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Titsing; and these are in complete accordance with the Chinese histories
as given by Gaubil, De Mailla, and in Pauthier's extracts, so far as these
three latter enter into particulars. But it seems clear from the
comparison that the Japanese chronicler had the Chinese Annals in his
hands.

In 1268, 1269, 1270, and 1271, Kúblái's efforts were repeated to little
purpose, and, provoked at this, in 1274, he sent a fleet of 300 vessels
with 15,000 men against Japan. This was defeated near the Island of
Tsushima with heavy loss.

Nevertheless Kúblái seems in the following years to have renewed his
attempts at negotiation. The Japanese patience was exhausted, and, in
1280, they put one of his ambassadors to death.

"As soon as the Moko (Mongols) heard of this, they assembled a
considerable army to conquer Japan. When informed of their preparations,
the Dairi sent ambassadors to Ize and other temples to invoke the gods.
Fosiono Toki Mune, who resided at Kama Kura, ordered troops to assemble at
Tsukuzi (_Tsikouzen_ of Alcock's Map), and sent ... numerous detachments
to Miyako to guard the Dairi and the Togou (Heir Apparent) against all
danger.... In the first moon (of 1281) the Mongols named Asikan (Ngo
Tsa-han[1]), Fan-bunko (Fan Wen-hu), Kinto (Hintu), and Kosakio (Hung
Cha-khieu), Generals of their army, which consisted of 100,000 men, and was
embarked on numerous ships of war. Asikan fell ill on the passage, and this
made the second General (Fan Wen-hu) undecided as to his course.

"_7th Month_. The entire fleet arrived at the Island of Firando
(P'hing-hu), and passed thence to Goriosan (Ulungshan). The troops of
Tsukuzi were under arms. _1st of 3rd Month_. A frightful storm arose; the
Mongol ships foundered or were sorely shattered. The General (Fan Wen-hu)
fled with the other Generals on the vessels that had least suffered; nobody
has ever heard what became of them. The army of 100,000 men, which had
landed below Goriosan, wandered about for three days without provisions;
and the soldiers began to plan the building of vessels in which they might
escape to China.

"_7th day_. The Japanese army invested and attacked them with great
vigour. The Mongols were totally defeated. 30,000 of them were made
prisoners and conducted to Fakata (the _Fokouoka_ of Alcock's Map, but
_Fakatta_ in Kaempfer's), and there put to death. Grace was extended to
only (three men), who were sent to China with the intelligence of the fate
of the army. The destruction of so numerous a fleet was considered the
most evident proof of the protection of the gods." (_Titsingh_, pp.
264-265.) At p. 259 of the same work Klaproth gives another account from
the Japanese Encyclopaedia; the difference is not material.

The Chinese Annals, in De Mailla, state that the Japanese spared 10,000 or
12,000 of the Southern Chinese, whom they retained as slaves. Gaubil says
that 30,000 Mongols were put to death, whilst 70,000 Coreans and Chinese
were made slaves.

Kúblái was loth to put up with this huge discomfiture, and in 1283 he made
preparations for another expedition; but the project excited strong
discontent; so strong that some Buddhist monks whom he sent before to
collect information, were thrown overboard by the Chinese sailors; and he
gave it up. (_De Mailla_, IX. 409; 418, 428; _Gaubil_, 195; _Deguignes_,
III. 177.)

[Illustration: Japanese in fight with Chinese. (After Siebold, from an
ancient Japanese drawing.)

"Or ensint avint ceste estoire de la desconfiture de les gens dou Grant
Kaan."]

The Abacan of Polo is probably the Asikan of the Japanese, whom Gaubil
calls _Argan_. Vonsainchin is _perhaps Fan_ Wen-hu with the Chinese title
of _Tsiang-Kiun_ or General (elsewhere represented in Polo by _Sangon_),
- FAN TSIANG-KIUN.

