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reference to Kinsay in Marco Polo_.)

Mr. P. von Tanner, Commissioner of Customs at Hang chau, wrote in 1901 in
the _Decennial Reports, 1892-1901, of the Customs_, p. 4: "While
Hangchow owes its fame to the lake on the west, it certainly owes its
existence towards the south-west to the construction of the sea wall,
called by the Chinese by the appropriate name of bore wall. The erection
of this sea wall was commenced about the year A.D. 915, by Prince Ts'ien
Wu-su; it extends from Hang Chau to Chuan sha, near the opening of the
Hwang pu.... The present sea wall, in its length of 180 miles, was built.
The wall is a stupendous piece of work, and should take an equal share of
fame with the Grand Canal and the Great Wall of China, as its engineering
difficulties were certainly infinitely greater.... The fact that Marco Polo
does not mention it shows almost conclusively that he never visited Hang
Chau, but got his account from a Native poet. He must have taken it,
besides, without the proverbial grain of salt, and without eliminating the
over-numerous 'thousands' and 'myriads' prompted less by facts than by
patriotic enthusiasm and poetical licence."

LXXVI., p. 194 n.

BRIDGES OF KINSAY.

In the heart of Hang-chau, one of the bridges spanning the canal which
divides into two parts the walled city from north to south is called _Hwei
Hwei k'iao_ (Bridge of the Mohamedans) or _Hwei Hwei Sin k'iao_ (New
Bridge of the Mohamedans), while its literary name is _Tsi Shan k'iao_
(Bridge of Accumulated Wealth); it is situated between the Tsien k'iao on
the south and the _Fung lo k'iao_ on the north. Near the _Tsi Shan k'iao_
was a mosk, and near the _Tsien k'iao_, at the time of the Yuen, there
existed Eight Pavilions (_Pa kien lew_) inhabited by wealthy Mussulmans.
Mohamedans from Arabia and Turkestan were sent by the Yuen to Hang-chau;
they had prominent noses, did not eat pork, and were called _So mu chung_
(Coloured-eye race). VISSIÈRE, _Rev. du Monde Musulman_, March, 1913.

LXXVI., p. 199.

KINSAY, KHANFU.

Pelliot proposes to see in Khanfu a transcription of Kwang-fu, an
abridgment of Kwang chau fu, prefecture of Kwang chau (Canton). Cf. _Bul.
Ecole franç Ext. Orient_, Jan.-June, 1904, p. 215 n., but I cannot very
well accept this theory.

LXXX., pp. 225, 226. "They have also [in Fu Kien] a kind of fruit
resembling saffron, and which serves the purpose of saffron just as well."

Dr. Laufer writes to me: "Yule's identification with a species of
_Gardenia_ is all right, although this is not peculiar to Fu Kien. Another
explanation, however, is possible. In fact, the Chinese speak of a certain
variety of saffron peculiar to Fu Kien. The _Pen ts'ao kang mu shi i_ (Ch.
4, p. 14 b) contains the description of a 'native saffron' (_t'u hung hwa_,
in opposition to the 'Tibetan red flower' or genuine saffron) after the
Continued Gazetteer of Fu Kien, as follows: 'As regards the native saffron,
the largest specimens are seven or eight feet high. The leaves are like
those of the p'i-p'a (_Eriobotrya japonica_), but smaller and without hair.
In the autumn it produces a white flower like a grain of maize (_Su-mi, Zea
mays_). It grows in Fu Chou and Nan Ngen Chou (now Yang Kiang in Kwang
Tung) in the mountain wilderness. That of Fu Chou makes a fine creeper,
resembling the _fu-yung_ (_Hibiscus mutabilis_), green above and white
below, the root being like that of the _ko_ (_Pachyrhizus thunbergianus_).
It is employed in the pharmacopeia, being finely chopped for this purpose
and soaked overnight in water in which rice has been scoured; then it is
soaked for another night in pure water and pounded: thus it is ready for
prescriptions.' This plant, as far as I know, has not yet been identified,
but it may well be identical with Polo's saffron of Fu Kien."

