Russell Sturgis.

A dictionary of architecture and building : biographical, historical, and descriptive online

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therefore, displayed in a position relative to the
eye of a person sitting or standing below, which
makes them easy to see and eiyoy. — R. S.

COVBD VAULT. (See Cloistered Vault,
under Vault.)

COVBR. That part of a roofing tile, slate,
or the like, which is covered by the overlap of
the course above.

COVBRBD AUJEnr. A primitive stone
structure of a kind abounding in Great Britain
and Brittany, as well as in other parts of the
world. It is composed of two rows of flat
stones set vertically and sustaining a roof of
rough lintels, the whole 20 or 30 yards long.
In most cases it is the entrance passage to a
Cistvaen. (Compare Cromlech ; Dolmen ; Men-
hir.)

COVOTG. A, That part of a structure
which forms a coved projection beyond the parts
below, as a concave, curved surface under the
overhang of a projecting upper story ; a cove or
series of coves.

B. The ciurved or splayed jambs of a fire-
place which narrows toward the back.

COVTL. A cap, hood, or like contrivance
for covering and protecting the open top of a
pipe, shaft, or other duct while permitting the
free passage of air. It may be merely a bent-
over portion of the pipe or a more ekborate
device, as a contrivance for improving the
draught of a chimney ; usually a metal tube or
pipe nearly as large as the flue and arranged at
top with a curve so as to bring the smoke out
in a nearly horizontal direction. It is custom-
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CRADLE

ary to make the airved tube separate, free to
rotate, and fitted with a wind vane, so that it
will turn easily and always present the convex
or closed part of the curve to the force of the
wind. The term is also applied to a similar
contrivance at the top of a ventilating shaft.

COTSBVOX (pronounced Coesevau), AN-
TOINB; sculptor; b. Sept. 29, 1640 (at
Lyons); d. Oct. 10, 1720.

Coysevox, the favourite sculptor of Louis
XIV., was the son of a cabinetmaker of Lyons
(RhAne, France). In the baptismal records
the name is written Quozeveau. He spelled it
Quescveau. At the age of seventeen he entered
the atelier of Larambert in Paris. He was
appointed sculpteur du roy, and in 1667 began
to work on the decoration of the Louvre under
the direction of Charles Lebrun (see Lebnm,
C). From 1678 to 1686 he directed the
sculptural decoration of the palace at Ver-
sailles, especially the Escalier (stairway) des
AmbassadenrSf the OcUerie des GlaceSy and
the Salon de la Guerre, He made numerous
statues for the exterior of the palace, and, in
the park of Versailles, the Fontaine de la
Oloire, and many statues, vases, and the like.
October 29, 1678, he was made professor at the
Acadhnie, Paris. His works at the chateau of
Marly are now much dispersed. Coysevox
designed the monument of Cardinal Mazarin
now in the Louvre, the monuments to Colbert
in the church of S. Eustache, Paris, the monu-
ment of Charles Lebrun in the church of S.
Nicolas du Chardonnet, Paris. A list of about
300 of his works is given by Jouin, op. cit. .

Jouin, Antoine Coysevox; Gonse, Sculpture
fran^mse ; Dezallier d'Argenville, Vie desfameux
Bculpteurs; Ferraelhuis, l^loge funebre de Coy-
sevox ; Genevay, Style Louis XIV, ; Maquet, Paris
sous Louis XIV.

COZZARBLLI, GIACOMO ; architect and
sculptor; b. 1453; d. 1515.

Cozzarelli was a pupil of Francesco di
Giorgio Martini (see Martini, F. di G.) who was
interested in the revival of wrought-iron work
in the fifteenth century (see Caparra). Espe-
cially notable are the torch holders of the Palazzo
Pandolfo Petrucci in Siena (Italy). He enlaiiged
the church of the Osservanza (Siena), and did
some good work in coloured terra cotta.

MUntz, Renaissance.

CRAB. In building, a winch or similar
machine for hoisting weights, used in connec-
tion with a crane, derrick, and the like.

CRADLB. Any light framework of small
and slender parts, — as furring strips or the
like, — forming a support or backing for other
work, especially when extending in a generally
horizontal direction, as the centring of an
arched drain, the ftirring used to support a
cornice or a plaster imitation of a vault, or
the like.

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CRAIG

CRAIG, JABOISS; architect; d. June 23,
1795.

Craig was a nephew of James Thomson, the
poet, and a pupil of Sir Robert Taylor (see
Taylor, R.). In 1767 he won a
competition for a plan for the co
struction of new streets and squar
in the city of Edinburgh (Scotland
The "New Town" of Edinburj
was built according to this plan.

