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in l^orth Africa burned low. Islam, armed with
the sword, carried the crescent across J^orth
Africa, down through the Soudan, and is still
spreading along the east coast. IS'otwithstand-
ing her spiritual decline, the Church in I^orth
Africa had taken such a firm root during the
first two centuries, that it took Islam more than
eight hundred years completely to depose her,
but having once accomplished the task, the
Church has never been able to recover the lost

With th© Church practically blotted out in The Price
IN'orth Africa; with Central and South Africa
still in the deep darkness of heathendom; no

1 Two Thousand Years of MiaBlons Before Oarey. Page SOS.

32 The Price of Africa

wonder the Church has had to pay a price for
the redemption of the continent which may well
^^stagger humanity/' Africa has been called
"The white man's grave." Of more than seven
hundred explorers who have traveled in Africa,
about five hundred and fifty have found there
their last resting-place.-^ "For missionaries
it has been pre-eminently a land of death."
The MMdIe Ages In the thirteenth century, two hundred
Franciscan missionaries were murdered at the
hands of the Moslems. The Dominicans "gave
nearly as many martyrs to Middle- Age Africa
as did the Franciscans." Raymond Lull,
knight errant of evangelistic Christianity, spent
the most of his long life in storming the strong-
hold of the Moslem faith, and was stoned to
death when nearly eighty years of age. He
was "a William Carey five hundred years be-
fore the Christian world was ready to under-
stand and co-operate with him."-^ From the
time of Raymond Lull until now, the Church
has been investing life until the African con-
tinent is dotted over with the graves of the
brave men and women whose bodies rest in
lonely places, but whose souls are with the

iXho Flaming Torch In Darkest Africa. Page 8.
•Two Thousand Years of Missions Before Carey. Barnes.
Fafi^e 206.

The Price of Africa 33

About one hundred missionary societies are Modern Missions
tL^w working in Africa. The following lists of
missionaries who have died in Africa are in
a sense typical. The seven ISTorth American
societies whose lists are printed below have
given one hundred and ninety lives for Africa
since 1833. The average length of service of
these missionaries has been eight years. The
details which accompanied these lists (but
which, for lack of space, could not be printed)
are a commentary on the fearful ravages of
the African fever.

MissioNAEY Society of the Peotestaistt
Episcopal Chuech.


Mrs. Thomas S. Savage 3 years.

Miss Martha D. Coggeshall 3 months.

Mrs. Thomas S. Savage 11 months.

Rev. Launcelot B. Minor 7 years.

Mrs. Catherine L. Patch. 2 years.

Rev. E. J. P. Messenger 3 months.

Dr. T. R. Steele 6 months.

Rev. G. W. Home 2 years..

Rev. Robert Smith 3 months.

Mrs. Jacob Rambo 2 years.

Mrs. C. C. Hoffman 3 years.

Miss Isabella Alley 1 year.

Rev. H. H, Holcomb 1 year.

Miss Hermine Relf (Not given.)

Rev. H. Greene (Not given.)

Miss Phebe Bart 4 months.

Rev. C. O. Hoffman 16 years.

Mr. Robert G. Ware (Not given.)

Rt. Rev. J. G. Auer 21 years.


34 The Price of Africa



Mrs. Anna M. Payne 21 years.

Miss L. L. K. Spaulding Few months.

Mrs. Mary Auer 10 years.

Miss Delia Hunt Few months.

Mrs. Julie Macmullan 3 -months.

Rev. Henry W. Meek 4 months.

Mrs. E. A. Johnson ,(Not given.)

Mrs. Alfred Johnson (Not given.)

Mrs. Cordelia C. C. Brown (Not given.)

Rev. James W. Blacklidge 27 years.

Joseph J. Walters (Not given.)

Mrs. Maria R. Brierley 31 years.

Rev. M. P. Keda Valentine (Not given.)

John J. Perry (Not given.)

F. Tebeyo Allison, M. D 3 years.

Rev. James G. Monger (Not given.)

Rev. Horatio C. N'yema Merriam (Not given.)

Mr. J. C. Birch ,(Not given.)

Rev. Thos. C. Brownell Gabla 22 years.

Rev. R. H. Gibson (Not given.)

George H. Wea Clarck (Not given.)

Mrs. R. C. Cooper (Not given.)

