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too young to understand the matter, a dead man is appointed as a tutor to
the male defunct, and some effigies are made to serve as the instructress
and maids to the female defunct. The dead tutor thus nominated is informed
of his appointment by a paper offered to him, on which are inscribed his
name and age. After the consummation of the marriage the new consorts
appear in dreams to their respective parents-in-law. Should this custom be
discarded, the unhappy defuncts might do mischief to their negligent
relatives.... On every occasion of these nuptials both families give some
presents to the match-maker ("Kwei-mei"), whose sole business is annually
to inspect the newly-deceased couples around his village, and to arrange
their weddings to earn his livelihood.'"

Mr. Kumagusu Minakata adds:

"The passage is very interesting, for, besides giving us a faithful
account of the particulars, which nowadays we fail to find elsewhere, it
bears testimony to the Tartar, and not Chinese, origin of this practice.
The author, Kang Yu-chi, describes himself to have visited his old home in
Northern China shortly after its subjugation by the Kin Tartars in 1126
A.D.; so there is no doubt that among many institutional novelties then
introduced to China by the northern invaders, Marriage of the Dead was so
striking that the author did not hesitate to describe it for the first

"According to a Persian writer, after whom Pétis de la Croix writes, this
custom was adopted by Jenghiz Kân as a means to preserve amity amongst his
subjects, it forming the subject of Article XIX. of his Yasa promulgated
in 1205 A.D. The same writer adds: 'This custom is still in use amongst
the Tartars at this day, but superstition has added more circumstances to
it: they throw the contract of marriage into the fire after having drawn
some figures on it to represent the persons pretended to be so marry'd,
and some forms of beasts; and are persuaded that all this is carried by
the smoke to their children, who thereupon marry in the other world'
(Pétis de la Croix, _Hist. of Genghizcan_, trans. by P. Aubin, Lond.,
1722, p. 86). As the Chinese author does not speak of the burning of
papers in this connection, whereas the Persian writer speaks definitely of
its having been added later, it seems that the marriage of the dead had
been originally a Tartar custom, with which the well-known Chinese
paper-burning was amalgamated subsequently between the reigns of Genghiz
and his grandson Kúblai - under the latter Marco witnessed the customs
already mingled, still, perhaps, mainly prevailing amongst the Tartar

LV., p. 266. Regarding the scale of blows from seven to 107, Prof. Pelliot
writes to me that these figures represent the theoretical number of tens
diminished as a favour made to the culprit by three units in the name of
Heaven, Earth and the Emperor.

LV., p. 268, n. 2. In the _Yuan Shi_, XX. 7, and other Chinese Texts of
the Mongol period, is to be found confirmation of the fact, "He is
slaughtered like a sheep," i.e. the belly cut open lengthwise.

LVI., p. 269. "The people there are called MESCRIPT; they are a very wild
race, and live by their cattle, the most of which are stags, and these
stags, I assure you, they used to ride upon."

B. Laufer, in the _Memoirs of the American Anthropological Association_,
Vol. IV., No. 2, 1917 (_The Reindeer and its Domestication_), p. 107, has
the following remarks: "Certainly this is the reindeer. Yule is inclined
to think that Marco embraces under this tribal name in question
characteristics belonging to tribes extending far beyond the Mekrit, and
which in fact are appropriate to the Tungus; and continues that
Rashid-eddin seems to describe the latter under the name of Uriangkut of
the Woods, a people dwelling beyond the frontier of Barguchin, and in
connection with whom he speaks of their reindeer obscurely, as well as of
their tents of birchbark, and their hunting on snowshoes. As W. Radloff
[_Die Jakutische Sprache, Mém. Ac. Sc. Pet._, 1908, pp. 54-56] has
endeavoured to show, the Wooland Uryangkit, in this form mentioned by
Rashid-eddin, should be looked upon as the forefathers of the present
Yakut. Rashid-eddin, further, speaks of other Uryangkit, who are genuine
Mongols, and live close together in the Territory Barguchin Tukum, where
the clans Khori, Bargut, and Tumat, are settled. This region is east of
Lake Baikal, which receives the river Barguchin flowing out of Lake Bargu
in an easterly direction. The tribal name Bargut (_-t_ being the
termination of the plural) is surely connected with the name of the said

LVII., p. 276.