Redgrave, Dictionary of Artists t
the English School.

CRAMP. A. In masonry,
small metal member to secure t
gether two ac^joining parts or piecf
It is usually a short flat bar, havii
its two ends turned down at rig]
angles and embedded in holes in tl
stones.

B. Same as Clamp.
CRANDALL. In stone
dressing, an axelike instrument
used in finishing the softer
stones. Its head consists of a
number of movable steel points,
secured side by side in a slot
through the end of the handle, thus forming a
toothed edge parallel to the handle.

CRANE. A machine for raising, lowering,
and generally moving weights. In its original

and simplest form,
it consists of an
upright leg, —
fixed, or more
often pivoted, —
from which pro-
jects a fixed ann
bearing a wheel or
pulley. In modern
times this form
has been developed
into a trussed or
built-up structure
curving outward
and thus forming
a cantilever. By extension, the term is also
applied to various other forms of hoisting
machines, even to such as have two legs or
supports, the beam or arm being always fixed
to the support, which feature alone distin-
guishes cranes from some forms of derricks.
Aside from building operations, the most com-
mon use of cranes in connection with architec-
ture has been in their application to fireplaces
for the suspension of household utensils over
the flames. For this purpose they were usually
of wrought iron, frequently elaborate and beauti-
ful in design, and either secured to the chimney
back or forming part of a large and heavy and-
iron.— D. N. B. S.

Travelling Crane. One arranged to move
as a whole along a track.
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CREMATOR

CRAPINA, MARTINO DA. (See Mar-
tino da Crapina.)

CREASING. A course, or several courses,
of tiles or bricks laid upon the top of a wall or




Grandall.
as it rises from its base,



Credence from Church of S. Cross, near Winchester, c. 1<U10.

chimney with a projection of an inch or two
for each course over the one below, to throw otf
water. The coping, if there is one, comes
above the creasing. A layer of slates or of
metal over a projecting string course or window
cap, serving as a flashing to prevent the infil-
tration of moisture, is also called a creasing.
The term is little used in the United States.

CREDENCE ; CREDENCE TABLE. In
ecclesiastical usage, a table placed on one side
of a sanctuary as a convenience to the ofliciant
and upon which the church vessels, service
books, etc., are kept. This is sometimes mov-
able, but sometimes is the shelf of a recessed
cupboard, the top of which may receive archi-
tectural treatment.

CREMATOR; -TORIUM ; -TORT. A
furnace for the destniction by heat of any sub-
stance ; preparation being made for the complete
incineration of the substances burned, the carry-
ing off" of the gaseous products in a thorough and
harmless way, and the protection of surrounding
parts of the building, or of other buildings, from
a dangerous heat. There is usually a crematory
attached to a dissecting room, and it is con-
sidered important that this should do its work
thoroughly, while attracting but little attention.
Recent hygienic science has introduced the use
of small furnaces of this kind in connection with
the kitchens or sculleries of ordinary dwelling
houses, in order that rubbish which would other-
wise be thrown into the dust bin or carried away
in barrels, thus perhaps spreading contagion of
some kind, may be disposed of in a clean, thorough,
and safe way. The larger furnace used for the
incineration of human corpses is generally estab-
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CRENEL

lished far from any large town, and has some
Burroundings intended to be pleasant to the
eye, and to accommodate mourners who accom-
pany the corpse to the place of cremation. The
furnace itself is so arranged that the corpse will
not be brought in contact with fuel other than
burning gas; because it is required that the
ashes of the corpse shall not be mingled in
the slightest degree with other results of com-
bustion. Slightly differing processes are em-
ployed to reach this result, but in general it is
true that the flame — in the sense in which
burning gas following a powerful draught is
flame — is that which reaches the corpse and
which reduces it to uniform, dry, and cleanly
ashes. — R. S.

CRENEL. The embrasure or open space
between two merlons or solid portions of a
battlement or castellated parapet. It origi-
nally signified any opening in a defensive work
for an outlook or the discharge of missiles.

CRENELATR To form with battlements,
as a parapet ; to furnish with battlements, as a
building. In former times in Europe the right
to crenelate was a matter of royal licensure.

The adjective crenelate is sometimes used
instead of crenelated, the participial at^ective
from the above verb. (Written also crenel-
late.)

CRENELET. A, A small crenel, whether
in an actual battlement or in a decorative design
imitating one.

B. A small loophole.

CRENELLE. Same as Crenel.