We see that, as usual, whilst Marco's account in some of the main features
concurs with that of the histories, he gives a good many additional
particulars, some of which, such as the ill-will between the Generals, are
no doubt genuine. But of the story of the capture of the Japanese capital
by the shipwrecked army we know not what to make: we can't accept it
certainly.

[The _Korea Review_ publishes a _History of Korea_ based upon Korean and
Chinese sources, from which we gather some interesting facts regarding the
relations of China, Korea, and Japan at the time of Kúblái: "In 1265, the
seed was sown that led to the attempted invasion of Japan by the Mongols.
A Koryu citizen, Cho I., found his way to Peking, and there, having gained
the ear of the emperor, told him that the Mongol powers ought to secure
the vassalage of Japan. The emperor listened favourably and determined to
make advances in that direction. He therefore appointed Heuk Chuk and Eun
Hong as envoys to Japan, and ordered them to go by way of Koryu and take
with them to Japan a Koryu envoy as well. Arriving in Koryu they delivered
this message to the king, and two officials, Son Kun-bi and Kim Ch'an,
were appointed to accompany them to Japan. They proceeded by the way of
Koje Harbor in Kyung-sang Province, but were driven back by a fierce
storm, and the king sent the Mongol envoys back to Peking. The Emperor was
ill satisfied with the outcome of the adventure, and sent Heuk Chuk with a
letter to the king, ordering him to forward the Mongol envoy to Japan. The
message which he was to deliver to the ruler of Japan said, 'The Mongol
power is kindly disposed towards you and desires to open friendly
intercourse with you. She does not desire your submission, but if you
accept her patronage, the great Mongol empire will cover the earth.' The
king forwarded the message with the envoys to Japan, and informed the
emperor of the fact.... The Mongol and Koryu envoys, upon reaching the
Japanese capital, were treated with marked disrespect.... They remained
five months, ... and at last they were dismissed without receiving any
answer either to the emperor or to the king." (II. pp. 37, 38.)

Such was the beginning of the difficulties with Japan; this is the end of
them: "The following year, 1283, changed the emperor's purpose. He had
time to hear the whole story of the sufferings of his army in the last
invasion; the impossibility of squeezing anything more out of Koryu, and
the delicate condition of home affairs, united in causing him to give up
the project of conquering Japan, and he countermanded the order for the
building of boats and the storing of grain." (II. p. 82.)

Japan was then, for more than a century (A.D. 1205-1333), governed really
in the name of the descendants of Yoritomo, who proved unworthy of their
great ancestor "by the so-called 'Regents' of the Hojo family, while their
liege lords, the Shoguns, though keeping a nominal court at Kamakura, were
for all that period little better than empty names. So completely were the
Hojos masters of the whole country, that they actually had their deputy
governors at Kyoto and in Kyushu in the south-west, and thought nothing of
banishing Mikados to distant islands. Their rule was made memorable by the
repulse of the Mongol fleet sent by Kúblái Khan with the purpose of adding
Japan to his gigantic dominions. This was at the end of the 13th century,
since which time Japan has never been attacked from without." (_B. H.
Chamberlain_, _Things Japanese_, 3rd ed., 1898, pp. 208-209.)

The sovereigns (_Mikado_, _Tenno_) of Japan during this period were:
_Kameyama_-Tenno (1260; abdicated 1274; repulse of the Mongols);
_Go-Uda_-Tenno (1275; abdicated 1287); _Fushimi_-Tenno (1288; abdicated
1298); and _Go-Fushimi_ Tenno. The _shikken_ (prime ministers) were Hojo
_Tokiyori_ (1246); Hojo _Tokimune_ (1261); Hojo _Sadatoki_ (1284). In 1266
Prince _Kore-yasu_ and in 1289 _Hisa-akira_, were appointed _shogun_.
- H.C.]