"Marco Polo's Sinju certainly seems to be the site of Si-ning, but not on
the grounds suggested in the various notes. In 1099 the new city of Shen
Chou was created by the Sung or 'Manzi' Dynasty on the site of what had
been called Ts'ing-t'ang. Owing to this region having for many centuries
belonged to independent Hia or Tangut, very little exact information is
obtainable from any Chinese history; but I think it almost certain that
the great central city of Shen Chou was the modern Si-ning. Moreover,
there was a very good reason for the invention of this name, as this
_Shen_ was the first syllable of the ancient Shen-shen State of Lob Nor
and Koko Nor, which, after its conquest by China in 609, was turned into
the Shen-shen prefecture; in fact, the Sui Emperor was himself at Kam Chou
or 'Campichu' when this very step was taken." (E.H. PARKER, _Asiatic
Quart. Rev._, Jan., 1904, p. 144.)

LVIII., p. 282. _Alashan_ is not an abbreviation of Alade-Shan and has
nothing to do with the name of Eleuth, written in Mongol _Ögälät_.
_Nuntuh_ (_nuntük_) is the mediaeval Mongol form of the actual _nutuk_, an
encampment. (PELLIOT.)

LVIII., p. 283, n. 3.


Gurun = Kurun = Chinese K'u lun = Mongol Urga.

LVIII., p. 283, n. 3. The stuff _sa-ha-la_ (= _saghlat_) is to be found
often in the Chinese texts of the XIVth and XVth Centuries. (PELLIOT.)

LIX., pp. 284 seq.


King or Prince George of Marco Polo and Monte Corvino belonged to the
Öngüt tribe. He was killed in Mongolia in 1298, leaving an infant child
called Shu-ngan (Giòvanni) baptized by Monte Corvino. George was
transcribed Körgüz and Görgüz by the Persian historians. See PELLIOT,
_T'oung Pao_, 1914, pp. 632 seq. and _Cathay_, III., p. 15 n.

LIX., p. 286.


Prof. Pelliot (_Journ. As._, Mai-Juin, 1912, pp. 595-6) thinks that it
might be _Tien tö_, [Chinese], on the river So ling (Selenga).

LIX., p. 291.


In the Mongol Empire, Christians were known under the name of _tarsa_ and
especially under this of _ärkägün_, in Chinese _ye-li-k'o-wen; tarsa_, was
generally used by the Persian historians. Cf. PELLIOT, _T'oung Pao_, 1914,
p. 636.

LIX., p. 295, n. 6. Instead of _Ku-wei_, read _K'u-wai_. (PELLIOT.)

LXI., pp. 302, 310.

"The weather-conjuring proclivities of the Tartars are repeatedly
mentioned in Chinese history. The High Carts (early Ouigours) and Jou-jan
(masters of the Early Turks) were both given this way, the object being
sometimes to destroy their enemies. I drew attention to this in the
_Asiatic Quart. Rev._ for April, 1902 ('China and the Avars')." (E.H.
PARKER, _Asiatic Quart. Rev._, Jan., 1904, p. 140.)

LXI., p. 305, n. Harlez's inscription is a miserable scribble of the
facsimile from Dr. Bushell. (PELLIOT.)

LXI., p. 308, n. 5. The _Yuan Shi_, ch. 77, f° 7 _v._, says that: "Every
year, [the Emperor] resorts to Shang tu. On the 24th day of the 8th moon,
the sacrifice called 'libation of mare's milk' is celebrated." (PELLIOT.)

[1] The eight stages would be: - (1) Hasanábad, 21 miles; (2) Darband, 28
miles; (3) Chehel Pái, 23 miles; (4) Naiband, 39 miles; (5) Zenagán,
47 miles; (6) Duhuk, 25 miles; (7) Chah Khusháb, 36 miles; and (8)
Tun, 23 miles.

[2] _Genom Khorasan och Turkestan_, I., pp. 123 seq.



II., p. 334.


It is worthy of note that Nayan had given up Buddhism and become a
Christian as well as many of his subjects. Cf. PELLIOT 1914, pp. 635-6.

VII., pp. 352, 353.

Instead of _Sir-i-Sher_, read _Sar-i-Sher_. (PELLIOT.)