CREOLE ARCHITECTURE. That of the
peoi)Ie8 of European descent in tropical and
subtropical America — French, Spanish, Eng-
lish, etc., in the West Indies ; French and
Spanish in New Orleans, and the like. The
term Creole differs in its special application, but
means always, born in the new country of pure
European stock; and this applies to cattle,
poultry, etc., as well as to mankind. (See
Mexico, Part II. ; South America ; United
States, Part II.; West Indies.)

CREPIDOMA. In Greek archaeology, a
foundation; especially, in modem usage, the
whole foundation of a tem plexor other Greek
building, including the flat floor or pavement of
the naos, pteroma, etc., and of the masonry sub-
structure. It is common to use the term for
the floor alone, upon which still remain either
fragments or traces of the walls, the columns,
etc., from which the study of the ruined build-
ing can be undertaken.

CREST; CRESTING. An ornamental
member, or a group or series of members, used
to form a decorative finish at the top of any
structure; as along the ridge of a roof, as an
elaborate coping, the top of a pinnacle, or the
like. Crest may perhaps be considered as
restricted to mean an isolated single ornament,
711



CRIB

while cresting may be more properly applied to
a continuous feature.

CREST TABLE. A crested or saddleback
coping, more or less ornamental, often finished
at the top with an astragal, frequently used for
the top of a wall, especially of the merlons and
crenels of a battlement.

CRETE, ARCHITECTURE OF. This
great island has been little explored because,
still remaining nominally under Turkish con-
trol, it has been the chosen spot for insurrections
in the Greek interest ; and parties of foreigners
are looked on with suspicion and feel themselves
to be in danger. The constant insurrections, in
which the Mussulman and Christian forces have
proven nearly equal, have resulted also in the
complete destruction of many villages, including
important buildings. Such buildings, and even
some which have not been deliberately ruined,
are used as quarries by modem builders and
lime burners. The recent policy of the Ottoman
government in preventing the exjwrtation of
sculptures and other antiquities, and keeping
them for the museum at Constantinople, though
perfectly reasonable and justifiable, has resulted
in a do-nothing policy in countries which, like
Crete, are far removed from the centres of Otto-
man power, and are disfranchised politically.
Foreigners have only now begun to receive per-
mission to dig, and the government will under-
take nothing. Even when foreigners desire
permission merely to explore, and are willing to
turn over to the authorities all objects which
may be found, difliculties have l)een made.
Explorations by the American School of Classical
Studies at Athens, or by the Archaeological
Institute of America, have resulted chiefly in
the discovery of inscriptions and of fragments
of sculpture ; and the architecture is as yet little
known, although remains at Gortyna and Cnos-
sus are known, and others are being brought to
light. This is partly because no adequate
measured drawings nor even photographs have
been published.

Historically, it seems certain that Cretan
civilization was much more ancient than that
of the mainland of Greece, and much less
modified by the Dorian and other invasions;
that on this account its time of glory and power
had passed before what is to us the historic age,
and the age of Grecian art properly so called.
(For the details of the very early buildings, see
Pela.<<gic Architecture.) — R. S.

CRIB. A. A structure of logs, bars, or
strips, intended to be left open without en-
closure. Specifically, in engineering, a frame
of timber filled generally with stone to load it
and keep it in place. It is formed of longi-
tudinal courses of logs or square timbers, rarely
less than three in number, spaced 8 to 10 feet
apart, which are tied together with transverse
ties of smaller timber, spaced 5 to 6 feet, and
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CRIBWORK

notched, or halved, or dovetailed over each
timber of the longitudinal course, and spiked or
trenailed at each crossing. The whole crih
therefore is divided into cells which are filled
generally with stone, sometimes
with concrete or earth. Such
cribs are used chiefly for dock-
ing and wharves, as retaining
structures, piers for temporary
bridges, foundations underwater,
etc. Being of timber they are
not durable except under water.

B. In house - moving (see
Shoring) the system of timbers
placed under each runner or
long timber on which the rollers
are placed. It is composed of
longitudinals laid upon the
ground, connected by cross
pieces simply laid on them, and
supporting other longitudinals
and cross pieces to the proper
height. Their purpose is also
to give bearing surface on the
ground for the weight upon the
nmners.

C. Any small and slight building walled and
roofed wholly or in part with open framing, or
with strips having open spaces between. (See
Com Crib.) — W. R. Hutton.



CROCKET

CHRI8TOFANELLO. (See Battista di
Christofanello.)

CRiTiuS (Kritios) ; sculptor.

The bronze statues by Antenor of the tyran-



c



Crib for Hay, at Haslithall, Switzerland.

CRIBWORK. Same as Grillage. (See also
Foundation.)

