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Cfje ^torp of toe il^iations.



GERMANY




THE STORY OF THE NATIONS.



Large Crozmi Svo, Cloth, Illustrated, ^s.

1. ROME. Arthur Oilman, M.A.

2. THE JEWS. Prof. J. K. Hosmer.

3. GERMANY. Rev. S. Baring-Gould,

M.A.

4. CARTHAGE. Prof. A. J. Church.

5. ALEXANDER'S EMPIRE. Prof.

J. P. Maiiaffy.

6. THE MOORS IN SPAIN. Stanley

Lane-Poole.

7. ANCIENT EGYPT. Canon Raw-

LINSON.

8. HUNGARY. Prof. A. Vambery.

9. THE SARACENS. A. Oilman, M.A.

10. IRELAND. Hon. Emily Lawless.

11. THE GOTHS. Henry Bradley.

12. CHALD.<EA. Z. A. Ragozin.

13. THE TURKS. Stanley Lane-Poole.

14. ASSYRIA. Z. A. Ragozin.

15. HOLLAND. Prof. J. E. Thorold

RoriKKS.

16. PERSIA. S. W. Benjamin.



London !
T. FISHER UNWIN, 26, Patftrnoster Square, E,0.







BUST OF A GERMAN, BY TRADITION, HERMWN,
'The Canitoline Museum. Pome.>



GERMANY



vS. BARING-GOULD, M.A.

AUTHOR OF "gEKMANY I'KKSF.NT AND PAST," " CURIOUS MYTHS OF THK MIDDLE
AGES," ETC.



WITH THE COLI.ARORATION OF

ARTHUR OILMAN, M.A.

AUTHOR OF "the STORY OF ROME," ETC.



SECOND EDITION



T. FISHER UNWIN

26 TATERxNOSTER SQUARE

NEW YORK : G. P. PUTNAM'S SONS
MDCCC1.XXXV11






Entered at Stationers' Hah
By T. Fisher Unwin



Copyright hv G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1886
(For the United States of America.)



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[email protected]^^



PREFACE.

Germany is the heart of Continental Europe, and
influences have gone forth from her which have
deeply affected every one of her neighbours. The
present volume traces the life of this powerful na-
tion from the time when imperial Rome was baffled
by her valiant Hermann down to the hour when
France fell before her, and the idea of Empire
(which had been a delusion and a terrible embarrass-
ment since the crowning of Charlemagne) became,
under William the First, a power making for peace
and strength.

The absorbing story begins with pictures of the
surgings of the nations, — the Huns, the Sclavs, the
Goths, the Saxons, the Franks ; it tells of the throes
by which the heroes of old brought the great peo-
ple to its independent life ; recounts the struggles
of the various Teutonic families among themselves,
and of all of them with their neighbours ; and brings
up vividly the power of an idea, as it shows the
strife and perplexities arising from the Imperial
spectre, as well as the dire contest that followed
the schism of the Church and in a short time in-
volved all Christendom in disputes touching the
highest interests of humanity.

The reader of the story of Germany is thu>^
iii



iv PREFACE.

brought face to face with problems of the deepest
moment, with which men of deadly earnestness
were struggHng through the ages, putting forth all
the power of their intellect and the force of their
vigorous bodies, intensified by the deep-seated re-
ligious convictions which they nourished in their
hearts.

The story of such a people as the Germans could
not fail to possess intense interest for anyone ; but
for us of another branch of the Teutonic family, it
has the additional charm that it is the history of
our blood-relations. On their experience we have
built, and to the light of their example we look for
guidance ; in their triumphs we rejoice ; to the
grandeur of the genius of their poets and prose
writers, of their scientists and theologians, we look
with pride and admiration, congratulating ourselves
that we, too, are Teutons. We stood with their
Hermann, as he said to the Roman Varus, " No
farther!" just as we stood with the barons before
King John on the field of Runnymedc.

It has been the endeavour in preparing the fol-
lowing pages to keep before the mind this unity of
the Teutonic peoples, as well as to indicate the
steps by which the idea of Empire has progressed
to the present German Unity.




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GERMAN EMPIRE

1885



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London: T. Fisher Unwin




CONTENTS.



