S. L. (Sidney Luxton) Loney.

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IN MEMORIAM
FLORIAN CAJOR1




HILLING
ARITHMETIC



NEY and GRENVILLE



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A SHILLING ARITHMETIC.



MACMILLAN AND CO., Limited

LONDON • BOMBAY • CALCUTTA
MELBOURNE

THE MACMILLAN COMPANY

NEW YORK • BOSTON • CHICAGO
ATLANTA • SAN FRANCISCO

THE MACMILLAN CO. OF CANADA, Ltd.

TORONTO



SHILLING ARITHMETIC



BY

S. L. )lON EY, M.A.

SOMETIME FELLOW OF SIDNEY SUSSEX COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE.
AND

L. W. GRENVILLE, M.A.

OF ST. JOnN's COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE,
SENIOR MATHEMATICAL MASTER OF ST. DUNSTAN'S COLLEGE, CATFORD, S.



MACMILLAN AND CO., LIMITED

ST. MARTIN'S STREET, LONDON

190S



CAJORI



First Edition January 1906.
Reprinted August and November 1906, 1907, 1908.



'GLASGOW : PRINTED AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS
RY ROBERT MACLEHOSE AND CO. LTD.



a



PREFACE.

This little book has been prepared in the hope of meeting
the requirements of Secondary Schools, and covers the course
for the Oxford and Cambridge Junior Local Examinations.
The scheme recommended by the Mathematical Association
has been generally followed, though it was not found
advisable, or even possible, to omit entirely the subject of
Recurring Decimals.

The book is written on the lines of Loney's "Arithmetic
for Schools," and both its text and examples have been used
when they seemed best adapted to the present purpose.
Many changes and simplifications have, however, been made
which a considerable experience in School Teaching has
suggested.

In order to deal as fully as possible with the less ele-
mentary processes of Arithmetic, and at the same time to
keep the book within a reasonable size, it is assumed that
the student already knows the four "Simple" Rules and
the "Compound" Rules. Twelve pages of miscellaneous
questions on these are given, and it is hoped that they
will be found sufficient for revision. The ordinary Tables
are prefixed.

December 4th, 1805.

M330938



CONTENTS.



chap. page

Tables. 1

I. Examples on the Four Simple Rules, on Money,

and on Weights and Measures. ... 4

II. Measures and Multiples of Numbers. - - 16
Greatest Common Measure and Least Common

Multiple. 18

III. Vulgar Fractions. 25

IV. Decimal Fractions. 48

V. The Metric System and Decimal Coinage. - - 68

VI. Practice. Invoices. 72

VII. Square and Cubic Measure. 78

Carpeting of Rooms and Papering of Walls. - 82

VIII. The Unitary Method. 87

Ratio and Proportion. 93

IX. Proportionate Division. 97

X. Percentages. - - 101

XL Profit and Loss. 107

XII. Partnerships. - - - 116

XIII. Bankruptcies, Taxes, etc. 119

XIV. Simple Interest. - 124

XV. Compound Interest. 132

XVI. Present Value and Discount. 135

XVII. Stocks and Shares. 140

XVIII. Square Root. 150

XIX. Miscellaneous Problems on Averages, Work,

Velocity, etc. 158

XX. Abbreviations and Approximations. - - - 165

Miscellaneous Examples. 171



ARITHMETIC.



TABLES.

MONEY.

4 Farthings make 1 Penny.
12 Pence „ 1 Shilling.

20 Shillings „ 1 Pound.

TIME MEASURE.



60 Seconds (60") make 1 Minute (1).


60 Minutes ,


1 Hour.


24 Hours ,


, 1 Day.


7 Days ,


1 Week.


4 Weeks ,


, 1 Month (Lunar).


12 Months ,


, 1 Year.


365 or 366 Days ,


1 Year.



[Every year, whose number is divisible by 4, is a leap year and
contains 366 days, except the years a.d. 1700, 1800 and 1900, which
are not leap years.]