LXXX., pp. 226, 229 n.

_THE SILKY FOWLS OF MARCO POLO_.

Tarradale, Muir of Ord, Ross-shire, May 10, 1915.

In a letter lately received from my cousin Mr. George Udny Yule (St.
John's College, Cambridge) he makes a suggestion which seems to me both
probable and interesting. As he is at present too busy to follow up the
question himself, I have asked permission to publish his suggestion in _The
Athenaeum_, with the hope that some reader skilled in mediaeval French and
Italian may be able to throw light on the subject.

Mr. Yule writes as follows: -

"The reference [to these fowls] in 'Marco Polo' (p. 226 of the last
edition; not p. 126 as stated in the index) is a puzzle, owing to the
statement that they are _black_ all over. A black has, I am told, been
recently created, but the common breed is white, as stated in the note and
by Friar Odoric.

"It has occurred to me as a possibility that what Marco Polo may have
meant to say was that they were _black all through_, or some such phrase.
The flesh of these fowls is deeply pigmented, and looks practically black;
it is a feature that is very remarkable, and would certainly strike any
one who saw it. The details that they 'lay eggs just like our fowls,' i.e.,
not pigmented, and are 'very good to eat,' are facts that would naturally
deserve especial mention in this connexion. Mr. A.D. Darbishire (of
Oxford and Edinburgh University) tells me that is quite correct: the flesh
look horrid, but it is quite good eating. Do any texts suggest the
possibility of such a reading as I suggest?"

The references in the above quotation are, of course, to my father's
version of Marco Polo. That his nephew should make this interesting little
contribution to the subject would have afforded him much gratification.

A.F. YULE.

_The Athenaeum_, No. 4570, May 29, 1915, p. 485.

LXXX., pp. 226, 230.

SUGAR.

"I may observe that the _Pêh Shï_ (or 'Northern Dynasties History') speaks
of a large consumption of sugar in Cambodgia as far back as the fifth
century of our era. There can be no mistake about the meaning of the words
_sha-t'ang_, which are still used both in China and Japan (_sa-to_). The
'History of the T'ang Dynasty,' in its chapter on Magadha, says that in the
year 627 the Chinese Emperor 'sent envoys thither to procure the method of
boiling out sugar, and then ordered the Yang-chou sugar-cane growers to
press it out in the same way, when it appeared that both in colour and
taste ours excelled that of the Western Regions' [of which Magadha was
held to be part]." (E.H. PARKER, _Asiatic Quart. Rev._, Jan., 1904,
p. 146.)

ZAITUN.

LXXXII., p. 237.

M.G. Ferrand remarks that _Tze tung_ = [Arabic], _zitun_ in Arabic,
inexactly read _Zaytun_, on account of its similitude with its homonym
[Arabic], _zyatun_, olive. (_Relat de Voy._, I., p. 11.)

LXXXII., pp. 242-245.

"Perhaps it may not be generally known that in the dialect of Foochow
Ts'üan-chou and Chang-chou are at the present day pronounced in _exactly
the same way_ - i.e., 'Chiong-chiu,' and it is by no means impossible that
Marco Polo's _Tyunju_ is an attempt to reproduce this sound, especially
as, coming to Zaitun viâ Foochow, he would probably first hear the Foochow
pronunciation." (E.H. PARKER, _Asiatic Quart. Rev._, Jan., 1904, p. 148)




BOOK THIRD.


JAPAN, THE ARCHIPELAGO, SOUTHERN INDIA, AND THE COASTS AND ISLANDS OF THE
INDIAN SEA.


II., p. 256, n. 1.

NÁFÚN.