NOTE 2. - _Ram._ says he was sent to a certain island called Zorza
(_Chorcha?_), where men who have failed in duty are put to death in this
manner: They wrap the arms of the victim in the hide of a newly flayed
buffalo, and sew it tight. As this dries it compresses him so terribly
that he cannot move, and so, finding no help, his life ends in misery. The
same kind of torture is reported of different countries in the East:
e.g. see _Makrizi_, Pt. III. p. 108, and Pottinger, as quoted by Marsden
_in loco_. It also appears among the tortures of a Buddhist hell as
represented in a temple at Canton. (_Oliphant's Narrative_, I. 168.)

NOTE 3. - Like devices to procure invulnerability are common in the
Indo-Chinese countries. The Burmese sometimes insert pellets of gold under
the skin with this view. At a meeting of the Asiatic Society of Bengal in
1868, gold and silver coins were shown, which had been extracted from under
the skin of a Burmese convict who had been executed at the Andaman Islands.
Friar Odoric speaks of the practice in one of the Indian Islands
(apparently Borneo); and the stones possessing such virtue were, according
to him, found in the bamboo, presumably the siliceous concretions called
_Tabashir_. Conti also describes the practice in Java of inserting such
amulets under the skin. The Malays of Sumatra, too, have great faith in the
efficacy of certain "stones, which they pretend are extracted from
reptiles, birds, animals, etc., in preventing them from being wounded."
(See _Mission to Ava_, p. 208; _Cathay_, 94; _Conti_, p. 32; _Proc. As.
Soc. Beng._ 1868, p. 116; _Andarson's Mission to Sumatra_, p. 323.)


[1] These names in parentheses are the Chinese forms; the others, the
Japanese modes of reading them.




CHAPTER IV.

CONCERNING THE FASHION OF THE IDOLS.


Now you must know that the Idols of Cathay, and of Manzi, and of this
Island, are all of the same class. And in this Island as well as
elsewhere, there be some of the Idols that have the head of an ox, some
that have the head of a pig, some of a dog, some of a sheep, and some of
divers other kinds. And some of them have four heads, whilst some have
three, one growing out of either shoulder. There are also some that have
four hands, some ten, some a thousand! And they do put more faith in those
Idols that have a thousand hands than in any of the others.[NOTE 1] And
when any Christian asks them why they make their Idols in so many
different guises, and not all alike, they reply that just so their
forefathers were wont to have them made, and just so they will leave them
to their children, and these to the after generations. And so they will be
handed down for ever. And you must understand that the deeds ascribed to
these Idols are such a parcel of devilries as it is best not to tell. So
let us have done with the Idols, and speak of other things.

But I must tell you one thing still concerning that Island (and 'tis the
same with the other Indian Islands), that if the natives take prisoner an
enemy who cannot pay a ransom, he who hath the prisoner summons all his
friends and relations, and they put the prisoner to death, and then they
cook him and eat him, and they say there is no meat in the world so
good! - But now we _will_ have done with that Island and speak of
something else.

You must know the Sea in which lie the Islands of those parts is called
the SEA OF CHIN, which is as much as to say "The Sea over against Manzi."
For, in the language of those Isles, when they say _Chin_, 'tis Manzi
they mean. And I tell you with regard to that Eastern Sea of Chin,
according to what is said by the experienced pilots and mariners of those
parts, there be 7459 Islands in the waters frequented by the said
mariners; and that is how they know the fact, for their whole life is
spent in navigating that sea. And there is not one of those Islands but
produces valuable and odorous woods like the lignaloe, aye and better too;
and they produce also a great variety of spices. For example in those
Islands grows pepper as white as snow, as well as the black in great
quantities. In fact the riches of those Islands is something wonderful,
whether in gold or precious stones, or in all manner of spicery; but they
lie so far off from the main land that it is hard to get to them. And when
the ships of Zayton and Kinsay do voyage thither they make vast profits by
their venture.[NOTE 2]

It takes them a whole year for the voyage, going in winter and returning
in summer. For in that Sea there are but two winds that blow, the one that
carries them outward and the other that brings them homeward; and the one
of these winds blows all the winter, and the other all the summer. And you
must know these regions are so far from India that it takes a long time
also for the voyage thence.

