinking in the solid masonry. In modern
work, coffers are most often produced in lath
and plaster, or other thin and cheap material.
(Same as Caisson, II.)

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COFFER DAM. A temporary dam made
to exclude the water from a place upon which
it is desired to build. In the usual form it is
composed of an outer and an inner row of piles
with waling pieces, or stringers, to guide and
support the sheet piling which is driven be-
tween the piles of each row, forming a double
enclosure. The space between the rows is then
cleaned of all material not water-tight, and
filled in with puddled clay and gravel to make
the enclosure water-tight. It is sometimes
made of large timber piles driven close together,
jointed and caulked, and tied together with wal-
ing pieces. A bank of earth is sometimes suffi-
cient in shallow water. The water is pumped
out, and the construction proceeds. — W. R. H.

COFFERING. The whole of the coffers of
a ceiling, or the system of coffers constituting
its design. (See Caisson, II.)

COGKJINO. (See Caulking.)

COG HOLD. A connection for securing
two intersecting horizontal timbers in a framed
structure, consisting of a tongue formed in the
upper part of one timber which engages in a
notch cut in the under side of the other.

COIQNB. A. Primarily, a wedge ; hence,
the comer of a building, and finally, one of the
stones forming the comer. In this sense these
forms are obsolete. (See Quoin.)

B. A wedgelike block resting on any in-
clined surface to bring the masonry up to a
level bed.


COIN. (See Coigne.)

COIT. In England, an early type of build-
ing combining a cattle stable, bam, and dwell-
ing (Addy).

tect ; d. Dec. 18, 1452.

Colard appears to have succeeded Jehan
d'Orbais as maUre d^oenvre of the cathedral
of Reims in 1416. He built the great choir
screen (jub^) of that cathedral, which was de-
stroyed in 1747.

Bauchal, Dictionnaire ; Lance, Diclionnaire.


Maltre d^oeuvre et expert jur4 of the city
of Troyes. About 1461 he succeeded Simon
Royer as maistre des magons of the cathedral
of Troyes, and undertook the decoration of the
beautiiul southern portal. In 1470-1473 he
worked on the pillars and vaults of the nave.

Assier, Les Arts et les Artistes dans Vancienne
Capitale de la Champagne; Bauchal, Diction-

COLD QRAPERT. A building, mainly of
glass in light sash, used for the cultivation of
grapevines, but without artificial heat. (See

COLDROOM. A room for cold storage;
that is to say, one in which, while nothing


shall be frozen, everything shall be kept at a
low temperature. This is usually done by the
presence of ice which, as it melts, chills the air
within the room; but precautions have to be
taken to carry away the water which flows
from tlie ice, and to prevent too great a fall of

of Colechurch.)

COLIN, ALEXANDER; sculptor and
architect; b. 1536; d. 1612.

There is a contract dated March 7, 1558,
between the elector Otto Heinrich and the
sculptor Alexander Colin of Mecheln, for carv-
ing the coat of arms over the door of the Otto-
Heinrichsbau in the castle at Heidelberg,
Germany, and for fourteen statues and four-
teen windows. After finishing this work Colin
was called to Innsbruck (Austrian Tyrol) by
the Emperor Ferdinand I., to complete (1562-
1566) the monument to Maximilian I. in the
Hofkirche which had been begun by Peter
Abel. Attributed to Colin are the fountain in
the Thiergarten at Innsbruck (1564), the
monument of the Emperor Ferdinand I. in the
cathedral of Prague (1564-1589), and other
monuments at Innsbruck and elsewhere.

Ritter von Sch5nherr, Alexander Colin und
seine Werke, in Mittheilungen des Heidelherger
Schlosses ; Rosenberg, Quellen zur GescMchte des
Heidelherger Schlosses; Koch-Seitz, Da^ Heidel-
herger Schloss.

Colin de.)