Regarding the similitude between _Nipon_ and _Nafún_, Ferrand,
_Textes_, I., p. 115 n., remarks: "Ce rapprochement n'a aucune chance
d'être exact [Arabic] _Nafun_ est certainement une erreur de graphic
pour [Arabic] _Yakut_ ou [Arabic] _Nakus_."

III., p. 261.

JAPANESE WAR.

"Hung Ts'a-k'iu, who set out overland viâ Corea and Tsushima in
1281, is much more likely than Fan Wên-hu to be Von-sain-_chin_
(probably a misprint for _chiu_), for the same reason _Vo_-cim
stands for _Yung_-ch'ang, and _sa_ for _sha, ch'a, ts'a_,
etc. A-la-han (not A-ts'ï-han) fell sick at the start, and was replaced by
A-ta-hai. To copy _Abacan_ for _Alahan_ would be a most natural
error, and I see from the notes that M. Schlegel has come to the same
conclusion independently." (E.H. PARKER, _Asiatic Quart. Rev._,
Jan., 1904, p. 147.)

V., pp. 270, 271 n.

CHAMBA.

Lieut.-General Sagatu, So Tu or So To, sent in 1278 an envoy to the King
known as Indravarman VI. or Jaya Sinhavarman. Maspero (_Champa_, pp. 237,
254) gives the date of 1282 for the war against Champa with Sagatu
appointed at the head of the Chinese Army on the 16th July, 1282; the war
lasted until 1285. Maspero thinks 1288 the date of Marco's visit to Champa
(L.c., p. 254).

VII., p. 277 n.

SONDUR AND CONDUR (PULO CONDORE).

Mr. C.O. Blagden has some objection to Sundar Fulat being Pulo Condor:
"In connexion with Sundur-Fulat, some difficulties seem to arise. If it
represents Pulo Condor, why should navigators on their way to China call
at it _after_ visiting Champa, which lies beyond it? And if _fulat_
represents a Persian plural of the Malay _Pulau_,'island,' why does it not
precede the proper name as generic names do in Malay and in Indonesian and
Southern Indo-Chinese languages generally? Further, if _sundur_
represents a native form _cundur_, whence the hard _c_ (= _k_) of our
modern form of the word? I am not aware that Malay changes _c_ to _k_ in
an initial position." (_J. R. As. Soc._, April, 1914, p. 496.)

"L'île de Sendi Foulat est très grande; il y a de l'eau douce, des champs
cultivés, du, riz et des cocotiers. Le roi s'appelle Resed. Les habitants
portent la fouta soit en manteau, soit en ceinture.... L'île de Sendi
Foulat est entourée, du côté de la Chine, de montagnes d'un difficile
accès, et ou soufflent des vents impétueux. Cette île est une des portes
de la Chine. De là à la ville de Khancou, X journées." EDRISI, I., p. 90.
In Malay Pulo Condor is called Pulau Kundur (Pumpkin Island) and in
Cambodian, Koh Tralàch. See PELLIOT, _Deux Itinéraires_, pp. 218-220.
Fulat = _ful_ (Malay _pule_) + Persian plural suffix _-at_. _Cundur fulat_
means Pumpkin Island. FERRAND, _Textes_, pp. ix., 2.

VII., p. 277.

LOCAC.

According to W. Tomaschek (_Die topographischen Capitel des Indischen
Seespiegels Mohit_, Vienna, 1897, Map XXIII.) it should be read _Losak_ =
The _Lochac_ of the G.T. "It is _Lankaçoka_ of the Tanjore inscription of
1030, the _Ling ya ssi kia_ of the _Chu-fan-chï_ of Chau Ju-kua, the
_Lenkasuka_ of the _Nagarakretagama_, the _Lang-saka_ of Sulayman al
Mahri, situated on the eastern side of the Malay Peninsula." (G. FERRAND,
_Malaka, le Malayu et Malayur_, _J. As._, July-Aug, 1918, p. 91.) On the
situation of this place which has been erroneously identified with
Tenasserim, see Ibid., pp. 134-145 M. Ferrand places it in the region of
Ligor.

