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the King. The King would sometimes go with the Queen and some of these
maidens to take his diversion on the Lake, or to visit the Idol-temples,
in boats all canopied with silk.

The other two parts of the enclosure were distributed in groves, and
lakes, and charming gardens planted with fruit-trees, and preserves for
all sorts of animals, such as roe, red-deer, fallow-deer, hares, and
rabbits. Here the King used to take his pleasure in company with those
damsels of his; some in carriages, some on horseback, whilst no man was
permitted to enter. Sometimes the King would set the girls a-coursing
after the game with dogs, and when they were tired they would hie to the
groves that overhung the lakes, and leaving their clothes there they would
come forth naked and enter the water and swim about hither and thither,
whilst it was the King's delight to watch them; and then all would return
home. Sometimes the King would have his dinner carried to those groves,
which were dense with lofty trees, and there would be waited on by those
young ladies. And thus he passed his life in this constant dalliance with
women, without so much as knowing what _arms_ meant! And the result
of all this cowardice and effeminacy was that he lost his dominion to the
Great Kaan in that base and shameful way that you have heard.[NOTE 11]

All this account was given me by a very rich merchant of Kinsay when I was
in that city. He was a very old man, and had been in familiar intimacy
with the King Facfur, and knew the whole history of his life; and having
seen the Palace in its glory was pleased to be my guide over it. As it is
occupied by the King appointed by the Great Kaan, the first pavilions are
still maintained as they used to be, but the apartments of the ladies are
all gone to ruin and can only just be traced. So also the wall that
enclosed the groves and gardens is fallen down, and neither trees nor
animals are there any longer.[NOTE 12]]


NOTE 1. - I have, after some consideration, followed the example of Mr. H.
Murray, in his edition of _Marco Polo_, in collecting together in a
separate chapter a number of additional particulars concerning the Great
City, which are only found in Ramusio. Such of these as could be
interpolated in the text of the older form of the narrative have been
introduced between brackets in the last chapter. Here I bring together
those particulars which could not be so interpolated without taking
liberties with one or both texts.

The picture in Ramusio, taken as a whole, is so much more brilliant,
interesting, and complete than in the older texts, that I thought of
substituting it entirely for the other. But so much doubt and difficulty
hangs over _some_ passages of the Ramusian version that I could not
satisfy myself of the propriety of this, though I feel that the
dismemberment inflicted on that version is also objectionable.

NOTE 2. - The tides in the Hang-chau estuary are now so furious, entering
in the form of a bore, and running sometimes, by Admiral Collinson's
measurement, 11-1/2 knots, that it has been necessary to close by weirs
the communication which formerly existed between the River Tsien-tang on
the one side and the Lake Si-hu and internal waters of the district on the
other. Thus all cargoes are passed through the small city canal in barges,
and are subject to transhipment at the river-bank, and at the great canal
terminus outside the north gate, respectively. Mr. Kingsmill, to whose
notices I am indebted for part of this information, is, however, mistaken
in supposing that in Polo's time the tide stopped some 20 miles below the
city. We have seen (note 6, ch. lxv. supra) that the tide in the river
before Kinsay was the object which first attracted the attention of Bayan,
after his triumphant entrance into the city. The tides reach Fuyang, 20
miles higher. (_N. and Q., China and Japan_, vol. I. p. 53; _Mid. Kingd._
I. 95, 106; _J.N.Ch.Br.R.A.S._, December, 1865, p. 6; _Milne_, p. 295;
_Note_ by _Mr. Moule_).

[Miss E. Scidmore writes (_China_, p. 294): "There are only three wonders
of the world in China - The Demons at Tungchow, the Thunder at Lungchow,
and the Great Tide at Hangchow, the last, the greatest of all, and a
living wonder to this day of 'the open door,' while its rivals are lost in
myth and oblivion.... The Great Bore charges up the narrowing river at a
speed of ten and thirteen miles an hour, with a roar that can be heard for
an hour before it arrives." - H.C.]

NOTE 3. - For satisfactory elucidation as to what is or may have been
authentic in these statements, we shall have to wait for a correct survey
of Hang-chau and its neighbourhood. We have already seen strong reason to
suppose that _miles_ have been substituted for _li_ in the circuits
assigned both to the city and to the lake, and we are yet more strongly
impressed with the conviction that the same substitution has been made
here in regard to the canal on the east of the city, as well as the
streets and market-places spoken of in the next paragraph.