COLISEUM. The largest Roman amphi-
theatre known to us. It stands in Rome south-
east of the Fomm, in a fiat which continues
the valley in which the Forum is situated. Its
exterior is well preserveil for about four fifths of
its perimeter, except that the fittings of the up-
permost part are uncertain. It was built by
Vespasian and his son and successor, Titus, at
least as far as the top of the third story of the
exterior, the solid wall with pilasters forming
the fourth story having been added in the third
century. (Also spelled colosseum.)

COLLAR. A. A decorated cincture, belt,
or band about a column or other member,
whether actually a separate piece, or a mould-
ing formed in the substance itself of the column.
Hence, a necking in a classic Tuscan or Doric
or Greek Ionic capital. (See Order.)

B. A metal band applied for strengthening,
as to the head of a pile to prevent splintering.

C. A collar beam.

COLLEGE. A. An institution governed by
a body of men associated for literary or ecclesi-
astical pursuits ; especially an institution of
learning to which students resort after leaving
the ordinary schools, and at any age, usually
ftt)m sixteen to twenty years.

B. A building intended for use in higher

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education, or more commonly a group of buildings
forming together the necessary accommodation
for a number of students and their professors
and other teachers. The colleges of the English
universities are separate corporations which
unite in having a common tie in the University
Senate and its chancellor or vice chancellor.
Each college has one or several buildings, and
these are generally arranged on the four sides
of open courts, generally called quadrangles.
The essential buildings are the rooms of lodging
for students and tutors, fellows, and chiefs of
the college, for the lecture rooms are usually at
another place, in a building common to the
university. The older colleges have, however,
each a very stately hall and sometimes also a
chapel ; and in certain cases the chapel is a
building of peculiar magnificence, as in the
instance of King's College at Cambridge. The
buildings of the colleges are so commonly of an
interesting type of Tudor or Jacobean architec-
ture that those styles when applied to domestic
and civic work have gained the name of Col-
legiate Gothic.

In America, colleges are independent of one
another, and a university is merely a college
which is rich and has added postgraduate and
other courses to its usual academic course. The
architecture of colleges and universities is, there-
fore, ' the same, and the tendency is to build
separate and detached buildings standing about
in the grounds occupied by the institution with-
out much common plan. A serious attempt
was made at Yale College, beginning in 1868,
to enclose with the different dormitories, chapels,
etc., a very large quadrangle, but the spirit of
continuity was not sufficient, and the plan did
not wholly succeed. Trinity College in Con-
necticut, near Hartford, was designed by William
Burges of London, with thi*ee small quadrangles.
The great Baltimore institution, Johns Hopkins
University, has no decorative buildings, but
simply such structures as are absolutely needed
for the lecture rooms, laboratories, etc., and
these are scattered about the city. Columbia
University, New York, has move^ twice within
forty years, first from what is now the business
part of the city to Forty-ninth Street and Madi-
son Avenue, and, in 1897, to West One Hundred
and Sixteenth Street where a large plot of ground
has been secured and where buildings of great
cost and permanence have been erected. These
colleges differ among themselves in that some
have dormitt)ries and others provide no lodging
rooms whatever. — R. S.

Christ Church College. One of the old es-
tablishotl colleges of Oxford University, occupy-
ing buildings which surround a very large court.
The hall is peculiarly interesting because of the
interior of the hall proper, which was built under
the direction of Cardinal Wolsey in a beautiful
late Perpendicular style, with an open timber


roof of oak, richly carved, and a beautiful vesti-
bule built in 1640 and roofed with fine vaulting
in a style of an earlier period. It is also the
largest hall in Oxford, the dimensions usually
given being 40 feet wide by 50 feet high to the
ridge, and about 114 feet long. The great court
or qiuulrangle is known as "Tom Quad," the
name being derived from the great bell in the
tower over the gateway, always called Tom or
Tom of Oxford, or the Mighty Tom, and said to
weigh seventeen thousand pounds. The college
has another quadrangle called Peckwater, the
principal buildings upon which are of Palladian
architecture built in the eighteenth century.
The cathedral at Oxford, the smallest, but one
of the most interesting, in England, is immedi-
ately connected with Christ Church College and
is entered from the Tom Quad. — R. S.