1. PAGE

The First Germans, ...... i-6

Invaders from the North, i — The Romans defeated, 2 —
Marius at Aix, 4 — The victory over the invaders, 6.

II.

What WAS Old Germany Like ? . , . 7-14
Hill-country and plain, 7 — Traces of early inhabitants, 8 —
The Germans spearmen, 9 — The Swabians, 10 — Freemen
and slaves, 11 — Donar and the other gods, I2^S. Noth-
burga, 14.

III.

How Hermann Met the Romans, . . . 15-23
Caesar in Gaul, 15 — Hermann's thoughts, — Varus and his
legions, 18 — "Give me back my legions I " 20 — Tluisnclda
captured, 22 — Hermann the typical German, 23.

IV.

The Fierce Huns Appear, .... 24-28
Puss in the Corner, 24 — People from Northern Asia, 26 —
The Niebelungen Lied, 27 — Attila dies, 28.

V.

The Migrations of the Tribes, . . . 29-33
Wasps in a beehive, 29 — Goths, West Goths and Slavs, 31 —
The Purgundians and Franks, 33.

VI.

Clovis, Kino of the Franks, . . . 34-42

Confusion, 34 — The cathedral at Rhcims spoiled, 35 — Clo-

V



yj COXTENTS.

PAGE

tilde wooed by Clevis, 37— Baptism of a son of Clovis, 38
— Clovis prays, 39 — The Allemani beaten, 40 — Tliree thou-
sand Franks baptised, 41 — Clovis dies, 42.
VII.

The Mayors of the Palace, .... 43-45

The Merovingians, 43,— Pepin the Short, 44— Pepin dies, 45.

VIII.

The Germans Hear the Gospel, . . . 46-5 1

Irish manuscripts in Germany, 46 — Fridolin, the Irishman,
48 — Boniface, the Good-doer, 50 — Pagans murder Boniface,

SI-

IX.

A Man of Mark, 52-62

Charlemagne, 52— His kingdom, 54— Wittekind flees to
Denmark, 56 — Wittekind and the Saxons overcome, 57—
Charlemagne divides his kingdom, 58 — The Church under
Charlemagne, 59 — Good acts of Charlemagne, 60 — Charle-
magne crowned at Rome, 61 — His death, 62.
X.
The " Holy Roman Empire," . . 63-66

The old Empire, 63— Conversion of the Romans, 64— Italy

overrun by the Lombards, 64— Who was Emperor? 65—

Importance of the idea of the Empire, 66.

XI.

A King Pious but Narrow, ... - 67-71

Louis, the narrow-minded, 67— Jutta accused of witchcraft,

68— War between brothers, 70— Treaty at Verdun, 71.

XII.

The New System of Government, . . 72-74

How the Germans held their lands, 72— How fighting men
were furnished, 73— The feudal system, 73.
XIII.
Trouble Coming, 75-77

Successors of Louis the Pious, 75— The invasions of the
Magyars or Hungarians, 76— End of the race of Q\ rh-
magne, 77.



CONTENTS. vii

XIV.
How Henry the Fowler Ruled, . . . 78-84

The great vassals elect the king, 78— Conrad chosen, 79—
Henry the Fowler chosen, 80— Tribute to the Hungarians,
8i_Protecting the frontier, 82— The Hungarians baffled, 83
—Knighthood instituted, 83— Rules of the Order, 84.

XV.

The Hungarians Burst in Agah^j, . . 85-93

Bishop Ulrich of Augsburg, 85— Count Kyburg puzzles the
Hungarians, 86 — Otto comes upon their rear, 88— Otto the
Great crowned, 90.

XVI.

Some Trials of a King, .... 94-105
A Plot against a King, 95 — The King's Guardians, 97 — An
Appeal to the Pope, 99 — A Hand cut off, 103 — A broken •
heart, 105.

XVH.

A Bad Son Makes a Strong King, , , 106-10S
XVHI.

How They Fought THE Saracens, . . 109-112
A great awakening, iii.

XIX.

How A New Dynasty was Begun, . . 113-119
The two-headed eagle, 119.

XX.