Board of Foreign Missions of the Evan-
gelical Lutheran Church.

Mrs. John Kistler 2 years.

Rev. S. P. Carnell 1 year.

Mrs. J. G. Breuninger • 2 years.

Mrs. B. B. Collins 1 year.

Rev. E. M. Hubler 1 year.

Mrs. Geo. P. Goll 1 year.

Mrs. David A. Day 21 years.

Mrs. Geo. P. Goll 1 year.

Rev. David A. Day, D. D ,23 years.

Mrs. Will M. Beck 1 year.

Mrs. J. D. Simon 1 year.

Rev. J. D. Simon 2 years.

Presbyterian Board of Foreign Missions.

Rev. J. L. Maekey 18 years.

Rev. and Mrs. G. W. Simpson 2 years.

Rev. W. Clemens ,9 years.

The Price of Africa 35



Rev. G. McQueen, Jr.. 7 years.

Mrs. C. DeHeer 2 years.

Rev. C. E. Ogden 3 years.

Mrs. C. L. Loomis 2 years.

Mrs. R. H. Nassant 10 years.

Mrs. R. H. Nassant S years.

Rev. Geo. Paul 2 years.

Miss S. Dewsnap 6 years.

Rev, A. Bushnell, D. D 35 years.

Rev. H. L. Jacot 2 years.

Miss Hulda Christensen 10 years.

Rev. S. Rentlengier 3 years.

Mrs. Oscar Roberts 2 years.

Rev. D. H. Devor 2 years.

Rev. B. B. Brier 1 year.

Miss S. J. Boughton ". .,2 years.

Rev. A. G. Good 7 years.

Mrs. C. J. Lafflin 1 year.

Rev. A. W. Marling 16 years.

Mrs. S. A. Boppell 1 year.

Rev. W. C. Gancli 18 years.

Rev. J. D. Alward ,2 years.

Rev. T. H. Amos 10 years.

Rev. J. R. Amos 5 years.

Rev. J. Barr ,1 year.

Rev. Ed. Boelilen 2 years.

Rev. O. K. Canfield 8 years.

Rev. J. Cloud ,1 year.

Mrs. J. D. Cranstian 3 years.

Rev. J. M. Deputic 8 years.

Rev. T. E. Dillon 14 years.

Rev. D. L. Donnell 1 year.

Rev. J. Eder 4 years.

Rev. H. H. Erskine 28 years.

Mr. D. C. Ferguson 10 years.

Mr. F. J. C. Finley 1 year.

Mr. Simon Harrison 18 years.

Mr. Amos Herring 19 years.

Mr. V. B. R. James 17 years.

Rev. M. Laird 1 year.

Mr. W. McDonough 29 years.

Mr. F. A. Melville 12 years.

Rev. A. Miller 6 years.

Rev. F. B. Perry 8 years.


The Price of Africa


Mrs. F. B. Perry 1 year.

Rev. J. M. Priest 40 years.

Mrs. J. M. Priest 37 years.

Mr. J. R. Priest 1 year.

Rev. T. H. Roberts 1 year.

Rev. R. W. Sawyer 3 years.

Mrs. E. Slebbins 10 years.

Rev. T. Wilson 3 years.

American Boaed of Commissioners for For-
eign Missions.

Rev. David White 29 days.

Mrs. Helen Maris (Wells) White 32 days.

Rev. Alexander Erwin Wilson, M. D.. ..6 years.

Mrs. Mary J. (Smithey) Wilson 2 years.

Mrs. Mary (Hardcastle) Wilson 10 years.

Mrs. Prudence (Richardson) Walker... 3 months.
Mrs. Zermiah L. (Shumway) Walker... 1 yr. 4 mos.

Rev. Benjamin Griswold 2 yr. 5 mos.

Rev. John Milton Campbell 1 mo. 10 da.

Rev. Albert Bushnell 36 years.

Mrs. Lydia Ann (Beers) Bushnell 12 yr. 8 mp.

Rev. Rollin Porter 1 yr. 1 mo.

Mrs. Susan (Savary) Pierce 1 yr. 8 da.

Mrs. Nancy Ann (Sikes) Porter. . . 1 yr. 1 mo. 6 days.

Rev. Hubert P. Herrick 3 yr. 9 mo.

Rev. Henry Martyn Adams 1 yr. 6 mo.