VII., pp. 278-279.

LAWÁKI.

_Lawáki_ comes from Lovek, a former capital of Cambodia; referring to the
aloes-wood called _Lawáki_ in the _Ain-i-Akbari_ written in the 16th
century, FERRAND, _Textes_, I., p. 285 n., remarks: "On vient de voir que
Ibn-al-Baytar a emprunté ce nom à Avicenne (980-1037) qui écrivit son
_Canon de la Médecine_ dans les premières années du XI'e siècle. _Lawák_
ou Lowak nous est donc attesté sous le forme _Lawáki_ ou _Lowaki_ dès le
X'e siècle, puis qu'il est mentionné, au début du XI'e, par Avicenne qui
résidait alors à Djurdjan, sur la Caspienne."

VIII., pp. 280-3.

OF THE ISLAND CALLED PENTAM, AND THE CITY MALAIUR.

The late Col. G.E. Gerini published in the _J.R.A.S._, July, 1905, pp.
485-511, a paper on the _Nagarakretagama_, a Javanese poem composed by a
native bard named Prapañca, in honour of his sovereign Hayam Wuruk
(1350-1389), the greatest ruler of Majapahit. He upsets all the theories
accepted hitherto regarding _Panten_. The southernmost portion of the Malay
Peninsula is known as the _Malaya_ or _Malayu_ country (Tanah-Malayu) =
Chinese _Ma-li-yü-êrh = Malayur = Maluir_ of Marco Polo, witness the river
_Malayu_ (_Sungei Malayu_) still so called, and the village _Bentan_, both
lying there (ignored by all Col. Gerini's predecessors) on the northern
shore of the Old Singapore Strait. Col. Gerini writes (p. 509): "There
exists to this day a village _Bentam_ on the mainland side of Singapore
Strait, right opposite the mouth of the Sungei Selitar, on the northern
shore of Singapore Island, it is not likely that both travellers [Polo and
Odoric] mistook the coast of the Malay Peninsula for an island. The island
of _Pentam_, _Paten_, or _Pantem_ must therefore be the _Be-Tumah_ (Island)
of the Arab Navigators, the _Tamasak_ Island of the Malays; and, in short,
the Singapore Island of our day." He adds: "The island of _Pentam_ cannot
be either Batang or Bitang, the latter of which is likewise mentioned by
Marco Polo under the same name of _Pentam_, but 60 + 30 = 90 miles before
reaching the former. Batang, girt all round by dangerous reefs, is
inaccessible except to small boats. So is Bintang, with the exception of
its south-western side, where is now Riau, and where, a little further
towards the north, was the settlement at which the chief of the island
resided in the fourteenth century. There was no reason for Marco Polo's
junk to take that roundabout way in order to call at such, doubtlessly
insignificant place. And the channel (i.e. Rhio Strait) has far more than
four paces' depth of water, whereas there are no more than two fathoms at
the western entrance to the Old Singapore Strait."

Marco Polo says (II., p. 280): "Throughout this distance [from Pentam]
there is but four paces' depth of water, so that great ships in passing
this channel have to lift their rudders, for they draw nearly as much
water as that." Gerini remarks that it is unmistakably the _Old Singapore
Strait_, and that there is no channel so shallow throughout all those
parts except among reefs. "The _Old Strait_ or _Selat Tebrau_, says N.B.
Dennys, _Descriptive Dict. of British Malaya_, separating Singapore from
Johore. Before the settlement of the former, this was the only known route
to China; it is generally about a mile broad, but in some parts little
more than three furlongs. Crawford went through it in a ship of 400 tons,
and found the passage tedious but safe." Most of Sinologists, Beal,
Chavannes, Pelliot, _Bul. Ecole Ext. Orient._, IV., 1904, pp. 321-2,
323-4, 332-3, 341, 347, place the Malaiur of Marco Polo at Palembang in
Sumatra.

