LYONS AND CARNAHAN
S. H. DADISMAN
DIRECTOR OF PRACTICE TEACHING AGRICULTURE, IOWA STATE COLLEGE
OF AGRICULTURE AND MECHANIC ARTS, AMES, IOWA
LYONS & CARNAHAN
CHICAGO NEW YORK
LYONS & CARNAHAN
,- . . ,
The exercises contained in this book have been tried in
high schools by the author. They are recommended for the
laboratory work in a one-year course in agriculture. There
should be two laboratory periods each week for this work if
possible. The value of having each pupil do the individual
exercises cannot be over-emphasized. Seeing and noting
the results, is believing, in laboratory work. These exercises
should accompany the regular class work.
The exercises selected are simple and practical, and
require but little equipment. Many such exercises have been
tried out by the author, in his practice teaching work in
agriculture. All those that have been found too difficult for
the practice teacher to perform have been eliminated, so
that the ones here given can be taught by the average high
school teacher. The teacher can select from this list the
ones that are best suited to the local conditions.
Every exercise in this book can be performed in the
average high school with a limited amount of equipment.
The equipment should be sufficient, however, for the size
of the class. No pupil can perform exercises without the
needed equipment any more than a mechanic can do his
work without tools.
The suggestions for this work came from various sources,
such as the Ames School Circular No. 2, from which the
suggestions on corn were taken; and the Farm Crops and
Poultry Departments Score Card, Iowa State College.
The larger part of the material was gathered by the students
in the practice teaching class in agriculture. The author
wishes to express his thanks to these students for their help.
S. H. D.
1. All exercises should be recorded as soon as they are
2. The drawings, while not intended to show artistic display,
should be neatly and accurately made.
3. Use a hard pencil in making drawings, and ink the draw-
ings in after they have been corrected by the teacher.
4. Label all parts that can be shown in the drawing.
5. Make the drawings large. Where more than one draw-
ing is on a page, make them in comparative sizes.
6. The notes should be brief and written in ink.
7. Textbooks and bulletins on agriculture should be con-
sulted before the notes are written, in case of doubt.
8. A general textbook on agriculture should be used in the
9. Such books as there may be in the school library on the
special topics treated herein, will be found very helpful
for reference in connection with the laboratory work
APPARATUS AND MATERIAL
MINIMUM LIST OF APPARATUS AND MATERIAL FOR HIGH
Recommended by the Department of Public Instruction
State of Iowa, 1915, for a Class of Ten Pupils
The following apparatus will serve a class of 10 pupils.
It should be ordered in advance.
1 laboratory table for class room, 6 x 3 ft., or larger.
1 case for storing apparatus (may be made to order at slight
expense, if necessary).
1 Harvard trip scale.
1 set brass weights, in block, 1 g. to 500 g.
1 set iron weights, J oz. to 2 Ib.
1 set fractional weights, German silver, 1 mg. to 500 mg.
1 spring balance, 25 lb., J Ib. divisions.
1 set five soil sieves, wood frame, 20-40-60-80-100.
2 thermometers, chemical, 10 degrees to 110 degrees, C. and
F., engraved stem.
1 Babcock milk tester, 8 bottles complete.
Extra equipment for same :
4 milk bottles, 2 cream bottles (50%), 2 skim milk
4 acid measures, 4 pipettes (combined) 4 brushes.
1 lactometer (Quevenne's combined with thermometer).
1 hydrometer jar, 15 x 2 in.
1 soil auger, 40 x 1^ in.
5 Universal soil tubes, 12 in., brass, interchangeable bottom.
1 pruning saw, flat steel back, 18| in.
2 hand pruners.
10 grafting knives, non-folding, 6f in.
5 alcohol lamps, 8 oz.
5 tripod magnifiers.
2 glass tubes, 2 in. in diameter, 36 in. or more long.
J Ib. soft glass tubing, % in.
\ Ib. glass rod, \ in.
6 ft. rubber tubing, \ in.
12 rubber stoppers, 2-hole. (2 No. 8; 3 No. 7; 3 No. 6;
2 No. 4; 2 No. 2.)
12 wide-mouth bottles, 8 oz.
12 wide-mouth bottles, 2, 4, and 6 oz., assorted.
48 vials, straight walls, 3 in. long, with corks and labels.
1 gross assorted corks.
2 graduates, 100 cc. each.
72 test tubes, 6 x f in.
5 test tube brushes.
1 test tube rack, 16 tubes, 8 drying pins.