AVOIRDUPOIS WEIGHT.
16 Drams (Drs.) make 1 Ounce (Oz.).



16 Ounces „


1 Pound (Lb.).


28 Pounds „


1 Quarter (Qr.).


4 Quarters „


1 Hundredweight (Cwt.).


20 Hundredweights „


1 Ton (Ton).


Also 1 stone = 14 lbs.





TROY WEIGHT.

24 Grains make 1 Pennyweight (Dwt.).

20 Pennyweights „ 1 Ounce (Oz).
12 Ounces „ 1 Pound (Lb.).

The connection between Troy and Avoirdupois Measure is
1 lb Avoirdupois = 7000 grains Troy,
and 1 lb. Troy = 12 x 20 x 24 = 5760 grains Troy.



2 ARITHMETIC.

APOTHECARIES' WEIGHT.
20 Grains make 1 Scruple (Scr.).

3 Scruples „ 1 Dram (Dr.).

8 Drams „ 1 Ounce (Oz.).

12 Ounces „ 1 Pound (Lb.).

MEASURES OF LENGTH.
LONG MEASURE.
12 Inches (In.) make 1 Foot (Ft.).

3 Feet „ 1 Yard (Yd).

1 Rod, Pole, or Perch (P.).
1 Furlong (Fur).
1 Mile (Mi.).
1 League.

Land surveyors use a Chain (called Gunter's Chain) sub-
divided into 100 Links. This chain is 22 yards long. We
thus have

100 Links = 1 Chain = 22 Yards.

10 Chains = 220 Yards = 1 Furlong.

Also 80 Chains make 1 Mile.

In addition the following measures are used in certain cases :

4 Inches make 1 Hand. [A horse is always spoken of as so many

hands high.]

6 Feet make 1 Fathom. [The sea is often spoken of as so many

fathoms deep.]

SQUARE MEASURE.
144 Square Inches make 1 Square Foot (Sq. Ft).

(Sq. Ins.)



5§ Yards

40 Poles (or 220 Yds.)

8 Furlongs (or 1760 Yds.)

3 Miles



9 Square Feet

30| Square Yards

40 Square Poles

4 Roods
640 Acres



1 Square Yard (Sq. Yd).

1 Square Pole (Sq. Po.).

1 Rood (R).

1 Acre (Ac.)

1 Square Mile (Sq. Mi).



TABLES.



In addition, since 1 chain = 2
we have



»n, since 1 chain = 22 yards,

1 square chain = 22x22 sq. yards = 484 sq. yards.
But 1 acre = 4 roods = 160 sq. poles

= 160 x 30 J sq. yds. = 4840 sq. yds. = 10 sq. chains.
Hence we have 10000 sq. links = 1 sq. chain,
and 10 sq. chains = 1 acre.

CUBIC MEASURE.

1728 Cubic Inches (Cub. In.) make 1 Cubic Foot (Cub. Ft.).
27 Cubic Feet „ 1 Cubic Yard (Cub. Yd. ).

MEASURES OF CAPACITY.

Dry commodities, such as grain and fruit, are measured
according to the following table :

2 Pints (Pts.) make 1 Quart (Qt.).
4 Quarts „ 1 Gallon (Gal.).



2 Gallons

4 Pecks

8 Bushels

5 Quarters



1 Peck (Pk.).
1 Bushel (Bush.)
1 Quarter (Qr.).
1 Load (Ld.).



The first three of these measures are used for liquids also.

MEASURES OF NUMBER.

1 Dozen = 12 Units. 1 Gross = 12 Dozen =144 Units.
1 Score =20 Units.

24 Sheets ef Paper = 1 Quire. | Measure.

20 Quires = 1 Ream. J *



CHAPTER I.

MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES ON THE FOUR SIMPLE
RULES. I.