VIII., pp. 281, n. 283 n.

TANA-MALAYU.

"On a traduit _Tanah Malayu_ par 'Pays des Malais,' mais cette
traduction n'est pas rigoureusement exacte. Pour prendre une expression
parallèle, _Tanah Djawa_ signifie 'Pays de Java,' mais non 'Pays des
Javanais.'

"En réalité, _tanah_ 'terre, sol, pays, contrée' s'emploie seulement avec
un toponyme qui doit étre rendu par un toponyme équivalent. Le nom des
habitants du pays s'exprime, en malais, en ajoutant _oran_ 'homme,
personne, gens, numéral des êtres humains' au nom du pays: '_oran
Malayu_' Malais, litt. 'gens de Malayu'; _oran Djawa_ Javanais, litt.
'gens de Java.' _Tanah Malayu_ a done très nettement le sens de 'pays de
Malayu'; cf. l'expression kawi correspondante dans le _Nagarakrêtugama:
tanah ri Malayu_ 'pays de Malayu' où chaque mot français recouvre
exactement le substantif, la préposition et le toponyme de l'expression
kawi. Le _taná Malayo_ de Barros s'applique donc à un pays déterminé du
nom de Malayu qui, d'après l'auteur des _Décades_, était situé entre
Djambi et Palemban. Nous savons, d'autre part, que le pays en question
avait sa capitale dans l'intérieur de l'île, mais qu'il s'étendait dans
l'Est jusqu'à la mer et que la côte orientale a été désignée par les
textes chinois du VII'e siècle sous le nom de _Mo-lo-yeou, Mo-lo-yu =
Malayu_, c'est-à-dire par le nom de l'Etat ou royaume dont elle faisait
partie." (G. FERRAND, _J. As._, July-Aug., 1918, pp. 72-73.)

VIII., p. 282.

MALACCA.

See G. FERRAND, _Malaka, le Malayu et Malayur, J.As._, 1918. Besides
Malayu of Sumatra, there was a city of Malayur which M. Ferrand thinks is
Malacca.

VIII., p. 282 n. "This informs us that Malacca first acknowledged itself
as tributary to the Empire in 1405, the king being _Sili-ju-eul-sula_(?)."

In this name _Si-li-ju-eul-su-la_, one must read [Chinese] _pa_, instead of
[Chinese], and read _Si-li-pa-eul-su-la_ = Siri Paramisura (Çri
Paramaçvara). (PELLIOT, _Bul. Ecole franc. Ext. Orient_, IV., July-Sept.,
1904, p. 772.)

IX., p. 285. "They [the rhinoceros] do no mischief, however, with the
horn, but with the tongue alone; for this is covered all over with long
and strong prickles [and when savage with any one they crush him under
their knees and then rasp him with their tongue]."

"Its tongue is like the burr of a chestnut." (CHAU JU-KWA, P. 233.)

IX., p. 289.

SUMATRA.

In 1017, an embassy was sent to the Court of China by Haji Sumutrabhumi,
"the king of the land of Sumutra" (Sumatra). The envoys had a letter in
golden characters and tribute in the shape of pearls, ivory, Sanscrit,
books folded between boards, and slaves; by an imperial edict they were
permitted to see the emperor and to visit some of the imperial buildings.
When they went back an edict was issued addressed to their king,
accompanied by various presents, calculated to please them. (GROENEVELT,
_Notes on the Malay Archipelago_, p. 65.) G. Ferrand writes (_J. As._,
Mars-Avril, 1917, p. 335) that according to the texts quoted by him in his
article the island of Sumatra was known to the Chinese under the name
_Sumuta = Sumutra_, during the first years of the eleventh century, nearly
300 years before Marco Polo's voyage; and under the name of _Sumutra_, by
the Arab sailors, previously to the first voyage of the Portuguese in
Indonesia.

IX., p. 287.

FERLEC.