Though that Sea is called the Sea of Chin, as I have told you, yet it is
part of the Ocean Sea all the same. But just as in these parts people talk
of the Sea of England and the Sea of Rochelle, so in those countries they
speak of the Sea of Chin and the Sea of India, and so on, though they all
are but parts of the Ocean.[NOTE 3]

Now let us have done with that region which is very inaccessible and out
of the way. Moreover, Messer Marco Polo never was there. And let me tell
you the Great Kaan has nothing to do with them, nor do they render him any
tribute or service.

So let us go back to Zayton and take up the order of our book from that
point.[NOTE 4]


NOTE 1. - "Several of the (Chinese) gods have horns on the forehead, or
wear animals' heads; some have three eyes.... Some are represented in the
Indian manner with a multiplicity of arms. We saw at Yang-cheu fu a
goddess with thirty arms." (_Deguignes_, I. 364-366.)

The reference to any particular form of idolatry here is vague. But in
Tibetan Buddhism, with which Marco was familiar, all these extravagances
are prominent, though repugnant to the more orthodox Buddhism of the
South.

When the Dalai Lama came to visit the Altun Khan, to secure the
reconversion of the Mongols in 1577, he appeared as a manifest embodiment
of the Bodhisatva Avalokiteçvara, with _four hands_, of which two were
always folded across the breast! The same Bodhisatva is sometimes
represented with eleven heads. Manjushri manifests himself in a golden
body with 1000 hands and 1000 _Pátras_ or vessels, in each of which were
1000 figures of Sakya visible, etc. (_Koeppen_, II. 137; _Vassilyev_,
200.)

NOTE 2. - Polo seems in this passage to be speaking of the more easterly
Islands of the Archipelago, such as the Philippines, the Moluccas, etc.,
but with vague ideas of their position.

NOTE 3. - In this passage alone Polo makes use of the now familiar name of
CHINA. "_Chin_" as he says, "in the language of those Isles means
_Manzi_." In fact, though the form _Chin_ is more correctly Persian, we do
get the exact form _China_ from "the language of those Isles," i.e. from
the _Malay_. _China_ is also used in Japanese.

What he says about the Ocean and the various names of its parts is nearly
a version of a passage in the geographical Poem of Dionysius, ending: -

[Greek:
Oútos Okeanòs peridédrome gaîan hápasan
Toîos eòn kaì toîa met' andrásin ounómath' élkon] (42-3).

So also Abulfeda: "This is the sea which flows from the Ocean Sea....
This sea takes the names of the countries it washes. Its eastern extremity
is called the Sea of Chin ... the part west of this is called the Sea of
India ... then comes the Sea of Fárs, the Sea of Berbera, and lastly the
Sea of Kolzum" (Red Sea).

NOTE 4. - The Ramusian here inserts a short chapter, shown by the awkward
way in which it comes in to be a very manifest interpolation, though
possibly still an interpolation by the Traveller's hand: -

"Leaving the port of Zayton you sail westward and something south-westward
for 1500 miles, passing a gulf called CHEINAN, having a length of two
months' sail towards the north. Along the whole of its south-east side it
borders on the province of Manzi, and on the other side with Anin and
Coloman, and many other provinces formerly spoken of. Within this Gulf
there are innumerable Islands, almost all well-peopled; and in these is
found a great quantity of gold-dust, which is collected from the sea where
the rivers discharge. There is copper also, and other things; and the
people drive a trade with each other in the things that are peculiar to
their respective Islands. They have also a traffic with the people of the
mainland, selling them gold and copper and other things; and purchasing in
turn what they stand in need of. In the greater part of these Islands
plenty of corn grows. This gulf is so great, and inhabited by so many
people, that it seems like a world in itself."