Henry A. Ford, M. D 7 yr. 4 mo.

Mr. Benj. VanRensselaer James

(colored) 32 years.

Mrs. Margaret Elizabeth (Strobe!)

James 32 years.

Mr. Walter Waldon Bagster 1 yr. 3 mo.

Mrs. Mary Jane (Mawhlr) Sanders 9 months.

Mrs. Clara Maria (Wilkes) Currie 1 yr. 5 mo.

Ardell Henry Webster, M. D 2 years.

Miss Minnehaha Angela Clarke 2 yr. 7 mo.

Mrs. Mittie Artemesia (Bebout)

Richards 10 years.

Mrs. Hannah (Davis) Grout 1 year.

Newton Adams .16 yr. 10 mo.

Rev. Jas. C. Bryant 4 yr. 4 mo.

Mrs. Fanny M. (Nelson) McKinney 14 yr. 4 mo.

The Price of Africa 37



Rev. Samuel D. Marsh 5 yr. 11 mo.

Mrs. Jane (Wilson) Ireland 13 years.

Rev. Andrew Abraham 29 yr. 3 mo.

Mrs. Sarah Lydia (Biddle) Abraham... 29 yr. 4 mo.

Mrs. Susan W. (Clark) Tyler ,38 yr. 7 mo.

Rev. Jacob L. Dohne 43 years.

Mrs. Louisa (Healey) Pixley 45 years.

Rev. Elijah Robbins ,29 yr. 6 mo.

Mrs. Adeline (Bissell) 29 years.

Rev. Henry Martyn Bridgman 35 yr. 9 mo.

Rev. Myron Winslow Pinkerton 9 yr. 1 mo.

Mrs. Mary B. (Knox) Kibbon 28 yr. 4 mo.

Rev. David Hutton Harris 11 years.

Foreign Mission Boakb of the [N'ational Bap-
tist Convention.

Rev. Solomon Cosby 11 months.

Mrs. Hattie H. Presley 14 months.

Rev. Hence McKinney 4 years.

Rev. J. J. Coles 10 years.

Rev. Geo. F. A. Johns 7 months.

Mrs. Lillie B. Johns 10 months.

Rev. R. L. Stewart 7 years.

Foreign Mission Board of the Southern Bap-
tist Convention.

Henry Goodale 1 year.

J. S. Dennard 1 year.

Mrs. Dennard 1 year.

Mrs. T. A. Reid 1 year.

J. M. Harden (Colored) 13 years,

Solomon Cosby (Colored) 2 years.

Mrs. N. B. David (1st wife of

W. J. David) 6 years.

Mrs. C. E. Smith (2d wife of

C. E. Smith) 4 years.

Mrs. W. T. Lumbley (1st wife of

W. T. Lumbley) 7 years.

C. C. Newton 5 years.

Mrs. C. C. Newton 5 years.

Mrs. W. P. Winn 1 year.


The Price of Africa




Jno. Day 13 years.

H. Teague. 7 years.

A. L. Jones 1 year.

F. S. James .1 year.

B. J. Drayton 18 years.

J. H. Cheeseman 10 years.

R. E. Murray 7 years.

R. White 8 years.

H. Underwood 16 years.

Jas. Bullock 7 years.

Jas. Early 1 year.

E. S. Vaughan 13 years.

Ameeicajs" Baptist Missionary Union.

Mrs. Franklin Pierce Lynch 4 years.

J. E. Broholm 8 years.

Chas. G. Hartsock 3 yr. 9 mo,

Fritz Charles Gleichman 3 yr. 5 mo.

Richard D. Jones 1 yr. 9 mo.

Mrs. Christian Nelson 9 yr. 5 mo.

Mrs. C. M. D. Hill Not given.

John McKittrick 7 years.

Miss Lenore Hamilton 5 yr. 10 mo.

When one remembers that these lists repre-
sent but seven of the one hundred (about) soci-
eties which are working in Africa, some idea
of the price that has been paid may be ob-
tained. Catholic, Protestant, English, German,
French, Spanish, Portuguese, and American, —
all have united in self-sacrificing service for the
redemption of Africa.