Prof. Pelliot writes to me that the _Ferlec_ of Marco Polo is to be found
several times in the _Yuan Shi_, year 1282 and following, under the forms
_Fa-li-lang_ (Chap. 12, fol. 4 v.), _Fa-li-la_ (Chap. 13, fol. 2 v.),
_Pie-li-la_ (Chap. 13, fol. 4 v.), _Fa-eul-la_ (Chap. 18, fol. 8 v.); in
the first case, it is quoted near _A-lu_ (_Aru_) and _Kan-pai_ (Kampei).
- Cf. FERRAND, _Textes_, II., p. 670.

XI., pp. 304-5.

SAGO TREE.

Sago Palm = _Sagus Rumphianus_ and _S. Laevis_ (DENNYS). - "From Malay
_sagu_. The farinaceous pith taken out of the stem of several species of a
particular genus of palm, especially _Metroxylon laeve_, Mart., and _M.
Rumphii_, Willd., found in every part of the Indian Archipelago, including
the Philippines, wherever there is proper soil." (_Hobson-Jobson_.)

XII., p. 306. "In this island [Necuveran] they have no king nor chief, but
live like beasts. And I tell you they go all naked, both men and women,
and do not use the slightest covering of any kind."

We have seen (_Marco Polo_, II., p. 308) that Mr. G. Phillips writes
(_J.R.A.S._, July, 1895, p. 529) that the name Tsui-lan given to the
Nicobars by the Chinese is, he has but little doubt, "a corruption of
Nocueran, the name given by Marco Polo to the group. The characters
Tsui-lan are pronounced Ch'ui lan in Amoy, out of which it is easy to make
Cueran. The Chinese omitted the initial syllable and called them the Cueran
Islands, while Marco Polo called them the Nocueran Islands." Schlegel,
_T'oung Pao_, IX., p. 182-190, thinks that the Andaman Islands are alone
represented by Ts'ui-lan; the Nicobar being the old country of the Lo-ch'a,
and in modern time, _Mao shan_, "Hat Island." Pelliot, _Bul. Ecole Ext.
Orient_, IV., 1904, pp. 354-5, is inclined to accept Phillip's opinion. He
says that Mao-shan is one island, not a group of islands; it is not proved
that the country of the Lo ch'a is the Nicobar Islands; the name of
_Lo-hing-man_, Naked Barbarians, is, contrary to Schlegel's opinion, given
to the Nicobar as well as to the Andaman people; the name of Andaman
appears in Chinese for the first time during the thirteenth century in Chao
Ju-kwa under the form _Yen-t'o-man_; Chao Ju-kwa specifies that going from
Lambri (_Sumatra_) to Ceylon, it is an unfavourable wind which makes ships
drift towards these islands; on the other hand, texts show that the
Ts'ui-lan islands were on the usual route from Sumatra to Ceylon. - Gerini,
_Researches_, p. 396, considers that _Ts'ui-lan shan_ is but the phonetic
transcript of _Tilan-chong_ Island, the north-easternmost of the
Nicobars. - See Hirth and Rockhill's _Chau Ju-kwa_, p. 12n. - Sansk.
_narikera_, "cocoanuts," is found in Necuveram.

XIII., p. 309.

ANGAMANAIN.

"When sailing from Lan-wu-li to Si-lan, if the wind is not fair, ships may
be driven to a place called Yen-t'o-man [in Cantonese, An-t'o-man]. This
is a group of two islands in the middle of the sea, one of them being
large, the other small; the latter is quite uninhabited. The large one
measures seventy _li_ in circuit. The natives on it are of a colour
resembling black lacquer; they eat men alive, so that sailors dare not
anchor on this coast.

"This island does not contain so much as an inch of iron, for which reason
the natives use (bits of) conch-shell (ch'ö-k'ü) with ground edges instead
of knives. On this island is a sacred relic, (the so-called) 'Corpse on a
bed of rolling gold....'" (CHAU JU-KWA, p. 147.)