Frederick OF THE Red Beard, . . . 120-124
Frederick Barbarossa, 120 — His army almost cut to pieces,
122 — Henry the Lion under the ban of the empire, 122 — A
crusade against Saladin, 124.

XXI.

A Cruel King Put Under the Ban, " . 125-13^

Terrible work in Sicily, 125 — A child-king, 127 — The power
of the nobles, 129 — Trouble from the imperial idea, 131 —
Another crusade, 132 — Pope against emperor, 133 — The em-
peror excommunicated, 134 — A prince in a cask, 13-;



yf{{{ CONTENTS.

xxii. page

The Robber-Knights, .... 136-140

Germany's ruined castles, 136 — Nobles and knights quarrel,
i38_What work the knights did, 139— Lordly innkeepers,
140.

XXIII.
How THE Germans Wrote Romances, . 141-145

The Minnesingers, 141— The old heroic legends, 142— Gun-
thur and Kriemhild, 143— Brunhilde quarrels with Kriem-
hild, 144 — Attila, King of the Huns, marries Kriemhild,
145.

XXIV.

How THE Cities Gained Power, . . 146-147

Guilds and hereditary burghers, 146— The Hanseatic
League, 147.

XXV.
A Good King from a Swiss Castle, . . 148-150
The castle of Hapsburg, 148— Rudolph founds a dynasty,
150.

XXVI.
Did William Tell Shoot ? . . . . 151-153
Albert of Hapsburg, 151— William Tell, 152— The battle of
Morgarten, 153.

XXVII.
The Golden Bull, . . • . - i54-i^3

Henry of Luxemburg chosen emperor, 154— Civil war, 156
—The election of emperor settled by the Golden Bull, 156
— Wenceslas comes to the throne, 158— His savage hounds,
159— Huss appears at Prague, 160— The one-eyed leader of
the Hussites, 161— Saxony wasted, 162— Bohemia and the
country generally pacified, 163.

XXVIII.

A Sleepy King, 164-170

The Austrian house of Hapsburg comes into power, 164 —
The Graubiinden, 166— Peasants with pitchforks, 166 —
Wheat fields ravaged, 167— Maximilian the Handsome, 168
— The Flemings revolt, ijo^Maximilian a prisoner, 170.



x



CONTENTS. IX

XXiX. P.\GB

Between the Old and the New, . . 172-178
Hans Burgkmair's wood-cuts, 172 — Maximilian a boundary-
stone, 174 — A diet at Worms, 175 — An imperial post-office,
176 — Trouble with the Turks, 176 — Money going to the
Pope, 177 — Too much ambition, 178.

XXX.

Men Begin TO Print Books, . . . 179-181

Water-marks, 179 — The invention of printing, 179 — The
Bible printed, iSo.

XXXI.

A Great Stir in the Church, . 182-188

Beginning of Protestantism, 182 — The Pope wants u;oney,
183 — Indulgences, 184 — Martin Luther appears, 185 — Justi-
fication by faith, 186 — Archbishops in armor, 188.

XXXII.

Walled Cities and their Importance, . 189-195
Cities begin to be important, 189 — Timber houses, 189 —
Glass windows, 191 — Stables under the houses, 191 — Beauty
of the cities, 192 — Street fights, 193 — Music and singing,
194.

XXXIII.

High German and Low, .... 196-198

How Germany is divided, 196 — The hill country and j)lains,
196 — How Luther fixed the literary dialect, 197 — Compari-
son with England, 198.

XXXIV.

A Mighty Emperor, 199-204

Charles the Fifth and his traits, 199 — His ambition, 201 —
Another diet at Worms, 203 — The princes seize church
property, 204.

XXXV.

How the Peasants Waked UP, . . 205-210

The new ideas permeate society, 205 — Gallicring straw-
berries and snails, 206 — Little Jack and Black Hoffman,



X CONTENTS.

PAGE

207 — Hacked to pieces, 207 — Terrible deeds, 20S — Shall the
chains be re-riveted ? 209.

XXXVI.

The Sad Fate of Bernard Knipperdolling, 211-220

Meyerbeer's opera, 211 — League against the Catholics, 211
— Munster converted to the Gospel, 2i2 — Anabaptist trou-
bles, 213 — Vagaries, 214 — Knipperdolling's death, 217 —
Titles to tradesmen, 218 — Munster reverts to Catholicism,

2IQ.