1. What number must be added to 63495 to give 85934 ?

2. What number must be subtracted from 79384 so that the
remainder may be 57896 ?

3. Add the sum of 549 and 637 to the difference between 983 and 794.

4. Add the difference of 1837 and 989 to the difference between 1354
and 1179.

5. A man whose age is now 37 years was 26 years old when his
daughter was born ; how old is she now ?

6. The sum of two numbers is 1379 and one of them is 6S4 ; what is
the other?

7. In a box there were 3487 coloured balls ; 546 were white, 1364
were red, 987 were blue, and the rest were black. How many black
balls were there ?

8. In 1891 the population of London was 4211743, that of the county
of Durham was 1024369, that of Gloucestershire was 548886, and that
of Devonshire 636225 ; by how many did the population of London
exceed the total population of these three counties ?

9. Add together the numbers 3708, 619, 13462, and 8755, and
multiply the result by 39.

10. Multiply fifty-nine million five hundred thousand one hundred
and ninety-eight by five thousand and forty-two ; and to the product
add three hundred and one thousand six hundred and eight} 7 - four.

11. On board a ship there were 9634 boxes of oranges, and each box
contained 637 oranges ; how many oranges were there on board ?

12. A train runs 347 miles in each day; how many miles would it
run in a year of 365 days ?

13. One sovereign is equal to 240 pence ; how many pence are 573
sovereigns equal to ?

14. In a street there are 139 houses ; each house contains 4 families
and each family 5 persons ; how many people live in the street ?

15. A book has 465 pages ; on each page there are 37 lines and in
each line 43 letters ; how many letters are there in the book ?

16. There are 57 boxes of rice, each containing eight hundred and
nine thousand three hundred and nine grains, and 76 other boxes, each
containing seven hundred and nineteen thousand two hundred and
ninety-four grains. Write in words how many grains of rice there are
altogether.

17. How many railway carriages are required to carry 901 children
if 53 children are put into each carriage ?

18. In a field there are 24541 cabbages arranged in 97 eqxxal rows ;
how many cabbages are there in a row ?



EXAMPLES ON THE FOUR SIMPLE RULES. 5

19. A boy has 3845 counters ; how many heaps, each containing 97
counters, can he make, and how many has he left ?

20. 208008 oranges are to be packed into boxes, each of which will
hold 856 oranges ; how many boxes are required ?

21. What number multiplied by 837 will give 496341 ?

22. What number divided by 796 will give 804 as quotient ?

23. What number multiplied by 23 will give the same product a?
391 multiplied by 37 ?

24. The product of two numbers is 102823 and the greater of them
is 397 ; find the other.

25. What number divided by 293 will give 79 as quotient and 237 as
remainder ?

26. What number divided into 34034 will give 97 as quotient and
278 as remainder ?

27. The quotient arising from the division of a number by 78 is 342
and the remainder is 47 ; what is the number ?

28. The quotient arising from the division of 163713 by a certain
number is 384 and the remainder is 129 ; find the divisor.

29. An army consisted of 22977 men in all ; each regiment contained
950 men and 49 officers : how many regiments were there in the army ?

30. Divide five million by 1170; what is the nearest whole number
to five million which is exactly divisible by 1170?

II.

1. In a school there were 127 boys, 113 girls, and 89 infants ; how
many children were there in all ?

2. A man whose age is 45 years was 27 years old when his son was
born ; how old is his son now ?

3. The sum of two numbers is 216, and one is 79 ; find the other.

4. In a school of 347 pupils there were 128 girls and 97 infants ; how
many boys were there ?

5. Multiply the sum of 359 and 331 by the difference between them.

6. How many letters are there in a book which contains 324 pages,
each page containing 23 lines, and each line 47 letters ?

7. A boy has 987 counters ; how many heaps of 79 counters each can
he make, and how many counters has he left ?

8. From a ship full of oranges 123 vans are loaded ; if each van con-
tains 58 boxes, and each box contains 144 oranges, how many oranges
did the ship contain ?