"Dr. Bushell's note describes the silver _p'ai_, or tablets (not then
called _p'ai tsz_) of the Cathayans, which were 200 (not 600) in number.
But long before the Cathayans used them, the T'ang Dynasty had done so for
exactly the same purpose. They were 5 inches by 1-1/2 inches, and marked
with the five words, 'order, running horses, silver _p'ai_,' and were
issued by the department known as the _mên-hia-shêng_. Thus, they were not
a Tartar, but a Chinese, invention. Of course, it is possible that the
Chinese must have had the idea suggested to them by the ancient wooden
orders or tallies of the Tartars." (E.H. PARKER, _As. Quart. Review_,
Jan., 1904, p. 146.)

Instead of "Publication No. 42" read only No. 42, which is the number of
the _pai tzu_. (PELLIOT.)

VIII., p. 358, n. 2.

_Kún kú = hon hu_ may be a transcription of _hwang heu_ during the Mongol
Period, according to Pelliot.

IX. p. 360.


"Marco Polo is correct in a way when he says Kúblái was the sixth Emperor,
for his father Tu li is counted as a _Divus_ (Jwei Tsung), though he never
reigned; just as his son Chin kin (Yü Tsung) is also so counted, and under
similar conditions. Chin kin was appointed to the _chung shu_ and
_shu-mih_ departments in 1263. He was entrusted with extensive powers in
1279, when he is described as 'heir apparent.' In 1284 Yün Nan,
Chagan-jang, etc., were placed under his direction. His death is recorded
in 1285. Another son, Numugan, was made Prince of the Peking region
(Pêh-p'ing) in 1266, and the next year a third son, Hukaji, was sent to
take charge of Ta-li, Chagan-jang, Zardandan, etc. In 1272 Kúblái's son,
Mangalai, was made Prince of An-si, with part of Shen Si as his appanage.
One more son, named Ai-ya-ch'ih, is mentioned in 1284, and in that year yet
another, Tu kan, was made Prince of Chên-nan, and sent on an expedition
against Ciampa. In 1285 Essen Temur, who had received a _chung-shu_ post in
1283, is spoken of as Prince of Yün Nan, and is stated to be engaged in
Kara-jang; in 1286 he is still there, and is styled 'son of the Emperor.' I
do not observe in the Annals that Hukaji ever bore the title of Prince of
Yün Nan, or, indeed, any princely title. In 1287 Ai-ya-ch'ih is mentioned
as being at Shên Chou (Mukden) in connection with Kúblái's 'personally
conducted' expedition against Nayen. In 1289 one more son, Géukju, was
patented Prince of Ning Yüan. In 1293 Kúblái's _third son_ Chinkin,
received a posthumous title, and Chinkin's son Temur was declared
heir-apparent to Kúblái.

"The above are the only sons of Kúblái whose names I have noticed in the
Annals. In the special table of Princes Numugan is styled Pêh-an (instead
of Pêh-p'ing) Prince. Aghrukji's name appears in the table (chap. 108, p.
107), but though he is styled Prince of Si-p'ing, he is not there stated
to be a son of Kúblái; nor in the note I have supplied touching Tibet is
he styled a _hwang-tsz_ or 'imperial son.' In the table Hukaji is
described as being in 1268 Prince of Yün Nan, a title 'inherited in 1280
by Essen Temur.' I cannot discover anything about the other alleged sons
in Yule's note (Vol. I., p. 361). The Chinese count Kúblái's years as
eighty, he having died just at the beginning of 1294 (our February); this
would make him seventy-nine at the very outside, according to our mode of
reckoning, or even seventy-eight if he was born towards the end of a year,
which indeed he was (eighth moon). If a man is born on the last day of the
year he is two years old the very next day according to Chinese methods of
counting, which, I suppose, include the ten months which they consider are
spent in the womb." (E.H. PARKER, _As. Quart. Rev._, Jan., 1904, pp.

XI., p. 370, n. 13.

The character _King_ in _King-shan_ is not the one representing Court
[Chinese] but [Chinese]. - Read "Wan-_sui_-Shan" instead of _Wan-su-Shan_.

XII., p. 380.

_Keshikten_ has nothing to do with _Kalchi_. (PELLIOT.)

XVIII., p. 398.