XXXVII.

How the Protestants Protested, . . 221-231

The Reformation at Zurich, 22 J — A diet at Spires, 221 —
The Protestants uncompromising, 222 — Council at Trent,
225 — Victory for king Charles at Muhlbcrg, 225— Maurice
rewarded by Charles, 226— Maurice unmasks, 227 — The
Pacification of Passau, 228— The Pope jealous of King
Charles, 228— Death of Charles V., 230.

XXXVIII.

Thirty Years of War about Religion, . 232-239

Persecutions on both sides, 232 — Gloomy Rudolph II., 233
—The Protestant Union and the Catholic League, 233 — A
High Fall, 235 — Vienna besieged, 235— A battle at Prague,
238 — The Winter King, 239.

XXXIX.

A Bohemian Gentleman, .... 240-246
Count Tilly comes to the front, 240— Albert of Wallenstein
appears, 242— Bethlen Gabor disbands "bis troops, 244 —
Wallenstein baffled, 244 — He retires to Bohemia, 246.

XL.

A Swedish King in Germany, ... 247-256

Gustavus Adolphus appealed to, 247— Dreadful scenes in
Magdeburg, 247— Outrages by the Swedes, 250 — The em-
peror appeals again to Wallenstein, 251— Wallenstein's
magnificence, 252— Gustavus attacks the Bohemian gentle-
man, 253— A difficult retreat, 254— A battle at Lutzen, 154
— What two Scotchmen and an Irishman did, 256.



CONTENTS. XI

XLI. PACE

Peace After the Long War, . . . '5 7 - 59

The Peace of Westphalia, 257 — The Reichstag or Imperial
Diet, 258 — IIovv the population decreased, 258.

XLII.
Two Strokes by a Man in Yellow, . 260-264

The long reign of Leopold, 260 — Rhineland wasted by the
French, 261 — The man in yellow, 261 — The Turks stirred
up, 263 — Two great men, 263.

XLIIL

A Noble Ruler, 264-267

The Great Elector, 264 — His pedigree, 265 — A fortunate
escape, 266 — The Swedes take to flight, 267.

XLIV.

Bitterly Fighting the Turks, . . . 26S-269
Prince Eugene appears, 26S — Louis XIV. attempts to gain
Eugene over, 269 — The Prince wins his soldiers' hearts, 269.

XLV.

All Europe AT War, 270-274

A claim to the crown of Spain, 270 — War begins in Italy,
271 — The battle of Blenheim, 271 — Marlborough in the

Netherlands, 272 — Ramilies and Oudenarde, 274 — Rastadt,
274.

XLVI.

Powdered Wigs and Patches, . . . 275-277
Rococo, 275 — A strange " deformity," 276 — Threatrical stat-
ues, 276 — Manufacturing " nobles," 277.

XLVII.

The Troubles of a Noble Queen, . . 279-2S2

War with Maria Theresa, 279 — In spite of the Pragmatic
Sanction, 280 — Rude royalty, 2S1 — Insolence of king Fred-
erick, 2S2.

XLVIII.

The Queen's Baby Boy, .... 283-2S7
" Moriamur pro rege nostro Maria Theresa," 2S3 — A brief



xii coy TEA' TS.

PAGE

reign, 2S5 — Frederick the Great uneasy, 2S6 — An angry
prince, 2S7.

XLIX.

The Hardships of a Young Prince, . . 288-292

Doings in a " Tabagie," 28S — Royal whimsies, 289 — A flying

prince, 290 — Close confinement, 291 — A reconciliation, 292.

L.
The Army of Cut-and-Run, . . . 293-295
A confederation against Prussia, 293 — The battle of Ross-
bach, 294 — The charge of Seidlitz, 295.
LI.

Old Fritz Repairs Ruins, . . ' . . 296-300
Terrible results of the war, 296 — Traits of the king, 20S—
Anecdotes, 299 — Frederick the Great, 300.
LII.

The Doings of Two Hundred Princes, . 301-305
Culture nearly extinguished, 301 — ]Manufactured towns,
302— Mannheim described, 303— A palace at Wurzburg,

304-

LIII.