10 evaporating dishes, 3 in. diameter.
1 package filter paper, 15 cm. diameter.
2 vials litmus paper, 100 strips each, blue.
2 vials litmus paper, 100 strips each, red.
1 set liquid measures, \ pt. to 1 gallon, tin.
1 set dry measures, 1 qt. to \ bu., wood.
2 ring stands, rectangular base, 18 in. rod, 3 rings each.
10 student-lamp chimneys.
1 tape measure, 50 feet.
5 tape measures, 5 ft. plain linen without case.
12 flower pots, 4 in., with saucers, 6 in.
1 insect mount, 4 x 5 in.
20 earthen saucers.
10 garden trowels.
1 quart formalin preservative, 40%.
1 pound grafting wax.
1 pound hydrochloric acid.
1 pound nitric acid.
Fertilizers, insecticides, fungicides, .and other chemicals,
to suit the needs of the work as planned by the instructor.
Soil samples from Department of Soils, State College of
Samples of seeds of grasses.
Type samples of grains.
Head or sheaf of each grain.
1 compound microscope, 2 eye-pieces, 2 objectives, double
nose-pieces. (Spencer 66D, Bausch and Lomb BH4,
12 microscope slides, blank, 75 mm. x 25 mm.
J oz. cover glasses, No. 2 round, 18 mm. diameter.
(Where schools can afford it, it is strongly recommended
that a Torsion Balance, for testing cream and determining
the amount of moisture in butter, be added to the list above.)
To the above list should be added samples of the differ-
ent grains and seeds of the common weeds found in the
community. These can usually be secured from the agri-
cultural experiment stations. The weed seed furnished by
the United States Department of Agriculture may be secured
by addressing Seed Laboratory, U. S. Department of Agri-
culture, Washington, D. C. When sending for them it is
also necessary to send $1.75 to Mackall Bros. 9th and H
Street, N. E., Washington, D. C., to pay for the trays and
vials used in packing the collection.
The University of Nebraska has a free catalog of agri-
cultural samples of type seeds, grasses, etc., all nicely
mounted for sale.
Samples of soil, local weed seed, and grains can be gath-
ered and stored for use in the early fall. The manual train-
ing department can make the trays for testing corn.
Exercise No. Page
1. Estimating the Stand of Corn 13
2. Machinery Used in Connection with the Corn Crop 16
3. A Study of the Corn Stalk 17
4. A Study of the Corn Kernel 18
5. Studying Butts and Tips ' 20
6. Selecting Seed Corn 20
7. Testing Seed Corn
8. Scoring Single Ears of Corn 23
9. Scoring Ten-Ear Samples of Corn . .
10. Judging Contest 29
11. Weight of Ear, and Number of Grains in Bushel 31
12. A Study of Corn Enemies 31
13. Germination Test for Small Grains 32
14. Parity Test for Small Grains 33
15. Drawings of the Oat Head 34
16. Drawings of Wheat or Barley Head 35
17. A Study of the Small Grains 37
18. Treating Oats for Loose Smut 38
19. Scoring Grains 38
20. Score Card for Wheat 40
21. Purity Test of Legumes 41
22. Germination Test of Legume Seeds 42
23. Drawings of the Legumes 43
24. Purity Test of Non-Legumes . 46
25. Germination of Non-Legume Seeds 46
26. Drawings of the Non-Legumes 47
27. A Study of the Different Types of Horses 52
28. Use of a Score Card 53
29. Feeding 56
30. A Study of a Dairy Barn 57
ANIMAL STUDIES Continued
Exercise No. Page
31. Scoring a Dairy Cow 59
32. Babcock Test 61
33. Physical Properties of Milk . 63
34. Comparative Cost of Different Cuts of Beef 64
35. Scoring Beef Cattle 68
36. Cuts of Pork 69
37. Cuts of Mutton 72
38. Poultry House 75
39. Types and Breeds of Chickens 76
40. A General Purpose Fowl 77
. 41. Poultry Score Card 79
42. Formation of an Egg 80
43. Parts of an Egg 80
44. The Effect of Feed on the Color of Eggs . . . 81
45. Candling Eggs . 82
46. Effect of Temperature on Eggs 83
47. Scoring Eggs 84
48. Caring for and Marketing Eggs 85
49. Picture Book 86
SOIL AND PLANT GROWTH
50. Composition of Soil 87
51. Testing Soils 87
52. Size of Soil Particles . . . : 88
53. Percolation of Water 90
54. Water Entering Tile Drain 91
55. Sun's Heat on Dry and Wet Soils 92
56. Rise of Water in Soil 93
57. Rate of Percolation 94
58. Plowing-Under Organic Matter 95
59. Freezing and Thawing 96
60. Soil Drainage 97
61. Oxygen and Germination 98
62. Effect of Light upon Germination and Plant Growth 98
63. Amount of Air Needed by Roots 99
64. Moisture Required for Germination 100