CRICKET. A piece of sloped roofing laid
in an otherwise horizontal valley so as to pro-
duce one or more sloping valleys to throw off
water which would otherwise be retained.
Thus, if a sloping roof is interrupted by a
chimney standing squarely across the slope, a
horizontal valley would naturally result along
the upper side. It is therefore usual to con-
struct there a small piece of roofing sloping
lat<3rally in one or both directions, so as to pro-
duce one or two diagonal valleys at its meeting
with the main roof.

CRI08PHINX. An Egyptian sphinx of
the kind which combines the head of a ram with
a lion's body.

CRIPPLE (adjectival term). Same as Jack.

CRIPPLE WINDCW. Same as Dormer
Window. Local English. — (A. P. S.)
713



Crib of Timber, forming a Footing.

nicides Harmodios and Aristogiton which had
been raised upon the Acropolis at Athens were
taken away by Xerxes in 480 B.C. About 470
B.C. the sculptors Critius and Nesiotes were
commissioned to replace them. Several repre-
sentations of their work have come down to us.

Mitchell, History of Greek Sculpture.

CROATIA, ARCHITECTURE OF. This,
so far as of general interest, is concentrated in
the cities of Agram (Zagrab or Zagreb), the
ancient capital ; Varasd (or Varazdin) ; and
Karhtadt (or Karlovac). Of these, the first-
named consists of three well-marked divisions;
the ancient city retains its curious fortifications,
and includes a mediaeval bishop's palace some-
what defensible, with battlemented towers, the
cathedral with a Romanesque front of the
eleventh centupy, and modem public buildings
of some interest. The other towns named are
more like large villages than cities in the usual
sense. The provinces are known to contain
Roman remains of interest, but as yet they have
not formed the subject of careful study. (See
Austrian States; Hungary.) — R. S.

CROCKET. In Gothic architecture, an
ornament consisting of a projecting piece of
sculpture worked on the edge of a gable, on one
of the sloping ridges of a spire, on an upright of
oniamental character, such as the side pieces of
choir stalls, or the like. The most usual char-
acter of the carving is a piece of leafage with a
strong stem or rib, the leafage being often much
in relief, and fantastically cut. The term is
derived from the French crochet, which signifies
any piece of leafage or similar ornament forming
one member of a design, such as one comer of a
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CROK

foliated capital; but this more general usage
has not prevailed in English. — R. S.

CROK. Same as Crutch.

CROMLECH. A nide stone monument of
prehistoric or uncertain date (compare Dolmen ;
Menhir). As the three terms are Keltic words
whose significance is not accurately reproduced
in the modem term, differences exist in the
application of all three words. Thus, cromlech
in Welsh means a stone supported on three
or more stones set upright be
uppermost one being somewhat £
ing a table top or the roof to i



CROSS

admired by Michelangelo. June 23, 1495,
Cronaca was made atpomaestro of the Duomo,
and after July 15, 1495, built the great hall of
the Palazzo Vecchio, entirely remodelled by
Vasari. Milanesi publishes a Prospetto Crono-
logico delta vita e delle ojyere di Cronaca in
his Vasari.

GeymUller-Stegmann, Die Architektur der Ben.
in To8C ; Vasari, Milanesi ed. ; MUntz, Benais-



Crockbts on a Capital, Ca-

THRDBAL OF SeMUK (CoTE-

d'Or).



Crockets from Capitals in
Choir, Cathedral of
Semur (Cotb-d'Or).



Crockets from Capitals in Choir,
Cathedral of Semur (Cutb-
d'Or).



monument may be regarded ; but such a struc-
ture is calle<l dolmen in Brittany (N. E. D.).
It is generally assumed that these monuments
are sepulchral chambers, and that the intention
has generally been to heap the earth around and
above them so as to form a mound or barrow.

— R. S.

CRONACA, n. (8IMONE DEL POLLA.
JUOLO) ; Florentine architect ; b. Oct. 30,
1457 ; d. 1508.

Simone was called Cronaca, the chronicler,
from his endless stories about the Roman monu-
ments. He was brought up as a woodworker,
intarsiatore, spent much time in Rome, and
acquired a thorough knowledge of the antiquities.
The buildings which can with certainty be
credited to him are in Florence and not very
numerous. In 1489 he superintended work
upon the roofs of the Duomo. In 1490 he was
appointed maestro del scarpellini at the
Palazzo Strozzi, and in 1497 became architect
of that building. Cronaca substituted plain
stone for nistication in the last three courses,
and designed the celebrated cornice of the Strozzi.
At about this time he built the sacristy of Santo
Spirito from the model by Giuliano da San Gallo
(see San Gallo, G. da). The fine church of S.
Salvatore al Monte (consecrated 1504) is attrib-
uted to Simone by Vasari. It was much
715



sance. Vol. II., 1891 ; Mazzanti-Badia, MiglioH
Fabbrirhe di Firenze ; Fantozzi, Nuova guida di
Firenze.