Chinese plans of Hang-chau do show a large canal encircling the city on
the east and north, i.e., on the sides away from the lake. In some of
them this is represented like a ditch to the rampart, but in others it is
more detached. And the position of the main street, with its parallel
canal, does answer fairly to the account in the next paragraph, setting
aside the extravagant dimensions.

The existence of the squares or market-places is alluded to by Wassáf in a
passage that we shall quote below; and the _Masálak-al-Absár_ speaks of
the main street running from end to end of the city.

On this Mr. Moule says: "I have found no certain account of market-squares,
though the _Fang_,[2] of which a few still exist, and a very large number
are laid down in the Sung Map, mainly grouped along the chief street, may
perhaps represent them.... The names of some of these (_Fang_) and of the
_Sze_ or markets still remain."

Mr. Wylie sent Sir Henry Yule a tracing of the figures mentioned in the
footnote; it is worth while to append them, at least in _diagram_.

No 1. No 2. No 3.
++ ++ ++
| - - - - - -| | - - - - - -| | - - -| - - - | - - - |
| | | | | | | a | |
+| | |+ +| |+ +| - - -+ - - - + - - - |+
+| - - -+ - - -|+ +| - - - - - -|+ +| | | |+
| | | | | | | b | |
| | | | | +| - - -+ - - - + - - - |+
| - - - - - -| | - - - - - -| +| | | |+
++ | | c | |
| - - -| - - - | - - - |
++ ++

No. 1. Plan of a _Fang_ or Square.

No. 2. Plan of a _Fang_ or Square in the South of the Imperial City
of Si-ngan fu.

No. 3. Arrangement of Two-Fang Square, with four streets and 8 gates.
a. The Market place.
b. The Official Establishment.
c. Office for regulating Weights.

Compare Polo's statement that in each of the squares at Kinsay, where the
markets were held, there were two great Palaces facing one another, in
which were established the officers who decided differences between
merchants, etc.

The double lines represent streets, and the ++ are gates.

NOTE 4. - There is no mention of _pork_, the characteristic animal food of
China, and the only one specified by Friar Odoric in his account of the
same city. Probably Mark may have got a little _Saracenized_ among the
Mahomedans at the Kaan's Court, and doubted if 'twere good manners to
mention it. It is perhaps a relic of the same feeling, gendered by Saracen
rule, that in Sicily pigs are called _i neri_.

"The larger game, red-deer and fallow-deer, is now never seen for sale.
Hog-deer, wild-swine, pheasants, water-fowl, and every description of
'vermin' and small birds, are exposed for sale, not now in markets, but at
the retail wine shops. Wild-cats, racoons, otters, badgers, kites, owls,
etc., etc., festoon the shop fronts along with game." (_Moule_.)

NOTE 5. - Van Braam, in passing through Shan-tung Province, speaks of very
large pears. "The colour is a beautiful golden yellow. Before it is pared
the pear is somewhat hard, but in eating it the juice flows, the pulp
melts, and the taste is pleasant enough." Williams says these Shan-tung
pears are largely exported, but he is not so complimentary to them as
Polo: "The pears are large and juicy, sometimes weighing 8 or 10 pounds,
but remarkably tasteless and coarse." (_V. Braam_, II. 33-34; _Mid.
Kingd._, I. 78 and II. 44). In the beginning of 1867 I saw pears in Covent
Garden Market which I should guess to have weighed 7 or 8 lbs. each. They
were priced at 18 guineas a dozen!

["Large pears are nowadays produced in Shan-tung and Manchuria, but they
are rather tasteless and coarse. I am inclined to suppose that Polo's
large pears were Chinese quinces, _Cydonia chinensis_, Thouin, this fruit
being of enormous size, sometimes one foot long, and very fragrant. The
Chinese use it for sweet-meats." (_Bretschneider, Hist. of Bot. Disc._ I.
p. 2.) - H.C.]

As regards the "yellow and white" peaches, Marsden supposes the former to
be apricots. Two kinds of peach, correctly so described, are indeed common
in Sicily, where I write; - and both are, in their raw state, equally good
food for _i neri_! But I see Mr. Moule also identifies the yellow peach
with "the _hwang-mei_ or clingstone apricot," as he knows no yellow peach
in China.

NOTE 6. - "_E non veggono mai l'ora che di nuovo possano ritornarvi;_" a
curious Italian idiom. (See _Vocab. It. Univ._ sub. v. "_vedere_".)