Cf. Chapters on Hunting Dogs and Cheetas, being an extract from the
"_Kitab'u' l-Bazyarah_," a treatise on Falconry, by _Ibn Kustrajim_, an
Arab writer of the Tenth Century. By Lieut.-Colonel D.C. Phillott and Mr.
R.F. Azoo (_Journ. and Proc. Asiatic Soc. Bengal_, Jan., 1907, pp.

"The cheeta is the offspring of a lioness, by a leopard that coerces her,
and, for this reason, cheetas are sterile like mules and all other
hybrids. No animal of the same size is as weighty as the cheeta. It is the
most somnolent animal on earth. The best are those that are
'hollow-bellied,' roach backed, and have deep black spots on a dark tawny
ground, the spots on the back being close to each other; that have the eyes
bloodshot, small and narrow; the mouth 'deep and laughing'; broad
foreheads; thick necks; the black line from the eyes long; and the fangs
far apart from each other. The fully mature animal is more useful for
sporting purposes than the cub; and the females are better at hunting than
are the males, and such is the case with all beasts and birds of prey."

See Hippolyte Boussac, _Le Guépard dans l'Egypte ancienne_ (_La Nature_,
21st March, 1908, pp. 248-250).

XIX., p. 400 n. Instead of _Hoy tiao_, read _Hey tiao_ (_Hei tiao_).

XIX., p. 400. "These two are styled _Chinuchi_ (or _Cunichi_), which is as
much as to say, 'The Keepers of the Mastiff Dogs.'"

Dr. Laufer writes to me: "The word _chinuchi_ is a Mongol term derived
from Mongol _cinoa_ (pronounced _cino_ or _cono_ which means 'wolf,' with
the possessive suffix _-ci_, meaning accordingly a 'wolf-owner' or
'wolf-keeper).' One of the Tibetan designations for the mastiff is
_cang-k'i_ (written _spyang-k'yi_), which signifies literally 'wolf-dog.'
The Mongol term is probably framed on this Tibetan word. The other
explanations given by Yule (401-402) should be discarded."

Prof. Pelliot writes to me: "J'incline à croire que les _Cunichi_ sont à
lire _Cuiuci_ et répondent au _kouei-tch'e_ ou _kouei-yeou-tch'e_,
'censeurs,' des textes chinois; les formes chinoises sont transcrites du
mongol et se rattachent au verbe _güyü_, ou _güyi_, 'courir'; on peut
songer à restituer _güyükci_. Un _Ming-ngan_ (= _Minghan_), chef des
_kouei-tch'e_, vivait sous Kúblái et a sa biographie au ch. 135 du _Yuan
Che_; d'autre part, peut-être faut-il lire, par déplacement de deux points
diacritiques, _Bayan güyükci_ dans Rashid ed-Din, ed. BLOCHET, II., 501."

XX., p. 408, n. 6. _Cachar Modun_ must be the place called
_Ha-ch'a-mu-touen_ in the _Yuan Shi_, ch. 100, f°. 2 r. (PELLIOT.)

XXIV., pp. 423, 430. "Bark of Trees, made into something like Paper, to
pass for Money over all his Country."

Regarding Bretschneider's statement, p. 430, Dr. B. Laufer writes to me:
"This is a singular error of Bretschneider. Marco Polo is perfectly
correct: not only did the Chinese actually manufacture paper from the bark
of the mulberry tree (_Morus alba_), but also it was this paper which was
preferred for the making of paper-money. Bretschneider is certainly right
in saying that paper is made from the _Broussonetia_, but he is assuredly
wrong in the assertion that paper is not made in China from mulberry
trees. This fact he could have easily ascertained from S. Julien,[1] who
alludes to mulberry tree paper twice, first, as 'papier de racines et
d'écorce de mûrier,' and, second, in speaking of the bark paper from
_Broussonetia:_ 'On emploie aussi pour le même usage l'écorce d'_Hibiscus
Rosa sinensis_ et de mûrier; ce dernier papier sert encore à recueillir
les graines de vers à soie,' What is understood by the latter process may
be seen from Plate I. in Julien's earlier work on sericulture,[2] where
the paper from the bark of the mulberry tree is likewise mentioned.