One of the most vivid pictures of the cost
of the redemption of Africa was given by Henry
Drummond at the London Missionary Conven-

The Price of Africa 39

tion in 1888. He was called upon to speak in A Deserted Vijlagc
the place of Mr. Bain, a missionary to Africa.
Mr. Drnmmond said: "I almost wish my friend,
Mr. Bain, whose place I take, had been with
yon himself this afternoon. He is one of the
men Mr. Stock has spoken of as being at their
post when he might have been here. Mr. Bain
actually put his foot on the little steamer on
Lake N^yassa to come to England. He was shat-
tered with fever, — his holiday was overdue, and
his mother — a widow — ^was waiting for him in
Scotland. But as the ship was leaving the shore
Mr. Bain turned to the band of natives who had
come to see him off, — an Arab slaver had been
busy in Mr. Bain's district during the past
month or two, and these poor natives were being
left like a flock in the wilderness without their
shepherd, — and he ordered the luggage to be
put off on shore again, and the boat went away
without him ; and he is there now. That is the
kind of stuff the African missionaries are made
of, and it takes such stuff to do mission work in
Africa. . . .

"A few years ago a small band sailed up the
Zambezi into Lake E^yassa. They made their
settlement at Livingstonia, and set to work to
Christianize the tribes along that three hundred
and fifty miles of lake coast. Two or three
years ago I went to see that mission station,

40 The Price of Africa

and I found the houses in perfect order, re-
minding one of a sweet English village. But
as I went from house to house I found there
was no one in them. The first house — the
clergyman's house — ^was empty. The second
house was a schoolhouse, and that was also
empty. The blacksmith's shop was empty ; and
I passed from house to house, and there was no
one in any of them. Then a native came out
of the forest and beckoned to me, and drew me
away a few yards, and there under a huge gran-
ite mountain I saw four or ^ye mounds, where
lay the bodies of the missionaries. There was
not one of them left in Livingstonia. One by
one they had sickened and died of fever, and
the small remnant had gone off in the little ship
and planted a new station a couple of hundred
miles up the lake; and there, against fearful
odds, they are carrying on the work." ^
An Incentive Facts like the above should nerve the
fcr Action Church to greater effort than it has ever yet
put forth. A great Civil War was the price
of the freedom of the black man in E'orth
America. It cost tens of thousands of lives
to liberate the slaves after the Emancipation
Proclamation had made them free. Through
a struggle no less real, calling for no less heroic

1 Report of the Missionary Conference, London, 1888. Page

The Price of Africa 41

sacrifice, Africa must be redeemed. There was
a time when slavery could have been abolished
in America by legal enactment, but our fathers
temporized with the question and trusted that
things would right themselves. The price of
their inactivity was a cruel war and a IN^ation
in mourning.

The time to have saved Africa was when
the light shone brightly, and when Christianity
was clothed in her youthful might. The army
of martyrs who have gone to the throne of God
by way of Darkest Africa have been paying
the price of the indifference and the negligence
of the early Church. The longer the Church
delays, the greater the price that must be paid.

"The forces of evil are not delaying their The Forces of Evil
work.'' The Mohammedans, cramped in India
and China, are making Egypt the vantage
ground for an active propaganda of their faith.
The dealers in arms and spirituous liquors, hav-
ing counted the cost, are ready to place in the
hands of the black man the forces for his own

The nations of the world do not hesitate Nations Pay the
to pay the price for their respective spheres of Pfl«
influence. Great Britain saw the inevitable
conflict in South Africa, and gave without
flinching 1,069 officers, 20,897 men, and over
$826,000,000. One shudders to think of the

42 The Price of Africa

price that has been paid ; but what will be the
full price if the Christians of this generation
bequeath to future generations of Christians an
ever-increasing heritage of suffering and fever
and bloodshed?

"When Pizarro was attempting the con-
quest of Peru's El Dorado, he had to oppose the
onsets of his men's despair. One day he drew
a line with his sword in the sand, faced south,
and exclaimed : Triends and comrades, on that
side are toil, hunger, nakedness, the drenching
storm, desertion, and death; on this side, ease
and pleasure. There lies Peru with its wealth ;
here, Panama with its poverty. Choose what
best becomes a brave Castilian. For my part,
I go south.' So saying, he stepped across the
line, and his little band, ^in the face of difficul-
ties unexampled in history, with death rather
than riches their reward, preferred it to aban-
doning honor, and stood by their leader as an
example of loyalty for future ages.' "

The American soldier freely paid the price
of the freedom of the black man. Our boys
bought with their blood the freedom of Cuba.
The soldiers of the Queen went out unhesitat-
ingly to pay the price of British supremacy in
South Africa, but the full price of Africa's re-
demption has not been pai(L

The Price of Africa 43

We dwell in a favored land ; we have been A Favored Land
privileged to see tbe dawn of a glorious cen-
tury; we are surrounded by every comfort of
civilized life; God has vouchsafed peace and
prosperity, and we are content. It is an easy
thing in a time like this to drift with the tide,
but in all the ages which look down upon us
there has never been a moment which history
has recorded when there was less time for soft
living than now.