65. Effect of Temperature on Germination 100
66. Depth for Planting Seeds 101
67. Root Growth 102
68. Amount of Water Used for Plant Growth 103
Exercise No. Page
69. Farm Drainage 104
70. Making Concrete 105
71. Farm Machinery 107
72. Drawing Plans of Farm Buildings 108
73. Rope Knots 110
74. Laying Out an Orchard . 110
75. Grafting Wax 113
76. Bridge Grafting 114
77. Pruning 115
78. Bordeaux Mixture 115
79. Lime Sulphur Spray Solution 116
80. Study of Different Varieties of Apples 116
81. Scoring Apples 118
82. Study of the Irish Potato . . . . 119
83. Scoring Potatoes 121
84. Drawing of Potato * 123
85. Hot Bed 125
86. Plat of a Garden 126
87. Record of Garden 127
88. Forest Trees 130
89. Forest Map * 132
90. A Study of Weeds 133
91. Identification of Weed Seed 134
92. Birds 135
93. Collecting Insects 7~ ! 136
94. Mounting Insects 138
95. A Farm Layout 138
96. Stock Account 141
97. Crop Account 143
98. Farm Account 147
99. A Country Yard 152
100. Layout of a Farmstead 155
EXERCISES IN AGRICULTURE
EXERCISE No. 1
ESTIMATING THE STAND OF CORN
Object : To determine the per cent of the stand of corn in
Material : Cornfield and yard stick or rule for measuring.
Method : Take a trip to the field where the corn is grow-
ing. The students should work in pairs. If the corn is
planted in check rows, each group of two students should
select a part of the field ten hills each way on which a fairly
representative crop is growing. One of the students should
measure the ground covered by the
hundred hills, to determine what 20SS C 522 C J <: 50
part of an acre it is, measuring from 3223032333
the first to the eleventh hill both in 3122332123
determining length and in determin- 1333302133
ing width. The other pupil should 0233212333
count the stand of corn in each hill, 3 \
making a record like that shown 3303133320
i ..! m, , SAMPLE FORM FILLED
herewith. The per cent of stand
should then be determined. For the purpose of this com-
putation, consider that there should be three stalks to each
hill. (This figure will vary from 4 to 2 in fields of more or
less productive capacity.) Find out how many stalks there
would be to the acre in a perfect stand. Then find out how
many stalks there are to the acre based upon the number of
stalks counted in the hundred hills, and what per cent of a
perfect stand this is. Make this test in four places in the
field, and average the four percentages.
If the corn is not planted in check rows, but in drills,
select a part of the field 10 rows wide and 35 feet long.
Instead of counting by hills count by 3|-foot lengths in the
row, assuming that a perfect stand has three stalks to every
3J feet in the row. Proceed as described above for check
rows. Make four tests and average them.
After returning to the schoolhouse determine the per
cent of stand for the field by averaging the separate per
cents found by all the groups of students.
1. How many suckers in the plot? Do they bear
2. How many stalks have corn smut? How many
stalks are injured by insects?.
3. How many stalks have two ears? One?
4. How many seed ears in the plot?
5. Measure the distance between the hills; also between
6. Measure the height of the ears ffom the ground to the
7. Measure the stalk from the ground to the tip of the
8. Based on your answer to question 3, how many ears
would there be in an acre?
9. Weigh several ears, to determine the average weight
per ear. How many bushels to the acre? (76 Ib. to the
10. Was the corn crop well cared for?
11. Make a list of the weeds found in the field. .
12. What was the color of the soil? What kind
of soil was it?
Conclusion : In what ways do you think that the stand
and the yield of the corn could be improved?..
EXERCISE No. 2
MACHINERY USED IN CONNECTION WITH CORN CROP
Object: To learn the most economical kinds of machin-
ery used in raising and harvesting the corn crop.
Material: A hardware store where practically all kinds
of farm machinery are kept.
Method: Visit the hardware store with a note book in
hand. After the good and bad points of the machinery have
been explained, make a record of all the good points of the
different kinds of machinery used in the cultivation and
harvesting of the corn crop. After the class discussion,
this exercise should be written in the laboratory note book.