Good King Joseph, 306-311

Character of Joseph II. , 306— Arbitrary reforms, 307— Con-
dition of the peasants improved, 30S— Religious orders put
to work, 309 — A visit from pope Pius VI., 310 — A tottering
throne, 311.

LIV.

Genius Comes TO THE Front, . . . 312-317

Lessing breaks away from foppery, 312— Goethe and Schil-
ler appear, 313 — Weimar a German Athens, 314 — Schiller's
Robbers, 315— Other writers, 316— Music improves, 317.
LV.
An Up-turning in France, . . . 318-327

The fashion to be vicious, 318— Influence of America, 319 —
The Third Estate, 320— Storming the Bastille, 321— The
peasants rise, 322— The Jacobins and Robespierre, 324—
Louis XVI. executed, 326— Marie Antoinette executed, 327.



CONTENTS. xiii

LVI.

The jMan from Corsica, . . . 328-339

The First Coalition, 32S — Girondists guillotined, 329 — End
of the Reign of Terror, 330 — Napoleon advances into Italy,
331 — Threatened in the rear, 332 — Treat}' of Campo Formio,
333 — Nations like children, 334 — France prepares for more
war, 336 — The French in Egypt, 337 — The Second Coali-
tion, 337 — Battle_of Hohenlinden, 338 — Peace concluded at
Luneville, 339.

LVII.

Napoleon as Emperor, .... 340-347

Napoleon wins popular favour, 340 — The Empire estab-
lished, 341 — The Third Coalition, 341 — Battle of Auster-
litz, 342 — Peace of Pressburg, 344 — Prussia chastised, 345
— Austria against Napoleon, 346 — Peace of Vienna, 347.
LVIII.
The Heroes of the Tyrol, . . , 348-357

Hofer the Landwirth, 348 — His picturesque dress, 349 — " It
is time!" 350 — A secret kept, 351 — Berg Isel, 353 — The
woman with the cask, 354 — Austria abandons the Tyrol, 357.
LIX.
The March on iSIoscow, .... 358-361
Napoleon against England, 35S — Against Russia, 359 — The
retreat from Moscow, 361 — Napoleon deserts his own army,
361.

LX.

Napoleon Falls and Germany Rises, . 362-366

Hope in Europe, 362 — Germany roused, 364 — Bliicher wins

success, 365 — Napoleon's last victory on German soil, 366.

LXI.

The Battle of the Nations, . . . 367-372

A foreboding, 367 — The position of Leipzig, 368 — How the

battle there began, 369 — Victory apparently for the French,

370 — All lost, 371 — " It was a glorious victory ! " 378.

LXII.

Napoleon Checked, 373-378

Napoleon refuses peace, 373 — He is forced to renounce the
French crown, 375 — The First Peace of Paris, 375 — Sudden
return of Napoleon, 376 — A second abdication after Water-



xiv CONTENl^S.

FACE

^00, 377 — The Second Peace of Paris, 37S — A new partition
of Europe, 37S.

LXIII.
Germany Struggles for Freedom, . . 379-383

Men desire more freedom, 379 — The Holy Alliance, 380 —
The Burschenschaften 3S1 — IMemoirs of Baron Trenck, 3S2
— The ZoU-verein, 3S3.

LXIV.

Another Revolution, .... 384-387

Louis Philippe flees to England, and Louis Napoleon ap-
pears, 384 — Every German state in commotion, 3S5 — A
National Assembly at Frankfort, 386 — Frederick William
IV. declines to be emperor, 386 — The peasants rise again,
but government keeps the upper hand, 387.
LXV.

A Quarrel about Two Duchies, . . 388-394

Schleswig-Holstein, 388 — Denmark crushed, 390 — General

Benedek makes a mistake, 391 — The battle of Koniggratz,

392 — The Peace of Prague, 394.

LXVI.

A Terrible Struggle with France, . . 395-414
A dispute over the throne of Spain, 395 — Napoleon III.
declares war, 396 — The contending armies, 397 — The French
routed at Worth, 398 — Great agitation in Paris, 399 — The
position of Metz, 400 — Masterly plans and movements, 402
— The Germans occupy Gravelotte, 403— A battle there,
404 — MacMahon in a corner, 405 — Defeat at Sedan, — Napo-
leon surrenders, 406 — Rapidity of the movements, 408 — The
Germans at Versailles, 409 — The siege of Paris, 410 — Gam-
betta in a balloon, 410 — Gambetta's operations, 412 — Peace,
413 — The Commune, 414.