"The _Chi p'u_, a treatise on paper, written by Su I-kien toward the close
of the tenth century, enumerates among the various sorts of paper
manufactured during his lifetime paper from the bark of the mulberry tree
(_sang p'i_) made by the people of the north.[3]

"Chinese paper-money of mulberry bark was known in the Islamic World in the
beginning of the fourteenth century; that is, during the Mongol period.
Accordingly it must have been manufactured in China during the Yuan
Dynasty. Ahmed Shibab Eddin, who died in Cairo in 1338 at the age of 93,
and left an important geographical work in thirty volumes, containing
interesting information on China gathered from the lips of eye-witnesses,
makes the following comment on paper-money, in the translation of Ch.

"'On emploie dans le Khita, en guise de monnaie, des morceaux d'un papier
de forme allongée fabriqué avec des filaments de mûriers sur lesquels est
imprimé le nom de l'empereur. Lorsqu'un de ces papiers est usé, on le
porte aux officiers du prince et, moyennant une perte minime, on reçoit un
autre billet en échange, ainsi que cela a lieu dans nos hotels des
monnaies, pour les matières d'or et d'argent que l'on y porte pour être
converties en pièces monnayées.'

"And in another passage: 'La monnaie des Chinois est faite de billets
fabriqués avec l'écorce du mûrier. Il y en a de grands et de petits....
Ou les fabrique avec des filaments tendres du mûrier et, après y avoir
opposé un sceau au nom de l'empereur, on les met en circulation.'[5]

"The banknotes of the Ming Dynasty were likewise made of mulberry pulp, in
rectangular sheets one foot long and six inches wide, the material being
of a greenish colour, as stated in the Annals of the Dynasty.[6] It is
clear that the Ming Emperors, like many other institutions, adopted this
practice from their predecessors, the Mongols. Klaproth[7] is wrong in
saying that the assignats of the Sung, Kin, and Mongols were all made from
the bark of the tree _cu (Broussonetia)_, and those of the Ming from all
sorts of plants.

"In the _Hui kiang chi_, an interesting description of Turkistan by two
Manchu officials, Surde and Fusambô, published in 1772,[8] the following
note headed 'Mohamedan Paper' occurs:

"'There are two sorts of Turkistan paper, black and white, made from
mulberry bark, cotton and silk refuse equally mixed, resulting in a
coarse, thick, strong, and tough material. It is cut into small rolls
fully a foot long, which are burnished by means of stones, and then are
fit for writing.'

"Sir Aurel Stein[9] reports that paper is still manufactured from mulberry
trees in Khotan. Also J. Wiesner,[10] the meritorious investigator of
ancient papers, has included the fibres of _Morus alba_ and _M. nigra_
among the material to which his researches extended.

"Mulberry-bark paper is ascribed to Bengal in the _Si yang ch'ao kung tien
lu_ by Wu Kiën-hwang, published in 1520.[11]

"As the mulberry tree is eagerly cultivated in Persia in connection with
the silk industry, it is possible also that the Persian paper in the
banknotes of the Mongols was a product of the mulberry.[12] At any rate,
good Marco Polo is cleared, and his veracity and exactness have been
established again."

XXIV., p. 427.


"L'or valait quatre fois son poids d'argent au commencement de la dynastie
Ming (1375), sept ou huit fois sous l'empereur Wan-li de la même dynastie
(1574), et dix fois à la fin de la dynastie (1635); plus de dix fois sous
K'ang hi (1662); plus de vingt fois sous le règne de K'ien long; dix-huit
fois au milieu du règne de Tao-koang (1840), quatorze fois au commencement
du règne de Hien-fong (1850); dix-huit fois en moyenne dans les années
1882-1883. En 1893, la valeur de l'or augmenta considérablement et égala
28 fois celle de l'argent; en 1894, 32 fois; au commencement de 1895, 33
fois; mais il baissa un peu et à la fin de l'année il valait seulement 30
fois plus." (Pierre HOANG, _La Propriété en Chine_, 1897, p. 43.)

XXVI., p. 432.


Morrison, _Dict._, Pt. II, Vol. I., p. 70, says: "Chin-seang, a Minister
of State, was so called under the Ming Dynasty." According to Mr. E.H.
Parker (_China Review_, XXIV., p. 101), _Ching Siang_ were abolished in

In the quotation from the _Masálak al Absár_ instead of _Landjun_ (Lang
Chang), read _Landjun_ (_Lang Chung_).