The notes should begin with the fall plowing and should
discuss the best kind of machinery to use in connection with
the corn crop until the corn is harvested and in the corn crib.
Conclusion: The economic value of the best machinery.
EXERCISE No. 3
A STUDY OF THE CORN STALK
Object: To become familiar with the different parts of
the stalk of corn and of the rooting system.
Material : Stalks of corn showing rooting system. These
should be green, with as much of the root on them as it is
possible to get.
Method : Draw in detail the mature corn stalk including
the rooting system. Label each part. Also draw a poor
stalk and label it to show the contrast. Label one stalk of
corn desirable and the other undesirable.
Conclusion: How could the poor stalk have been
EXERCISE No. 4
A STUDY OF THE CORN KERNEL
Object: To become familiar with the different parts of
the kernel of corn.
Material : Good and poor kernels of corn for comparison,
and a hand lens. The corn should be soaked in warm water
for an hour before being used for this exercise.
Method : Draw an outline of the kernel as it lies on the
desk, germ side up. The drawing should be made 3| inches
long. Carefully remove the tip cap of the kernel with a
knife. Locate the tip cap in the drawing, and label it.
(a) Carefully remove the hull with a knife, in one piece if
possible. Label the hull in the drawing.
(b) Scrape off the mealy layer (aleurone) which con-
stitutes the second covering of the kernel. It is usually much
thicker than the hull. Make a shady line next to the hull
for the aleurone layer, and label it.
(c) Carefully remove the germ (embryo), which is found
in the center of the front of the kernel and toward the tip.
It extends from \ to f of the length of the kernel. The germ
is rich in fat and oil. The embryo stem points toward the
crown and the embryo root points toward the tip of the
kernel. Both of these are parts of the embryo. Show this
in the drawing.
(d) Break the remainder of the kernel (the endosperm)
into two parts, lengthwise. Scrape the white starchy
portion off the horny starch portion. The white starchy
portion occupies the crown end of the kernel above the germ
and it also surrounds the germ toward the tip. See if you
can separate these into parts, the crown starch and the tip
starch. Show these parts in the drawing, and label them.
(e) Lay a kernel on the desk germ side up and cut it into
two equal parts. Make an enlarged drawing of the cut
surface labeling each part.
(f) Cut a kernel flatwise. With a drop of iodine test
it for starch. The iodine will turn blue the portion that
contains the starch.
Draw and label to show where the starch is located.
Conclusion : Which part of the corn do we try to develop?
EXERCISE No. 5
STUDYING BUTTS AND TIPS
Object: To learn to recognize an ear of corn with good
butt and good tip.
Material: Several samples of butts and tips of corn.
Method: After becoming familiar with good butts and
tips and poor butts and tips, make careful drawings to illus-
trate each. Be sure that the drawings are labeled. Make
drawings from the butts and tips studied in class.
Conclusion : State what constitutes a good butt and a
EXERCISE No. 6
SELECTING SEED CORN
Object : To learn how and when to select good seed corn.
Material : A field of corn.
Method: After the desirable points of a good seed ear
have been studied in class go into a corn field and let each
member of the class select five good seed ears, if enough can
be found. These ears should be marked so that the pupils
can easily find them. Each stalk and ear selected should be
discussed and reasons given for its selection. It should be
remembered that a good seed ear is on a stalk of the proper
size and shape with the grains mature enough to insure
their growth. The class can then decide whether or not
it is a desirable seed ear. A stalk bearing a good seed ear
should be brought to the class room for future study.
Conclusion : A brief description of a good seed ear and of
the stalk on which it grew, telling how and when to select
A PILE OF GOOD EARS
EXERCISE No. 7
TESTING SEED CORN
Object : To learn how to test seed corn.
Material : Seed corn on the ear, germinating box, and the
rag doll tester.
Method : Make a box 20 inches square on the inside and
3 inches deep. Divide it into 2-inch squares by sawing into
the top | inch and running strings through the cuts made by
the saw. Label it A, B, C, D, etc., one way, and 1, 2, 3, etc.,
, the other way. Label the ears of corn to correspond; that
is, Al, A2, Bl, B2, Cl, etc.
Fill the box with saw-dust
or sand and place the kernels
in it according to the way
the ears are numbered. Six
kernels should be taken
from each ear, two from the
middle, two from near the
tip, and two from near the
butt. These kernels should GERMINATING Box
not be taken from the same
place on the ear. After the kernels have been placed
in the box, the box should be covered with a cloth. It
should be watered so that the corn will start to grow.