9. To three times a certain number I add 59, and thus obtain 2426 ;
what is the number ?

10. How many times must 43 be added to 1649 to give 4186 ?

11. It is said that there are in the Old Testament twenty-three
thousand two hundred and fourteen verses, and in the New Testament
seven thousand nine hundred and fifty-nine ; write in words by how
many the former exceeds the latter.



6 ARITHMETIC. [Exs. II.]

12. What number multiplied by 57 will give the same product as
247 multiplied by 21 ?

13. What number divided by 367 will give 59 as the quotient and
126 as the remainder?

14. A and B play at marbles ; A had 347 to begin with, and B had
135 ; B wins 106 from A : how many has each now ?

15. If a bicyclist travel 57 miles a day, how far will he go in 17
days, and how long will he take to go 741 miles ?

16. By what number must 123 be multiplied so that when the
product is added to 1349 the final result is 8360?

17. In a train containing 310 passengers, the number of first and
third-class passengers was 220, that of the second and third-class 265 ;
how many passengers were there in each class ?

18. At a game of cricket three boys, A, B, and C, score between
them 222 runs ; A and C make between them 193 runs ; B and C make
159 ; how many runs does each boy score ?

19. An army consists of 23161 men; each regiment consists of 960
men and 47 officers : how many regiments are there in the army ?

20. If a train travel from London to Exeter in 342 minutes, and it
goes 880 yards in each minute, find the distance between London and
Exeter in yards.

21. In a street there are 154 houses. Of these, 23 have three
families, 14 have four, and the remainder two residing in them. If each
family contains five persons, what is the population of the street ?

22. A book has 676 pages. Of these 17 have only pictures, and 23
have only one column with 58 letters in each line. The rest have two
columns each with 27 letters in each line. Each column contains
44 lines ; how many letters are there in the book ?

23. The product of two numbers is 67267, and the least of them is
137 ; find the sum of the numbers.

24. The quotient arising from the division of a number by 53 is 29
and the remainder is 23 ; what is this number ?

25. A man was 26 years of age when his daughter was born ; how
old would she be when he is 50 years of age, and what age would he be
when she is 45 years of age ?

26. A man died in 1892 aged 75 years, and his son died in 1884 aged
41 ; how old was the father when the son was born ?

27. What is the smallest number that must be subtracted from
34657 so that it may be exactly divided by 129 ?

23. The remainder of a division is 91, the quotient is 502, and the
dividend 63252 more than the sum of both ; what is the divisor ?

29. How many horses at £21 each are worth 56 cows at £15 each ?

SO. A man gave 104 cows for 52 horses valued at £24 each ; how
much did he get for each cow ?

31. A man's yearly income is £1200 ; he pays for house rent and rates
and taxes, £124 ; for food and servants, £260 ; for clothes, £94 ; for
education, £45 ; for holidays, £74 ; and for other expenses, £123 : how
much has he left of his income ?



EXAMPLES ON MONEY. 7

COMPOUND QUANTITIES.-MONEY. EXAMPLES III.

1. Reduce £64. 17s. 6c?., £817. 5s., £737. 15*., and £2437. 2s. 6c?.
(1) to half-crowns and (2) to three-pences.

2. How many farthings are there altogether in 7 sovereigns, 7 half-
crowns, 7 florins, and 7 sixpences ?

3. How many letters, paying penny postage, require stamps to the
value of £2387. lis. 10c?.?

Reduce to guineas, shillings, pence, etc. :

4. 5436c?., 8324c?., and 79384c?. 5. 83462/., 72375/., and 8457/

6. 5932, 6381, and 14372 half-pence.
Reduce to half-crowns :

7. 9960/ and 13680/". 8. 26760/ and 1872/

9. 11540, 14220, and 17340 half -pence.