XXXIII., pp. 447-8. "You must know, too, that the Tartars reckon their
years by twelves; the sign of the first year being the Lion, of the second
the Ox, of the third the Dragon, of the fourth the Dog, and so forth up to
the twelfth; so that when one is asked the year of his birth he answers
that it was in the year of the Lion (let us say), on such a day or night,
at such an hour, and such a moment. And the father of a child always takes
care to write these particulars down in a book. When the twelve yearly
symbols have been gone through, then they come back to the first, and go
through with them again in the same succession."

"Ce témoignage, writes Chavannes (_T'oung Pao_, 1906, p. 59), n'est pas
d'une exactitude rigoureuse, puisque les animaux n'y sont pas nommés à
leur rang; en outre, le lion y est substitué au tigre de l'énumération
chinoise; mais cette dernière difference provient sans doute de ce que
Marco Polo connaissait le cycle avec les noms mongols des animaux; c'est
le léopard dout il a fait le lion. Quoiqu'il en soit, l'observation de
Marco Polo est juste dans son ensemble et d'innombrables exemples prouvent
que le cycle des douze animaux était habituel dans les pièces officielles
émanant des chancelleries impériales à l'époque mongole."

XXXIII., p. 448.


With regard to the knowledge of Persian, the only oriental language
probably known by Marco Polo, Pelliot remarks (_Journ. Asiat._, Mai-Juin,
1912, p. 592 n.): "C'est l'idée de Yule (cf. exemple I., 448), et
je la crois tout à fait juste. On peut la fortifier d'autres indices. On
sait par exemple que Marco Polo substitue le lion au tigre dans le cycle
des douze animaux. M. Chavannes (_T'oung pao_, II., VII., 59) suppose que
'cette dernière différence provient sans doute de ce que Marco Polo
connaissait le cycle avec les noms mongols des animaux: c'est le léopard
dont il a fait le lion.' Mais on ne voit pas pourquoi il aurait rendu par
'lion' le turco-mongol _bars_, qui signifie seulement 'tigre.' Admettons
au contraire qu'il pense en persan: dans toute l'Asie centrale, le persan
[Arabic] _sir_ a les deux sens de lion et de tigre. De même, quand Marco
Polo appelle la Chine du sud Manzi, il est d'accord avec les Persans, par
exemple avec Rachid ed-din, pour employer l'expression usuelle dans la
langue chinoise de l'époque, c'est-à-dire Man-tseu; mais, au lieu de
Manzi, les Mongols avaient adopté un autres nom, Nangias, dont il n'y a
pas trace dans Marco Polo. On pourrait multiplier ces exemples."

XXXIII., p. 456, n. Instead of _Hui Heng_, read _Hiu Heng_.

[1] _Industries anciennes et modernes de l'Empire chinois_. Paris,
1869, pp. 145, 149.

[2] _Résumé des principaux Traités chinois sur la culture des mûriers et
l'éducation des vers à soie_, Paris, 1837, p. 98. According to the
notions of the Chinese, Julien remarks, everything made from hemp like
cord and weavings is banished from the establishments where silkworms
are reared, and our European paper would be very harmful to the
latter. There seems to be a sympathetic relation between the silkworm
feeding on the leaves of the mulberry and the mulberry paper on which
the cocoons of the females are placed.

[3] _Ko chi king yuan_, Ch. 37, p. 6.

[4] _Relations des Musulmans avec les Chinois (Centenaire de
l'Ecole des Langues Orientales vivante_, Paris, 1895, p. 17).

[5] Ibid., p. 20.

[6] _Ming Shi_, Ch. 81, p. 1. - The same text is found on a bill issued in
1375 reproduced and translated by W. Vissering (_On Chinese Currency_,
see plate at end of volume), the minister of finance being expressly
ordered to use the fibres of the mulberry tree in the composition of
these bills.

[7] _Mémoires relatifs à l'Asie_, Vol. I., p. 387.

[8] A. WYLIE, _Notes on Chinese Literature_, p. 64. The copy used by
me (in the John Crerar Library of Chicago) is an old manuscript
clearly written in 4 vols. and chapters, illustrated by nine
ink-sketches of types of Mohammedans and a map. The volumes are not

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