It is a time of world enterprise and of world World-Wide
conquest. The demand of the hour is for world- Enterprise -
statesmen — men who are made of iron, and who
never sleep. It is the time of times for a world-
wide propagation of the gospel, and Africa in
particular was never more ready to receive it
than now.

As the last lines of this chapter are being The Challenge to
written comes the news of peace in South Af- ^^^ ^'""'^''
rica, of rejoicing in London, of rise in stocks,
and of commercial activity everywhere. The
commercial life of the world by its activity is
calling upon the Church to pay the price of
Africa. Every lonely missionary grave is an
appeal for her redemption, every line from
every missionary is a call for help, every man
and woman and child in heathen darkness is a
challenge to the Church. The Lord himself sits

44 The Price of Africa

on the right hand of the throne of God expect-
ing till his enemies be made his footstool. He
has given to the Church all power for the enter-
prise. How long must He wait until Africa
shall be redeemed ?

Questions for the Class Hour.

1. Repeat the words of Raymond Lull, which ap-

pear at the beginniDg of this chapter.

2. Give the gist of the sentence of the missionary

who died on the Congo. (Found on the titls-
page of this chapter.)

3. Tell something of the early spread of Christianity

along the northern coast of Africa.

4. What was Tertullian's testimony as to the num-

ber of Christians in Africa?

5. How many bishops attended the council in A. D.


6. Tell of the alarm of the Roman authorities.

7. What was the purpose of the edict of Septimus

Severus, A. D. 202?

8. Tell of the early persecutions.

9. In what way are these persecutions instructive?

10. Name some of the early martyrs.

11. Give the names of some of the intellectual leaders

of the early Church.

12. What of the lost opportunity of the early Church

in North Africa?

13. How many explorers have lost their lives in


14. Tell of the loss of life during the Middle Ages.

15. How many missionary societies are now at work

in Africa?

16. Of the lists given, what has been the a^^rage

term of service of the missionaries who liave
died in Africa?

The Price of Africa 45

17. What was Drummond's testimony as to the cost

of the redemption of Africa?

18. What should be the attitude of the Church in

view of the great price which it already has
been called upon to pay?

19. What is the attitude of the forces of evil?

20. What did the Boer War cost the British Empire

in life and money?

21. Tell of the courage of Pizarro and his soldiers.

22. What did it cost to liberate the blaclj man in

America? (Answer not found in the booli.)

23. What is the peril of the present age of prosperity?

24. What can you tell of some of the great world

enterprises of the day? (Answer not found in
the booli.)

25. What, in your opinion, are some of the urgent

reasons why the Church should hasten to evan-
gelize Africa?

Topics for Assignment in Class Work.

1. Early Christianity in North Africa. "Two Thou-

sand Years of Missions Before Carey" (Barnes),
Chapters XII and XIII. (See also any good
Church history in pastor's library.)

2. The Roman Empire in its relation to Africa.

Reference same as above.

3. The African leaders of the early Church. Ref-

erence same as above.

4. The extent of the early persecutions in Africa.

Reference same as above.

5. Biblical references or incidents which relate to

Africa. See Concordance.

6. Raymond Lull. "History of Church Missionary

Society," I, 13; II, 359; "Two Thousand Years
of Missions Before Carey," 205; "The Redemp-
tion of Africa," 109-126,

7. John Vanderkemp. "History of Church Mission-

ary Society," I, 92; "Twelve Pioneer Mission-
aries" (Smith), 187.


The Price of Africa

8. George Pilkinglon. Geography and Atlas (Beach),

475; "History of Church Missionary Society,"
III, 285, 286, 360-364, 484, 442, 450-452, 653, 655,
662, 738, 739, 789-791.