CROP ; CROPE. A bunch of foliage worked
or 8culptui*ed at the top of a spire, finial, or
similar decorative member, and having a
resemblance to the top or crop of a plant.
(Compare Finial ; Poppy head.)

CROSS. A. A gibbet of the peculiar form
employed by many ancient nations ; the signifi-
cation of the Latin cnix having nothing to do
with the exact form of the gibbet in question.
N. E. D. approves the use of the English word in
this primary signification. That especial gibbet
upon which Christ was exposed is generally as-
sumed to have been composed of a horizontal
piece secured at right angles upon a high, up-
right piece of timber; hence the following
definitions : —

B. Any object consisting primarily of two
straight or nearly straight pieces forming right
angles with one another ; whether a mere delin-
eation on a flat surface or a solid, free-standing
piece, or something partaking of both natures,
is indifferent. Architecturally speaking, the
cross may api)ear carved in stone cut through
or into a wall in the form of a window, loop-
hole, or mere sunk panel, or in the form of an
upright emblematic addition forming no essen-
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CROSS

tial part of the architectural design, as upon
the top of a spire, or standing upon a rood
beam or rood screen at the entrance to a chan-
cel or sanctuary. The cross may or may not
bear the image of the crucified Saviour. When
that image is not present, the cross may be
taken as an emblem. (See Symbology.)

C, A monument or small building of any
kind, surmounted by a cross in sense JB, and
of which the said cross forms a very important
part. The portable objects, such as the staves
carried by certain ecclesiastics and surmounted
by a cross, belong under this definition, but are
not subjects of architectural inquiry. (For the
buildings, see City Cross and Market Cross,
below ; Cross of Queen Eleanor.)

i>. An object conventionally assumed to be
a representation or modification of a cross in
sense B. Thus, a slight modification pro-
duces the Cross Crossed, a heraldic device in
which each arm of the cross is formed again
into a cross ; the Cross of Jerusalem, in which
each arm terminates in a crossbar so that each
arm represents the capital T; the Maltese
Cross, in which each of the four arms is like an
arrowhead pointing inward ; that is to say, it
is a cross of eight points grouped in couples.
None of these are of architectural importance,
occurring as they do merely in heraldic and
similar appliances. Many forms are employed
in heraldry, and some few of these occur con-
stantly in ordinary jewelry and the like. In
paintetl architectural decoration, crosses in this
sense and of many forms are freely employed
mingled with other liturgical emblems.

(For the Irish Crosses, see bibliography under
Ireland. For the use of the cross in church
architecture and connected branches of art, see
the bibliography under Gothic; Romanesque;
Symbology.) -— R. S.

ArchiepiBcopal Cross. One which, having
the general character of the Latin cross, has
two horizontal bars instead of one.

City Cross. In the Middle Ages, a structure
with a raised platform from which public ad-
dresses could be made, laws and edicts pro-
claimed, and the like ; usually, a steeplelike
ornamental building ending in a cross. In some
instances, this stnicture was high and elaborate
enough to supply a pulpit or stand for the
speaker, raised above the pavement at the base.

Consecration Cross. One used with others
in the ceremony of consecrating a church. Such
crosses were frequently made a part of the
permanent interior decoration of a building.

Greek Cross. One which has the two bars
of equal length and crossing one another in the
middle, so that the four arms are equal. It is
customary to speak of chiu-ches whose nave,
choir, and transept arms are equal, or approxi-
mately equal, in length as built on the plan of
a Greek cross.

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CROSS

Latin Cross. One which has an upright
much longer than the crowbar, or, in other
words, which has three arms equal or nearly
equal in length, and the fourth much longer.
The ordinary Romanesque and Gothic church in
Western Europe, and all the churches which
succeeded the classical revival, and in which the
nave is longer than the choir and much longer
than either arm of the transept, is commonly
spoken of as being built on the plan of a Latin
cross.

Market Cross. Same as City Cross; the
term arising from the common usage of locating
such crosses in the principal market place of a
town.

Memorial Cross. Any cross erected in mem-
ory of a person or event. (See Cross of Queen
Eleanor; Cross of S. Louis.) Many City
Crosses, Preaching Crosses, and the like were
originally memorial crosses.



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