LXVII.

The New Empire, 415-422

William, king of Prussia, crowned Emperor at Versailles,
415— First diet of the new Empire, 416 — Composition of
the empire, 416 — What is the German Fatherland? 41S —
The lesson of Unity, 420 — Crushing military drill, 421—
Advantages of the study of history, 422.

Index, 423



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.



The larger proportion of the illustrations in this volume are based
upon the excellent designs in the comprehensive and authoritative
"Deutsche Geschichte," by L. Stacke, to the publishers of which,
Messrs. Velhagen & Klasing, of Bielefeld, we desire to express our
cordial acknowledgments.



MAP OF EUROPE IN THE NINTH CENTURY
MAP OF THE GERMAN EMPIRE, 1885

BUST OF A GERMAN BY TRADITION HERMANN, FrOntispicce

ROMANS AND CIMBRI IN COMBAT .... 3

A GERMAN CAVALRY MAN (rOMAN RELIEf) . . 5

ANCIENT GERMAN DWELLINGS (rOMAN PERIOd) . 9

SAXON COLONIST WITH CAPTIVE WEND . . . lO
A GERMAN COUNCIL (rOMAN PERIOd) . . .II

germans on the rhine ..... i3

C^SAR 16

german horsemen fighting roman legions . 17

roman soldiers destroying a german village . 19

statue supposed to represent 'ihusnelda . 21

GERMAN CAPTIVE (rOMAN PERIOd) ... 25

BOUNDARY WALL (rOMAN PERIOD) .... 27

GERMAN SKIRMISHERS (gEFECHT's-EROFFNEr) . 30

MARCUS AURELIUS PARDONING GERMAN CHIEFS . 32

ROMANS BESIEGING A GERMAN FORTRESS . . 36

GERMAN PRIESTESSES FOLLOWING THE ARMY . . 39

GERMAN BODY-GUARD OF THE LATER C^SARS . 40



XVI



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.



INVESTITURE OF A BISHOP BY A KING

TREATY OF ALLIANCE BETWEEN GERMAN TRIBES

A JUDGMENT OF GOD

GERMANY CAPTIVE .

CHARLEMAGNE (dUREr) .

charlemagne in council
Charlemagne's signature .

SILVER pieces OF CHARLEMAGNE

ST. MICHAEL, THE PATRON SAINT OF THE EMPIRE

ELECTION OF A KING .....

THE HEERBANN CALLING OUT OF THE MILITIA.

HENRY II. AND CUNIGUNDE BUILD CHURCHES .
OTTO II. AND HIS SPOUSE BLESSED BY CHRIST .
HENRY II. RECEIVES FROM GOD THE CROWN, HOLY

LANCE, AND IMPERIAL SWORD
OTTO III. AND REPRESENTATIVES OF NOBLES AND

CLERGY .......

IMPERIAL HOUSE AT GOSLAR (hENRY III.)

HENRY IV. WITH SCEPTRE AND IMPERIAL GLOBE

RUDOLPH OF SWABIA

CONRAD, SON OF HENRY IV.

HENRY V. RECEIVES INSIGNIA FROM POPE PASCHAL

A TEMPLAR .....

AN ASTROLOGER (hOLBEIn) ,
IMPERIAL GLOBE ....

A hohenstauffen knight .

CONRAD hunting WITH FALCONS .
henry THE LION AND SPOUSE

statue of frederick barbarossa
barbarossa's palace at GELNHAUSEN
barbarossa's palace at KAISERWERTH
seal of otto iv. .

MONUMENTAL LION TO HENRY THE LION



45

47
49
51
^Z
55
57
62
66
69
81
86
87



91
97
99

lOI

103

107
108
III

113
114

115
117
121
123
126
327
128



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.



XVll



SILVER PIECE OF OTTO IV. ... .

HENRY VI. ...... .