10. By how much is £3498. 6s. lfc?. greater than £2943. 13s. 7|c?. ?

11. By how much is £7348. 17s. 3|c?. less than £13649. 3s. 5|c?. ?

12. Add together £34. 6s. 3ic?., £64. lis. 5£c?., £205. 4s. 7 id., and
£29. 0s. lfc?., and subtract the sum from £759. 17s. 3|c?.

13. Subtract the sum of £73. lis. 7c?., £42. 15s. 3|c?., £27. 16s. l±c?.,
and £94. 14s. 5|c?. from £315. 13s. 6gc?.

14. A ladv has £20 in her pocket and pays bills to the amount of
£2. 3s. 5Jc?., £7. 4s. 3|c?., £1. 18s. 3|c?., £1. 17s. 2Jc?., and £5. 16s. 4£c?. ;
what money has she left ?

15. From the sum of £133. lis. 6c?. and £47. 5s. 3|c?. take away the
difference between £57. 6s. 9£c?. and £13. 18s. 10|c?.

16. To the difference between £734. lis. 3|c?. and £943. 17s. 6|c?.
add the difference between £463. 14s. 6c?. and £344. lis. 8|c?.

17. From the difference between £234. lis. 7c?. and £69. 14s. 2\d.
subtract the difference between £342. 14s. l\d. and £265. 17s. 5%d.

18. Find the value of

£34. lis. 7c?. -£1. 3s. 4c?. +£14. 13s. 6£c?. +£46. 5s. 2£c?. -£73. 16s. 5Jc?.

19. If out of £52 I pay away £25. 16s. lfc?., £2. 17s. lljc?.,
£9. 5s. 3|c?. , and 7s. 7^c?. , how much shall I have left ?

20. Add together £7. 19s. 6|c?., £11. 0s. 10c?., £28. 3s. 4JC?., and
£16. 8s. 0|c?., and subtract the sum from £100.

21. What sum will be left when the amounts £5. 10s. 7|c?.,
£12. 18s. 6fc?., £9. 4s. 6£c?., and £3. 2s. 4£d. of four bills have been
paid out of £35 ?

22. 10 dozen sheep at £2. 3s. 6c?. each.

23. 17 gross of shoes at 15s. 6c?. each.

24. 785 lbs. of tea at Is. 8c?. per lb.

25. 23 tons of coal at £1. 3s. 6c?. per ton.

26. Multiply twenty-nine pounds nineteen shillings and tenpence
three farthings by a hundred and ninety-two.



8 ARITHMETIC. [Exs. III.]

27. Subtract the sum of £17. 18s. Z^d. and £247. 13s. lljd. from
550 guineas.

28. Out of a sum of money 17 men received 3s. 4|c?. each, and there
remained 2s. 5%d. : how much was the original sum ?

29. What is the total cost of a city dinner at £4. 13s. 9tZ. each, the
number of guests being 312 ?

30. A grocer bought 300 lbs. of tea at 2s. 4|c?. a pound, but 60 lbs.
of it being damaged the price for this was reduced to Is. 9c?. a pound :
what was the cost of the whole ?

31. Find the whole cost of 20 dozen boxes of fruit at 14s. 7hd. per
box, 40 dozen at 13s. 94c?. , and 60 dozen at 12s. 8c?.

32. A man buys 24 calves at £2. 5s. 6c?. each ; 27 pigs at 15 shillings
each ; 59 sheep at £1. 18s. each ; and 4 horses at £16. 10s. each : how
much in all does he pay ?

33. The charge for dinner was 12s. 6c?. a head with a reduction of
5s. if no wine was taken. Of 368 people who dined 120 took no wine.
What was the total bill for the dinner ?

34. At a certain wool sale 14575 bales were sold. Taking each bale
as weighing 300 lbs., and the price of the wool at lie?, per lb., what
amount of money was realized?