Keble College. One of the colleges of
Oxford University; a new foundation, dating
from 1868, and named after the Rev. John
Keble, author of Tlie Christian Year, The
buildings are of an interesting type of Victorian
Gothic by one of the best masters of the style,
Butterfield. The Keble Memorial Chapel is
peculiarly interesting.

King's College. One of the colleges of
Cambridge University, England. Founded by
Henry VI., and the earliest important es-
tablishment in Cambridge, but containing none
of the earlier buildings except the chapel. The
hall is, however, interesting, with a splendid
Jacobean screen of carved wood. The great
row of buildings designed by Gibbs and built in
the early part of the eighteenth century is an
interesting piece of late neoclassic work.

King's College ; Chapel. The oldest part of
the college and an unsurpassed building of English
Perpendicidar architecture. The fine vaulted
ceiling is one of the three important pieces of that
singidar and wholly English design existing (the
other two being S. George's Chapel at Windsor
and Henry the Seventh's Chapel at Westminster)
and this exceeds the others greatly in size.
No cathedral in England has a more impressive
interior than this superb building, more than 300
feet long and divided into twelve uniform bays.

Magdalen College ; Tower. (Always pro-
nounced Maudlin.) One of the earliest colleges
of Oxford, founded in the fifteenth century, and
retaining some of its ancient buildings. The
tower, of Perpendicular Gothic, and said to be
145 feet high, is near the head of the bridge
over the Cherwell, and is one of the finest
Gothic towers existing. The hall is mostly of
the sixteenth century, but the ceiling is much
later and not appropriate. The Gardens (Mag-
dalen Groves), and Magdalen College Walks are
celebrated, partly on account of the view of the
college buildings which they afford.

Medical College. An institution for the
training of physicians and surgeons. The build-

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ings for such an institution recjuire some rooms
and halls peculiar to the course of study, and
not found elsewhere (see Anatomical Theatre;
Dissecting Room). Medical colleges are usually
located in the great cities on account of the
opportunities for observing clinical treatment
and surgical practice. Even in cities, however,
it is quite usual to found a hospital in immediate
connection with a medical college for the express
purpose of furnishing clinical instruction. The
treatment in such hospitals, or at least in the
open wards of them, is usually gratuitous, the
patient submitting to the comparative publicity
of treatment in the way of compensation for the
medical and surgical aid furnished. Labora-
tories and rooms for histological and other
forms of research fonn part of a highly organ-
ized medical college, but their presence does
not involve any architectural peculiarities.

— R. S.
New College. One of the oldest colleges of

Oxford University, founded by William of Wyke-
ham in the fourteenth century, and retaining
still many buildings of that epoch. The chapel
is of peculiar importance in the history of Eng-
lish Gothic, as it is reputed to be the earliest
Perpendicular building, and of very beautiful

Robert College. Near Constantinople, on
a hill overlooking the Bosphorus ; founded by a
New York merchant and built about 1865.

Saint John's College. A, One of the old
colleges of Cambridge University, England.
The buildings are of different dates, from about
1500 to 1831, and enclose three courts or
quadrangles on the right bank of the Cam, and
one on the left bank, each of these groups
forming a separate structure of architectural
importance. The oldest buildings are of fine
Tudor (Collegiate Gothic) style, as is the bridge
which connects the two groups. The dining
hall is a noble room with an open timber roof,
dating from about 1610, and the combination
room is a low-ceiled Jacobean hall of greiit

B. A college of the University of Oxford,
founded in the middle of the sixteenth century.
Part of the front is of a still earlier time, the
remains of a monastery of the fifteenth century ;
but the most celebrated part of the building is
the second quadrangle, which was built by Inigo
Jones in continuation of earlier work, and which,
in grace and refinement, is the nearest approach
in England to Italian Renaissance architecture.
Bronze statues of King Charles I. and of Queen

Online LibraryRussell SturgisA dictionary of architecture and building : biographical, historical, and descriptive → online text (page 51 of 74)