NOTE 7. - It would seem that the habits of the Chinese in reference to the
use of pepper and such spices have changed. Besides this passage, implying
that their consumption of pepper was large, Marco tells us below (ch.
lxxxii.) that for one shipload of pepper carried to Alexandria for the
consumption of Christendom, a hundred went to Zayton in Manzi. At the
present day, according to Williams, the Chinese use little spice; pepper
chiefly as a febrifuge in the shape of _pepper-tea_, and that even less
than they did some years ago. (See p. 239, infra, and _Mid. Kingd._, II.
46, 408.) On this, however, Mr. Moule observes: "Pepper is not so
completely relegated to the doctors. A month or two ago, passing a
portable cookshop in the city, I heard a girl-purchaser cry to the cook,
'Be sure you put in _pepper and leeks!_'"

NOTE 8. - Marsden, after referring to the ingenious frauds commonly related
of Chinese traders, observes: "In the long continued intercourse that has
subsisted between the agents of the European companies and the more
eminent of the Chinese merchants ... complaints on the ground of
commercial unfairness have been extremely rare, and on the contrary, their
transactions have been marked with the most perfect good faith and mutual
confidence." Mr. Consul Medhurst bears similar strong testimony to the
upright dealings of Chinese merchants. His remark that, as a rule, he has
found that the Chinese deteriorate by intimacy with foreigners is worthy
of notice;[3] it is a remark capable of application wherever the East and
West come into habitual contact. Favourable opinions among the nations on
their frontiers of Chinese dealing, as expressed to Wood and Burnes in
Turkestan, and to Macleod and Richardson in Laos, have been quoted by me
elsewhere in reference to the old classical reputation of the Seres for
integrity. Indeed, Marco's whole account of the people here might pass for
an expanded paraphrase of the Latin commonplaces regarding the Seres. Mr.
Milne, a missionary for many years in China, stands up manfully against
the wholesale disparagement or Chinese character (p. 401).

NOTE 9. - Semedo and Martini, in the 17th century, give a very similar
account of the Lake Si-hu, the parties of pleasure frequenting it, and
their gay barges. (_Semedo_, pp. 20-21; _Mart._ p. 9.) But here is a
Chinese picture of the very thing described by Marco, under the Sung
Dynasty: "When Yaou Shunming was Prefect of Hangchow, there was an old
woman, who said she was formerly a singing-girl, and in the service of
Tung-p'o Seen-sheng.[4] She related that her master, whenever he found a
leisure day in spring, would invite friends to take their pleasure on the
lake. They used to take an early meal on some agreeable spot, and, the
repast over, a chief was chosen for the company of each barge, who called
a number of dancing-girls to follow them to any place they chose. As the
day waned a gong sounded to assemble all once more at 'Lake Prospect
Chambers,' or at the 'Bamboo Pavilion,' or some place of the kind, where
they amused themselves to the top of their bent, and then, at the first or
second drum, before the evening market dispersed, returned home by
candle-light. In the city, gentlemen and ladies assembled in crowds, lining
the way to see the return of the thousand Knights. It must have been a
brave spectacle of that time." (_Moule_, from the _Si-hu-Chi_, or
"Topography of the West Lake.") It is evident, from what Mr. Moule says,
that this book abounds in interesting illustration of these two chapters of
Polo. Barges with paddle-wheels are alluded to.

NOTE 10. - Public carriages are still used in the great cities of the
north, such as Peking. Possibly this is a revival. At one time carriages
appear to have been much more general in China than they were afterwards,
or are now. Semedo says they were abandoned in China just about the time
that they were adopted in Europe, viz. in the 16th century. And this
disuse seems to have been either cause or effect of the neglect of the
roads, of which so high an account is given in old times. (_Semedo; N. and
Q. Ch. and Jap._ I. 94.)

Deguignes describes the public carriages of Peking, as "shaped like a
palankin, but of a longer form, with a rounded top, lined outside and in
with coarse blue cloth, and provided with black cushions" (I. 372). This
corresponds with our author's description, and with a drawing by Alexander
among his published sketches. The present Peking cab is evidently the same
vehicle, but smaller.

NOTE 11. - The character of the King of Manzi here given corresponds to
that which the Chinese histories assign to the Emperor Tu-Tsong, in whose
time Kúblái commenced his enterprise against Southern China, but who died
two years before the fall of the capital. He is described as given up to
wine and women, and indifferent to all public business, which he committed
to unworthy ministers. The following words, quoted by Mr. Moule from the
_Hang-Chau Fu-Chi_, are like an echo of Marco's: "In those days the
dynasty was holding on to a mere corner of the realm, hardly able to
defend even that; and nevertheless all, high and low, devoted themselves
to dress and ornament, to music and dancing on the lake and amongst the
hills, with no idea of sympathy for the country." A garden called
Tseu-king ("of many prospects") near the Tsing-po Gate, and a monastery
west of the lake, near the Lingin, are mentioned as pleasure haunts of the
Sung Kings.