35. Seven persons spend between them £14. 3s. 7\d. ; how much is
that per person ?

36. If £319. 9s. 2\d. be equally divided amongst 59 men, what is
the share of each ?

37. If in 28 days a man's wages amount to £4. 0s. 6e?., what does he
earn per day ?

38. If 69 sheep be bought for £143. 3s. 6c?., what is the cost of each
sheep ?

39. A sum of £254. 9s. 8Je?. is equally divided among 47 men ; how
much does each man get ?

40. The following sums were given in aid of a charitv : £17. 3s. 2d.,
£21. 17s. lie?., £12. 19s. 5±d., and £24. 12s. 10c?., and the whole was
then divided between 47 poor persons ; how much did each receive ?

41. How many persons may receive a pension of fifty-five guineas
out of an annual income of five thousand five hundred pounds ? How
much will be left after they have been paid ?

42. I have due to me six sums of £4. 9s. 3Jc?. each, seven of
£1. 2s. 6|c?., and one of £3. 0s. life?. ; how long will the money last me
at £1. 7s. 3c?. per week ?

43. How many persons can be paid lis. 6c?. each out of a sum of
£170. 10s. 2c?. ? Also if the balance be distributed equally amongst
them, how much more will each receive ?

44. To how many persons can the sum of £19. 19s. lie?, be paid out
of an estate worth £10000? How much each may 25 other persons
receive from the residue ?

45. How many times can £17. 5s. 9£eZ. be subtracted from £100, and
what will be the last remainder ?



MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES. MONEY. 9

46. How many times can £31. 4s. *]\d. be subtracted from £500,
and what will Vie the last remainder?

47. Into how many parcels of £1. 4s. 3fd. each can £700 be divided?
How much more would be required to make up one parcel more ?

48. A man bought 37 pieces of cloth for £220. 3s. at 5s. 8d. per
yard ; how many yards were there in each piece ?

49. How many dozen articles can be bought for £232. 18s., supposing
that each article costs 2s. lOeZ. ?

50. How many patients can be maintained by a hospital whose
revenue is £31076 if the cost of each patient be £22. 13s. 4d. ?

51. A sum of money amounting to £904. lis. 4c?. was shared
amongst a number of people. If each received £56. 10s. 8^d., how
many people were there ?

Reduce

52. £97. 17s. 6d. to half-crowns. 53. £693 to guineas.

54. 376 guineas to florins. 55. 560 guineas to pounds.

56. £368. 5s. to guineas and shillings.

57. 2462 half-crowns to fourpences.

58. 1071 half-crowns to half guineas.

59. £66. 10s. to francs of 9%d. each.

60. £123. 15s. to dollars of 4s. \%d. each.

MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES IV.
Compound Rules. Money.

1. Add together £175. 17s. 6d., five hundred guineas, eighty-seven
half-crowns, and 1143 threepenny pieces.

2. Add together two million three hundred thousand and forty pence,
eight hundred and eight thousand sixpences, and ten million one
hundred and thirty-five thousand nine hundred and fifty shillings.

3. On the first day of the year a boy has £1. Is. 4cZ., and in each
month he spends one-quarter of the money that he has at the commence-
ment of that month. How much does he spend in the first five months,
and how much has he left on June 1st ?

4. After paying out of £100, £20. 13s. 4fd to my butcher,
£30. 15s. 6hd. to my tailor, and £46. 13s. ll%d. to my grocer, I divided
the remainder among 27 persons ; find the share of each person.

5. Two horses and a carriage cost together £250 ; one of the horses
and the carriage cost £181. 13s. 7d. ; the other horse and the carriage
cost £155. 6s. 5d. : what was the separate cost of each of the three ?

6. What sum will remain when four bills, amounting to £5. 17s. 4hd.,
£13. 4s. 7fd, £2. 15s. Id., and £10. 13s. 2\d. respectively, have been
paid out of £37 ?