PEASANTS BUILDING A VILLAGE (13TH CENTURy)

A BISHOP IN ROBES

THE DRESS OF THE GERMAN LORDS, WORN BY HENRY

OF THURINGIA, A.D. 1241
KNIGHT AND ATTENDANTS
PEASANTS AND PLOUGH (13TH CENTURy)
RUDOLPH OF HAPSBURG ....
FORTIFIED CAMP (15TH CENTURy) .
SEVEN ELECTORS CHOOSE FOR EMPEROR HENRY OF

LUXEMBURG .....
THE MARTYRDOM OF HUSS
JOHN, COUNT ZISKA, OF TROCZNOW
SCENE FROM THE HUSSITE WARS
ARTILLERY OF THE 15TH CENTURY
MAXIMILIAN AND BRIDE, MARY OF BURGUNDY
FREDERICK III.
KING JOHN OF BOHEMIA
FREEING THE BURGHERS OF MAINZ FROM THB BAN

IN 1332 .
LUTHER (cRANACh)

A GERMAN CITY IN THE 15TH CENTURY .
FERDINAND I. .
MELANCTHON (dUREr)
THREE PEASANTS, i6tH CENTURY (dUREr)
LUTHER AND MELANCTHON (cRANACh) .
SCHOOL-ROOM IN i6tH CENTURY
CONSECRATION OF A CHURCH, 1530
woman's COSTUME, i6tH CENTURY
JOHN FREDERICK THE BOLD, ELECTOR OF SAXONY
GERINIAN PATRICIANS IN I550 ....
VIENNA EARLY IN THE 17TH CENTURY .



PAGE

135

137
139

157

161
162

169

178

184
186
190

200
202
208
210
2X2
216
218
224
228
237



XVlll



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.



JEAN TZERCLAES, COUNT TILLY

ALBERT VON WALLENSTETN ....

A VILLAGE FESTIVAL IN THE i6tH CENTURY .
BERLIN IN 1660 ......

MEN OF WAR OF THE GREAT ELECTOR
THE GREAT ELECTOR AND WIFE
FREDERICK I., KING OF PRUSSIA
JOSEPH I., EMPEROR OF GERMANY .
FREDERICK THE GREAT . . . .

MARIA THERESA ......

ONE OF FREDERICK WiLLIAM's GRENADIERS .
FREDERICK THE GREAT .....

LEOPOLD II. IN IMPERIAL ROBES
FREDERICK WILLIAM II. .

KARL WILHELM, BARON VON HUMBOLDT .

ALEXANDER, NAPOLEON, AND FREDERICK WIL-
LIAM III. .....-•

ANDREAS HOFER ......

CLEMENS WENZEL, PRINCE VON METTERNICH .

THE BATTLE OF LEIPZIG (mAp)

GEBHARD LEBRECHT VON BLUCHER

TABLE OF THE SCHLESWIG-HOLSTEIN SUCCESSION

THE BATTLE OE KONIGGRATZ (mAp)

METZ (map) . . .

KARL-OTTO, PRINCE VON BISMARCK-SCHOENHAUSEN

MAP OF THE FRANCO-GERMAN WAR

WILLIAM I., EMPEROR OF GERMANY .

PRINCE WILLIAM, CROWN PRINCE .



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THE FIRST GERMANS.



(B.C. 1 13-102.)



In the year 1 13 before Christ was born, the inhab-
itants of Northern Italy were startled to see multi-
tudes of savage men sitting on their great shields,
shooting down the snow slopes of the Alps upon
them. They had fair hair, thick and long ; some had
shaggy red hair. They were tall, strong men ; their
eyes were blue. They wore the heads of wolves
and bears and oxen on their helmets, the latter
with the horns ; and others again had the wings of
eagles spread, and fastened to their iron caps. Who
were these? They belonged to two different races,
and spoke different languages; and though both
were fair-haired, yet one set of men was taller,
sturdier than the other.

These invaders called themselves tiie Cimbri and
Teutones. They had lived side by side in the Swiss
valleys till the valleys could no longer support
them, and then they burst their way over the snowy
passes to conquer and colonize the sunny plains of
Italy.

At the present day the mountains of Switzerland



2 THE FIRST GERMANS.



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