NOTE 12. - The statement that the palace of Kingszé was occupied by the
Great Kaan's lieutenant seems to be inconsistent with the notice in De
Mailla that Kúblái made it over to the Buddhist priests. Perhaps _Kúblái's_
name is a mistake; for one of Mr. Moule's books (_Jin-ho-hien-chi_) says
that under _the last_ Mongol Emperor five convents were built on the area
of the palace.

Mr. H. Murray argues, from this closing passage especially, that Marco
never could have been the author of the Ramusian interpolations; but with
this I cannot agree. Did this passage stand alone we might doubt if it
were Marco's; but the interpolations must be considered as a whole. Many
of them bear to my mind clear evidence of being his own, and I do not see
that the present one _may_ not be his. The picture conveyed of the ruined
walls and half-obliterated buildings does, it is true, give the impression
of a long interval between their abandonment and the traveller's visit,
whilst the whole interval between the capture of the city and Polo's
departure from China was not more than fifteen or sixteen years. But this
is too vague a basis for theorising.

Mr. Moule has ascertained by maps of the Sung period, and by a variety of
notices in the Topographies, that the palace lay to the south and
south-east of the present city, and included a large part of the fine hills
called _Fung-hwang Shan_ or Phoenix Mount,[5] and other names, whilst its
southern gate opened near the Ts'ien-T'ang River. Its north gate is
supposed to have been the Fung Shan Gate of the present city, and the chief
street thus formed the avenue to the palace.

By the kindness of Messrs. Moule and Wylie, I am able to give a copy of
the Sung Map of the Palace (for origin of which see list of
illustrations). I should note that the orientation is different from that
of the map of the city already given. This map elucidates Polo's account
of the palace in a highly interesting manner.

[Father H. Havret has given in p. 21 of _Variétés Sinologiques_, No. 19, a
complete study of the inscription of a _chwang_, nearly similar to the one
given here, which is erected near Ch'êng-tu. - H.C.]

Before quitting KINSAY, the description of which forms the most striking
feature in Polo's account of China, it is worth while to quote other
notices from authors of nearly the same age. However exaggerated some of
these may be, there can be little doubt that it was the greatest city then
existing in the world.

[Illustration: Stone _Chwang_, or Umbrella Column, on site of "Brahma's
Temple," Hang-chau.]

[Illustration: South Part of KING-SZÉ, with the SUNG PALACE, from a
Chinese reprint of a Plan dated circa A.D. 1270]

_Friar Odoric_ (in China about 1324-1327): - "Departing thence I came unto
the city of CANSAY, a name which signifieth the 'City of Heaven.' And
'tis the greatest city in the whole world, so great indeed that I should
scarcely venture to tell of it, but that I have met at Venice people in
plenty who have been there. It is a good hundred miles in compass, and
there is not in it a span of ground which is not well peopled. And many a
tenement is there which shall have 10 or 12 households comprised in it.
And there be also great suburbs which contain a greater population than
even the city itself.... This city is situated upon lagoons of standing
water, with canals like the city of Venice. And it hath more than 12,000
bridges, on each of which are stationed guards, guarding the city on
behalf of the Great Kaan. And at the side of this city there flows a river
near which it is built, like Ferrara by the Po, for it is longer than it
is broad," and so on, relating how his host took him to see a great
monastery of the idolaters, where there was a garden full of grottoes, and
therein many animals of divers kinds, which they believed to be inhabited
by the souls of gentlemen. "But if any one should desire to tell all the
vastness and great marvels of this city, a good quire of stationery would
not hold the matter, I trow. For 'tis the greatest and noblest city, and
the finest for merchandize that the whole world containeth." (_Cathay_,
113 seqq.)

_The Archbishop of Soltania_ (circa 1330): - "And so vast is the number of
people that the soldiers alone who are posted to keep ward in the city of
Cambalec are 40,000 men by sure tale. And in the city of CASSAY there be
yet more, for its people is greater in number, seeing that it is a city of
very great trade. And to this city all the traders of the country come to
trade; and greatly it aboundeth in all manner of merchandize." (Ib.
244-245.)