XIII., p. 311.

DOG-HEADED BARBARIANS.

Rockhill in a note to Carpini (_Rubruck_, p. 36) mentions "the Chinese
annals of the sixth century (_Liang Shu_, bk. 54; _Nan shih_, bk. 79)
which tell of a kingdom of dogs (_Kou kuo_) in some remote corner of
north-eastern Asia. The men had human bodies but dogs' heads, and their
speech sounded like barking. The women were like the rest of their sex in
other parts of the world."

Dr. Laufer writes to me: "A clear distinction must be made between
dog-headed people and the motive of descent from a dog-ancestor, - two
entirely different conceptions. The best exposition of the subject of the
cynocephali according to the traditions of the Ancients is now presented by
J. MARQUART (_Benin-Sammlung des Reichsmuseums in Leiden_, pp. cc-ccxix).
It is essential to recognize that the mediaeval European, Arabic, and
Chinese fables about the country of the dog-heads are all derived from one
common source, which is traceable to the Greek Romance of Alexander; that
is an Oriental-Hellenistic cycle. In a wider sense, the dog-heads belong to
the cycle of wondrous peoples, which assumed shape among the Greek mariners
under the influence of Indian and West-Asiatic ideas. The tradition of the
_Nan shi_ (Ch. 79, p. 4), in which the motive of the dog-heads, the women,
however, being of human shape, meets its striking parallel in Adam of
Bremen (_Gesta Hamburg, ecclesiae pontificum_, 4, 19), who thus reports on
the _Terra Feminarum_ beyond the Baltic Sea: 'Cumque pervenerint ad partum,
si quid masculini generis est, fiunt cynocephali, si quid femini,
speciosissimae mulieres.' See further KLAPROTH, _J. As._, XII., 1833, p.
287; DULAURIER, _J. As._, 1858, p. 472; ROCKHILL, _Rubruck_, p. 36."

In an interesting paper on Walrus and Narwhal Ivory, Dr. Laufer (_T'oung
Pao_, July, 1916, p. 357) refers to dog-headed men with women of human
shape, from a report from the Mongols received by King Hethum of Armenia.

XIV., p. 313. "The people [of Ceylon] are Idolaters, and go quite naked
except that they cover the middle.... The King of this Island possesses a
ruby which is the finest and biggest in the world; I will tell you what it
is like. It is about a palm in length, and as thick as a man's arm; to
look at, it is the most resplendent object upon earth; it is quite free
from flaw and as red as fire. Its value is so great that a price for it in
money could hardly be named at all."

Chau Ju-kwa, p. 73, has: "The King holds in his hand a jewel five inches
in diameter, which cannot be burnt by fire, and which shines in (the
darkness of) night like a torch. The King rubs his face with it daily, and
though he were passed ninety he would retain his youthful looks.

"The people of the country are very dark-skinned, they wrap a sarong round
their bodies, go bare-headed and bare-footed."

XIV., p. 314 n.

THE ISLAND OF CEYLON.

The native kings of this period were Pandita Prakama Bahu II., who reigned
from 1267 to 1301 at Dambadenia, about 40 miles north-north-east of
Columbo (Marco Polo's time); Vijaya Bahu IV. (1301-1303); Bhuwaneka Bahu
I. (1303-1314); Prakama Bahu III. (1314-1319); Bhuwaneka Bahu II. (1319).

SAGAMONI BORCAN.

= Sakya Muni Burkhan.

XV., p. 319. Seilan-History of Sagamoni Borcan. "And they maintain ...
that the teeth, and the hair, and the dish that are there were those of
the same king's son, whose name was Sagamoni Borcan, or Sagamoni the
Saint."

See J.F. FLEET, _The Tradition about the corporeal Relics of Buddha_.



Online LibraryRustichello of PisaThe Travels of Marco Polo — Volume 2 → online text (page 84 of 88)