7. A man starts with £10 in his pocket, and pays four bills of
amounts £1. 17s. ohd,, £2. 13s. 2d., £1. 4s. 8\d., and £4. 3s. lid. : how
much has he left ?



10 ARITHMETIC. [Exs. IV.]

8. What sum added to £43. 14s. 3|rf. will make 48000 farthings ?

9. A has £57. 8s. 9£cZ. and B has 57891 farthings ; if A receives from
B 11111 farthings, and B receives from A £11. Is. l\d., which has the
larger sum finally, and by how much ?

10. What is the difference in the value of two farms, one being
worth £23 per acre, and containing 215 acres, whilst the other is worth
£31 per acre, but only contains 155 acres ?

11. A has 27 ponies, each worth 22 guineas, and B has 16 horses,
worth £20. 15s. each ; supposing they exchange their property, which
man should give the other money, and how much ?

12. At a fair a farmer sells 453 sheep at £2. 15s. a sheep ; and he buys
47 bullocks, 12 at £30. 10s. each, 14 at £24. 3s. each, and the remainder
at £18. 17s. 6d. each. Does he receive or spend more money, and how
much ?

13. If I am accustomed to pay 25s. a ton for coal, and the same is
offered to me at 19s. 6d. a ton, with carriage at the rate of 3s. 2d. a ton,
what shall I save by accepting the offer and purchasing 12J tons ?

14. How much is spent in 13 years by a person who spends
£723. 15s. lid. each year? How much does he save during these years
if his yearly income be £1034. 17s. M. ?

15. A man gives two ten-pound notes to pa}^ for his board during
the month of May, which has 31 days, at the rate of 6s. 9cZ. per day ;
what change should he receive ?

16. A house and its furniture are worth £2435. 2s. 4d, and the
house is worth three times its furniture ; what is the value of each ?

17. A safe and the money it contains are worth £119. 7s. 8d., and
the money in the safe is worth 57 times the value of the safe ; find the
value of the latter.

18. How many yards of cloth at 3s. I^d. a yard should be given in
exchange for 935^ yards of velvet worth 18s. 1 Jrf. a yard ?

19. How many times may the sum of £3. 2s. 4d. be paid out of
£4325 17s. 6d. ? How many threepenny pieces may the remainder be
changed for ? What will then be left ?

20. A person changed a £10 note, and received an equal number of
half-crowns, florins, shillings, sixpences, and threepences ; how many
were there of each ?

21. A person laid out a part of £116. 9s. 2d. in the purchase of 684
yards of linen at 3s. l\d. per yard, and the rest in calico at ll\d. a
yard ; how many yards of calico did he buy ?

22. A man laid out £12. 18s. M. in gloves at 2s. 8c?. the pair ; some
of them faded and were unsaleable ; the rest he sold for £14. 13s. 10a.
at 3s. 5d. the pair. How many pairs faded ?

23. If I spend each week £1. 18s. 6d. for rent and taxes, £5. 3s. Qd.
for house-keeping bills, £1. 15s. for clothes, and £2. 3s. 6d. for sundries,
for how many weeks will £407 last me ?

24. If I owe a sum of £6. 12*. 8hd., how soon may I pay it, supposing
1 can spare only a half-crown, a shilling, a threepenny piece, and a
halfpenny per week ?



EXAMPLES. WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. II

25. The soldiers of a regiment received as prize-money £6720 ; to
afford each soldier 15s. extra the prize-money should be £7440. How
many soldiers are there in the regiment ?

26. A postman whose pay for a week is 15s. is fined Is. Qd. if he
comes in late, and at the end of 13 weeks he receives £8. 15s. Qd. ; how
often was he late ?

27. A clerk, whose payment is at the rate of £2. 10s. per week, is
fined Is. for each day that he is late ; if in 5 weeks he received £12. 3s.,
how often was he late ?

28. An equal number of men, women, and boys earn £111. 7s. 6cZ. in


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