_John Marignolli_ (in China 1342-1347): - "Now Manzi is a country which has
countless cities and nations included in it, past all belief to one who
has not seen them.... And among the rest is that most famous city of
CAMPSAY, the finest, the biggest, the richest, the most populous, and
altogether the most marvellous city, the city of the greatest wealth and
luxury, of the most splendid buildings (especially idol-temples, in some
of which there are 1000 and 2000 monks dwelling together), that exists now
upon the face of the earth, or mayhap that ever did exist." (Ib. p.
354.) He also speaks, like Odoric, of the "cloister at Campsay, in that
most famous monastery where they keep so many monstrous animals, which
they believe to be the souls of the departed" (384). Perhaps this
monastery may yet be identified. Odoric calls it _Thebe_. [See _A.
Vissière, Bul. Soc. Géog. Com._, 1901, pp. 112-113. - H.C.]

Turning now to Asiatic writers, we begin with _Wassáf_ (A.D. 1300): -

"KHANZAI is the greatest city of the cities of Chín,

"'_Stretching like Paradise through the breadth of Heaven._'

"Its shape is oblong, and the measurement of its perimeter is about 24
parasangs. Its streets are paved with burnt brick and with stone. The
public edifices and the houses are built of wood, and adorned with a
profusion of paintings of exquisite elegance. Between one end of the city
and the other there are three _Yams_ (post-stations) established. The
length of the chief streets is three parasangs, and the city contains 64
quadrangles corresponding to one another in structure, and with parallel
ranges of columns. The salt excise brings in daily 700 _balish_ in
paper-money. The number of craftsmen is so great that 32,000 are employed
at the dyer's art alone; from that fact you may estimate the rest. There
are in the city 70 _tomans_ of soldiers and 70 _tomans_ of _rayats_, whose
number is registered in the books of the Dewán. There are 700 churches
(_Kalísíá_) resembling fortresses, and every one of them overflowing with
presbyters without faith, and monks without religion, besides other
officials, wardens, servants of the idols, and this, that, and the other,
to tell the names of which would surpass number and space. All these are
exempt from taxes of every kind. Four _tomans_ of the garrison constitute
the night patrol.... Amid the city there are 360 bridges erected over
canals ample as the Tigris, which are ramifications of the great river of
Chín; and different kinds of vessels and ferry-boats, adapted to every
class, ply upon the waters in such numbers as to pass all powers of
enumeration.... The concourse of all kinds of foreigners from the four
quarters of the world, such as the calls of trade and travel bring together
in a kingdom like this, may easily be conceived." (_Revised on Hammer's
Translation_, pp. 42-43.)

The Persian work _Nuzhát-al-Kulúb_: - "KHINZAI is the capital of the
country of Máchín. If one may believe what some travellers say, there
exists no greater city on the face of the earth; but anyhow, all agree
that it is the greatest in all the countries in the East. Inside the place
is a lake which has a circuit of six parasangs, and all round which houses
are built.... The population is so numerous that the watchmen are some
10,000 in number." (_Quat. Rash._ p. lxxxviii.)

The Arabic work _Masálak-al-Absár_: - "Two routes lead from Khanbalik to
KHINSÁ, one by land, the other by water; and either way takes 40 days. The
city of Khinsá extends a whole day's journey in length and half a day's
journey in breadth. In the middle of it is a street which runs right from
one end to the other. The streets and squares are all paved; the houses
are five-storied (?), and are built with planks nailed together," etc.
(Ibid.)

_Ibn Batuta_: - "We arrived at the city of KHANSÁ.... This city is the
greatest I have ever seen on the surface of the earth. It is three days'
journey in length, so that a traveller passing through the city has to
make his marches and his halts!.. It is subdivided into six towns, each
of which has a separate enclosure, while one great wall surrounds the
whole," etc. (_Cathay_, p. 496 seqq.)

Let us conclude with a writer of a later age, the worthy Jesuit Martin
Martini, the author of the admirable _Atlas Sinensis_, one whose
honourable zeal to maintain Polo's veracity, of which he was one of the
first intelligent advocates, is apt, it must be confessed, a little to
colour his own spectacles: - "That the cosmographers of Europe may no
longer make such ridiculous errors as to the QUINSAI of Marco Polo, I will
here give you the very place. [He then explains the name.] ... And to come
to the point; this is the very city that hath those bridges so lofty and
so numberless, both within the walls and in the suburbs; nor will they



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