This passage is translated by Marsden with much forcing, so as to describe
the China Sea, embracing the Philippine Islands, etc.; but, as a matter
of fact, it seems clearly to indicate the writer's conception as of a
great gulf running up into the continent between Southern China and
Tong-king for a length equal to two months' journey.

The name of the gulf, Cheinan, i.e. _Heinan_, may either be that of the
Island so called, or, as I rather incline to suppose, _'An-nan_, i.e.
Tong-king. But even by Camoens, writing at Macao in 1559-1560, the Gulf of
Hainan is styled an unknown sea (though this perhaps is only appropriate to
the prophetic speaker): -

"Vês, corre a costa, que Champa se chama,
Cuja mata he do pao cheiroso ornada:
Vês, Cauchichina está de escura fama,
_E de Ainao vê a incognita enseada_" (X. 129).

And in Sir Robert Dudley's _Arcano del Mare_ (Firenze, 1647), we find a
great bottle-necked gulf, of some 5-1/2° in length, running up to the
north from Tong-king, very much as I have represented the Gulf of Cheinan
in the attempt to realise Polo's Own Geography. (See map in Introductory
Essay.)




CHAPTER V.

OF THE GREAT COUNTRY CALLED CHAMBA.


You must know that on leaving the port of Zayton you sail west-south-west
for 1500 miles, and then you come to a country called CHAMBA,[NOTE 1] a
very rich region, having a king of its own. The people are Idolaters and
pay a yearly tribute to the Great Kaan, which consists of elephants and
nothing but elephants. And I will tell you how they came to pay this
tribute.

It happened in the year of Christ 1278 that the Great Kaan sent a Baron of
his called, Sagatu with a great force of horse and foot against this King
of Chamba, and this Baron opened the war on a great scale against the King
and his country.

Now the King [whose name was Accambale] was a very aged man, nor had he
such a force as the Baron had. And when he saw what havoc the Baron was
making with his kingdom he was grieved to the heart. So he bade messengers
get ready and despatched them to the Great Kaan. And they said to the
Kaan: "Our Lord the King of Chamba salutes you as his liege-lord, and
would have you to know that he is stricken in years and long hath held his
realm in peace. And now he sends you word by us that he is willing to be
your liegeman, and will send you every year a tribute of as many elephants
as you please. And he prays you in all gentleness and humility that you
would send word to your Baron to desist from harrying his kingdom and to
quit his territories. These shall henceforth be at your absolute disposal,
and the King shall hold them of you."

When the Great Kaan had heard the King's ambassage he was moved with pity,
and sent word to that Baron of his to quit that kingdom with his army, and
to carry his arms to the conquest of some other country; and as soon as
this command reached them they obeyed it. Thus it was then that this King
became vassal of the Great Kaan, and paid him every year a tribute of 20
of the greatest and finest elephants that were to be found in the country.

But now we will leave that matter, and tell you other particulars about
the King of Chamba.

You must know that in that kingdom no woman is allowed to marry until the
King shall have seen her; if the woman pleases him then he takes her to
wife; if she does not, he gives her a dowry to get her a husband withal.
In the year of Christ 1285, Messer Marco Polo was in that country, and at
that time the King had, between sons and daughters, 326 children, of whom
at least 150 were men fit to carry arms.[NOTE 2]

There are very great numbers of elephants in this kingdom, and they have
lignaloes in great abundance. They have also extensive forests of the wood
called _Bonús_, which is jet-black, and of which chessmen and pen-cases are
made. But there is nought more to tell, so let us proceed.[NOTE 3]


NOTE 1. - +The name CHAMPA is of Indian origin, like the adjoining Kamboja
and many other names in Indo-China, and was probably taken from that of an
ancient Hindu city and state on the Ganges, near modern Bhágalpúr. Hiuen
Tsang, in the 7th century, makes mention of the Indo-Chinese state as
Mahachampa (_Pèl. Boudd_, III. 83.)