To prepare the rag doll tester: Take a strip of muslin
about 5 feet long and 9 inches wide. Draw a heavy line
the middle of the
strip. Draw lines
about 3 inches apart
at right angles to the
first line, dividing the
strip into squares.
Number the squares
and the rows the
RAG DOLL TESTER
same as in the box tester. Select the kernels in the same
way and lay them in the squares, germ side up and the tips
pointing outward. Roll the muslin up and soak it in warm
water for about 8 hours. Then drain the tester and put it
away. Examine the tester in about 3 days.
After the testers have been left for about 5 or 6 days take
the corn kernels out and find what per cent germinated
strong, what per cent weak, and what per cent are dead.
No. OF EAR
Both of these methods should be used unless it is thought
that the rag doll is the only one that will be used in the
Conclusion : The per cent of the kernels that germinated
was The samples tested showed.. % strong,
% weak, % dead. No corn should be planted
unless it germinates 100%.
EXERCISE No. 8
SCORING SINGLE EARS OF CORN
Object: To be able to make use of a score card in judg-
Material: Ten single-ear samples of corn and a score
card like the model.
Method: Score the ten ears selected according to the
score card. Be able to give reasons for the points placed on
the score card. When in doubt, consult the teacher. When
the ears are scored, at the end of the period, record the
teacher's total scores and compare them with your totals.
See form on page 26.
SCORE CARD FOR CORN (Single Ears)
Variety Standard Length
Sample Number Standard Circumference....
CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD
NUMBERS OF EARS
I. Variety type
II. Purity of kernels
III. Maturity and soundness .
IV. The ear:
V. The kernels:
(a) Size and shape
(c) Spacing between rows
and between kernels .
(d) Size and condition of
VI. Size of cob
UNIFORMITY OF TYPE. The ear should conform to the general type of the
variety in respect to (1) colop of corn; (2) color of cob; (3) width, thickness,
depth, and shape of kernels; (4) indentation of kernels; (5) arrangement and
spacing of rows; and (6) size and shape of the ear as a whole and also of the
butt and tip. When the variety is not known the perfect score should be
PURITY OF KERNELS. Kernels should be free from mixture. Deduct
one-half point for each kernel showing opposite color, and if in competition,
ten or more mixed kernels shall bar the ear.
MATURITY AND SOUNDNESS. The ear shall be well matured, dry and firm
when twisted, and of good weight for size and condition. Sappiness, mouldi-
ness at the crowns of the kernels and at the cob, looseness of corn on cob,
chaffiness, extreme starchiness, badly shrunken kernel tips, blistered or shriv-
eled kernel backs, adherence of tip caps to cob, and of considerable chaff to the
tips of the kernel are indications of immaturity.
THE EAR: (a) Length. The standard length varies with the section of
the state and the variety. The average measurement which will apply to
different sections is 9 to 10 inches. Deduct at the rate of one point for each
quarter inch short of the standard length.
(b) Circumference. Measure the circumference one-third the distance
from butt to tip. The standard circumference is 7 to 7^- inches. For each
one-quarter inch variation from the standard, deduct one point from the
(c) Shape. In general a well shaped ear should (1) be nearly cylindrical;
(2) have straight rows running directly from butt to tip ; (3) be full and strong
in the middle portion; (4) not be flattened throughout any part of its length.
(d) Butt. The butt should carry out the circumference of ear uniformly,
and not be pinched, enlarged, expanded, or flattened. It should be weU
rounded out with straight rows of regular kernels, having nearly the same
depth, width, thickness, and shape as the body kernels. The corn should be
uniformly arranged around a medium sized, cup-shaped cavity.
(e) Tip. The tip should be covered to the end of the cob with kernels
arranged in straight rows and having nearly the same size and shape as the
body kernels. Shallow, narrow, irregular, glistening, and shot-shaped kernels
THE KERNEL: (a) Size and Shape. Size of kernels includes depth,
width, and thickness. Depth varies with climate and variety. For average
conditions a medium depth ordinarily produces the largest yield of mature
corn. Width, thickness, and shape vary with varieties. In general, kernels
should be keystone-shaped, with plump and well developed tips. Kernels of
this shape have sufficient room for germ development and increase the
shelling percentage. Pointed, shoe-peg, and rectangular kernels should be
discriminated against. In thickness the kernels should number about six
to the inch in the row.