9. The martyr spirit in Madagascar. "Sign of the

Cross in Madagascar" (Conquest Missionary
10. Martyrdom and its relation to the extension of
the liingdom of Christ. See any good Church
history. Chapters dealing with the spread of
Christianity in the early Church; the Scotch
Covenanters; the Waldenses, etc.

Subjects for Advanced Investigation.

1. North Africa, Egypt, and Abyssinia.— A brief his-

torical survey.

2. The price which science and commerce are paying

for the commercial redemption of Africa.

3. The relation of the Boer War to the evangelization

of Africa.

4. Difficulties in the way of the evangelization of


5. The size of Africa in comparison with other coun-

tries. (Illustrated by charts.)

NoTB.— References in this section are not intended to be
exhaustive, and they are to those books which are contained
In the Missionary Campaign Libraries, and the Conquest Li-
brary or the Reference Library mentioned on Page 21.



BoBN Blantybb, Scotland, March 19, 1813.
Died Ilala, Afbioa, Mat 1, 1878.

.Sis body reste in Westmingter Ahbey wtumg the iUustrtout
dead. Inscribed on his tomb is the last sentence of his letter
written to the New York Herald, for the purpose of enlisting
American effort toward the suppression of the East Coast slave-
trade: ^^All I can add in my loneliness is, May heaven's richest
blessing come down on every one — American, Englishman, Turk —
who will help heal this open sore of the world."


David Livings ioa^e;.


David Livingstone

** The end of the exploration is the beginning of the

A BOY came to gladden a humble home of Beginninqs
Central Scotland in the raw month of March,
in the year of our Lord, 1813. It was a time
when the acorns were being planted every-
where. Seven years before this boy was born,
the Haystack meeting at Williamstown had in-
augurated the foreign missionary movement of
!N^orth America.

The year before Livingstone's birth, Wil-
liam Carey's great printing-house in Serampore
was consumed by fire. The loss caused Carey
to walk in the smoking ruins, tearfully exclaim-
ing: "In one short evening the labors of many
years are consumed. How unsearchable are the
ways of God ! The Lord has laid me low, that
I may look simply to Him." Yet this great loss
to pioneer missions became, under God, a great
blessing. Throughout England missionary fires
4 51

52 The Price of Africa

were kindled, and "unexampled liberality ani-
mated all classes.^' ^

At the time of David Livingstone's birth
not more than a dozen English missionary soci-
eties had been formed. In 1810 the American
Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions
came into being. Six years later the Wesley an
Missionary Society was organized, and in 1819
the Methodist Episcopal Missionary Society was
A Time of Political ]^ot only was David Livingstone born at the

Unrest an (j^y-dawn of modern missions, but he also errew

Exploration ^ , . . \ , . i j.

up m the midst of a spirit of inquiry and oi

exploration. Six years before he started for
Africa, England had abolished the slave-trade
in all British possessions. The Chinese Opium
War was soon to be waged. The minds of ad-
venturers had for years been turning to the
Dark Continent, the last of the great regions
of the world to be explored. "Into the king-
dom at such a time, and for such a time, Living-
stone came." ^
His Preparation A providential ^reparation of David Liv-
ingstone for his great work will be found in the
hereditary influences which shaped his life.
These enabled him to say: ''The only point of
family tradition that I feel proud of is this, —

1 William Oarey, Missionary Annals Series. Page 5L
8 Picket Line of Missions. Page 25.

David Livingstone 53

one of these poor islanders — one of my ances-
tors, when he was on his deathbed, called his
children around him and said: ^IN^ow, lads, I
have looked all through onr history as far back
as I can find it, and I have never found a dis-
honest man in all the line, and I want you to
understand you inherit good blood. You have
no excuse for wrong-doing. Be honest/ " ^

Another element in his preparation will be A Rellgioas
found in his religious experience which enabled Experience
him at an early age to form this purpose ; "I will
place no value on anything I have or may pos-
sess, except in its relation to the Kingdom of
Christ. If anything I have will advance the in-
terests of that Kingdom, it shall be given up
or kept, as by keeping or giving it I shall most
promote the glory of Him to whom I owe all
my hopes, both of time and eternity. May
grace be given me to adhere to this P'

Again, such was his natural intellectual A Cultivated Mind
strength and activity that at the age of ten he

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