The title of Champa down to the 15th century seems to have been applied by
Western Asiatics to a kingdom which embraced the whole coast between
Tong-king and Kamboja, including all that is now called Cochin China
outside of Tong-king. It was termed by the Chinese _Chen-Ching_. In 1471
the King of Tong-king, Lê Thanh-tong, conquered the country, and the
genuine people of Champa were reduced to a small number occupying the
mountains of the province of Binh Thuan at the extreme south-east of the
Coch. Chinese territory. To this part of the coast the name Champa is often
applied in maps. (See _J.A._ sér. II. tom. xi. p. 31, and _J. des Savans_,
1822, p. 71.) The people of Champa in this restricted sense are said to
exhibit Malay affinities, and they profess Mahomedanism. ["The Mussulmans
of Binh-Thuan call themselves _Bani_ or _Orang Bani_, 'men mussulmans,'
probably from the Arabic _beni_ 'the sons,' to distinguish them from the
Chams _Djat_ 'of race,' which they name also _Kaphir_ or _Akaphir_, from
the Arabic word _kafer_ 'pagans.' These names are used in _Binh-Thuan_ to
make a distinction, but Banis and Kaphirs alike are all Chams.... In
Cambodia all Chams are Mussulmans." (_E. Aymonier, Les Tchames_, p. 26.)
The religion of the pagan Chams of Binh-Thuan is degenerate Brahmanism with
three chief gods, Po-Nagar, Po-Romé, and Po-Klong-Garaï. (Ibid., p.
35.) - H.C.] The books of their former religion they say (according to Dr.
Bastian) that they received from Ceylon, but they were converted to
Islamism by no less a person than 'Ali himself. The Tong-king people
received their Buddhism from China, and this tradition puts Champa as the
extreme flood-mark of that great tide of Buddhist proselytism, which went
forth from Ceylon to the Indo-Chinese regions in an early century of our
era, and which is generally connected with the name of Buddaghosha.

The prominent position of Champa on the route to China made its ports
places of call for many ages, and in the earliest record of the Arab
navigation to China we find the country noticed under the identical name
(allowing for the deficiencies of the Arabic Alphabet) of _Sanf_ or
_Chanf_. Indeed it is highly probable that the [Greek: Zába] or [Greek:
Zábai] of Ptolemy's itinerary of the sea-route to the _Sinae_ represents
this same name.

["It is true," Sir Henry Yule wrote since (1882), "that Champa, as known in
later days, lay to the east of the Mekong delta, whilst Zabai of the Greeks
lay to the west of that and of the [Greek: méga akrotaérion] - the Great
Cape, or C. Cambodia of our maps. Crawford (_Desc. Ind. Arch._ p. 80) seems
to say that the Malays include under the name _Champa_ the whole of what we
call Kamboja. This may possibly be a slip. But it is certain, as we shall
see presently, that the Arab _Sanf_ - which is unquestionably Champa - also
lay west of the Cape, i.e. within the Gulf of Siam. The fact is that the
Indo-Chinese kingdoms have gone through unceasing and enormous
vicissitudes, and in early days Champa must have been extensive and
powerful, for in the travels of Hiuen Tsang (about A.D. 629) it is called
_mahâ_-Champa. And my late friend Lieutenant Garnier, who gave great
attention to these questions, has deduced from such data as exist in
Chinese Annals and elsewhere, that the ancient kingdom which the Chinese
describe under the name of _Fu-nan_, as extending over the whole peninsula
east of the Gulf of Siam, was a kingdom of the _Tsiam_ or Champa race. The
locality of the ancient port of Zabai or Champa is probably to be sought on
the west coast of Kamboja, near the Campot, or the Kang-kao of our maps. On
this coast also was the _Komâr_ and _Kamârah_ of Ibn Batuta and other Arab
writers, the great source of aloes-wood, the country then of the _Khmer_ or
Kambojan People." (_Notes on the Oldest Records of the Sea-Route to China



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