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In Troubadour- Land.




Tower <je St. Trophine, Arles.



In Troubadour-Land.

A RAMBLE IN
PROVENCE AND LANGUEDOC.



BY

S. BARING-GOULD, M.A,

AUTHOR OF "MEIIALAH," "JOHN HERRING," "OLD COUNTRY LIFE," ETC.



ILLUSTRATED BY J. E. ROGERS.



"What is this life, if it be not mixed with some delight? And what delight
is more pleasing than to see the fashions and manners of unknown places? You
know I am no common gadder, nor have oft troubled you with travell." — Tom
of Reading, 1600.



LONDON :

W. H. ALLEN & CO., LIMITED,

AND AT CALCUTTA.
1891.






LONDON :

PRINTED I3Y WILLIAM CLOWES AND SONS, LIMITED,

STAMFORD STREET AND CHARING CROSS.



PREFACE.



With Murray, Baedeker, Guide Joanne, and half-a-
dozen others — all describing, and describing with
exactness, the antiquities and scenery — the writer of
a little account of Provence and Languedoc is driven
to give much of personal incident. When he attempts
to describe what objects he has seen, he is pulled up
by finding all the information he intended to give
in Murray or in Baedeker or Joanne. If he was in
exuberant spirits at the time, and enjoyed himself
vastly, he is unable, or unwilling, to withhold from his
readers some of the overflow of his good spirits.
That is my apology to the reader. If he reads my
little book when his liver is out of order, or in winter
fogs and colds — he will call me an ass, and I must
bear it. If he is in a cheerful mood himself, then we
shall agree very well together.

S. Baring-Gould.
Lew Trenchard, Devon,
October 28, 1890.



252365



CONTENTS.

CHAPTER I.

INTRODUCTORY.

The Tiber in Flood —Typhoid fever in Rome— Florence — A
Jew acquaintance — Drinking in Provence — Buying bric-a-
brac with the Jew — the carro on Easter Eve — Its real
Origin — My Jew friend's letters — Italian dolcefar niente .



CHAPTER II.

THE RIVIERA.

No ill without a counterbalancing advantage — An industry
peculiar to Italy — Italian honesty — Buffalo Bill at Naples
— The Prince and the straw-coloured gloves — The Riviera
— A tapestry — Nice — Its flowers— Notre Dame — The
chateau — My gardener — A pension of ugly women — Horses
and their hats— Antibes— Meeting of Honore IV. and
Napoleon — The Grimaldis — Lerins, an Isle of Saints —A
family jar — Healed . . . . . . 15

CHAPTER III.

FREJUS.

The freedman of Pliny —Forum Julii — The Port of Agay —
The Port of Frcjus — Roman castle — Aqueduct — The
lantern of Augustus— The cathedral —Cloisters — Boy and
dolphin— Story told by Pliny — The Chaine des Maures—
De'saugiers — Dines with the porkbutchers of Paris — Sieyes
— Sa/is phrase — Agricola — His discoveries . . • 3 1



CONTEXTS.



CHAPTER IV.

MARSEILLES.

PAGE

The three islands Phoenice, Phila, Iturium — Marseilles first a
Phoenician colony— The tariff of fees exacted by the priests
of Baal — The arrival of the Ionians — The legend of Protis
and Gyptis — Second colony of Ionians — The voyages of
Pytheas and Euthymenes — Capture of Marseilles by Tre-
bonius — Position of the Greek city — The Acropolis — Greek
inscriptions — The lady who never " jawed " her husband —
The tomb of the sailor-boy — Hotel des Ne'gociants —
Menu — Entry of the President of the Republic— Entry of
Francis L — The church of S. Vincent — The cathedral
— Notre Dame de la Garde — The abbey of S. Victor—
Catacombs' — The fable of S. Lazarus . . . • 4 2



CHAPTER V.

THE CRAU.

The Basin of Berre — A neglected harbour — The diluvium-
Formation of the Crau— The two Craus— Canal of
Craponne — Climate of the Crau — The Use and mistral—
Force of the wind— Cypresses— A vision of kobolds . 5S



CHAPTER VI.

LES ALYSCAMPS.

Difficulty of finding one's way about in Aries — The two inns —
The mistral— The charm of Aries is in the past — A dead
city— Situation of Aries on a nodule of limestone — The
Elysian Fields— A burial-place for the submerged neigh-
bourhood — The Alyscamp now in process of destruction —
Expropriation of ancient tombs — Avenue of tombs — Old
church of S. Honore'— S. Trophimus— S. Virgilius— Augus-
tine, apostle of the English, consecrated by him — The
flying Dutchman— Tomb of JE\\a— Of Julia Tyranna— Her
musical instruments— Monument of Calpumia — Her pro-
bable story— Mathematical versus classic studies — Tombs



CONTENTS.



of utricuhves — Christian sarcophagi — Probably older than
the date usually attributed to them— A French author on
the wreckage of the Elysian Fields . . . 67



CHAPTER VII.

PAGAN ARLES.

The Aries race a mixture of Greek and Gaulish — The coloni-
sation by the Romans — The type of beauty in Aries — The
amphitheatre — A bull-baiting — Provencal bull-baits different
from Spanish bull-fights — The theatre — The ancient Greek
stage — The destruction of the Aries theatre — Excavation
of the orchestra — Discovery of the Venus of Aries — A sick
girl — Palace of Constantine ..... 84

CHAPTER VIII.

CHRISTIAN ARLES.

Sunday in France — Improved observance — The cathedral of
Aries — West front — Interior — Tool-marks — A sermon on
peace — The cloisters— Old Sacristan and his garden —
Number of desecrated churches in Aries — Notre Dame de
la Majeur — S. Caesaire — The isles near Aries — Cordes —
Montinajeur — A gipsy camp — The ruins — Tower— The
chapel of S. Croix ....... 98

CHAPTER IX.

LES BAUX.

The chain of the Alpines — The promontory of Les Baux —
The railway from Aries to Salon — First sight of Les Baux —
The churches of S. Victor, S. Claude, and S. Andrew — The
lords of Les Baux claimed descent from one of the Magi —
The fair maid with golden locks — The chapel of the White
Penitents — The damo — History of the House of Les Baux
— The barony passes to the Grimaldi — The ladies of Les
Baux and the troubadours — Fouquet — William de Cabe-
staing — The morality of the loves of the troubadours — The



CONTENTS.



Porcelets — Story of a siege — Les Baux a place of refuge for
the citizens of Aries — Glanum Livice — Its Roman remains
— In the train — Jager garments . . . . .114



CHAPTER X.

THE CAMPAIGN OF MARIUS.

The Tremaie' — Representation of C. Marius, Martha, and
Julia- — The Gaie — The Teutons and Ambrons and Cimbri
threaten Italy — C. Marius sent against them — His camp at
S. Gabriel — The canal he cut — The barbarians cross the
Rhone — First brush with them— They defile before him at
Orgon — The rout of the Ambrons at Les Milles — He
follows the Teutons — The plain of Pourrieres — Position of
Marius — The battle — Slaughter of the Teutons — Position
of their camp — Monument of Marius — Venus Victrix —
Annual commemoration ......



CHAPTER XI.

TRETS AND GARDANNE.

The fortifications of Trets — The streets — The church —
Roman sarcophagus — Chateau of Trets — Visit to a self-
educated archaeologist — His collection made on the battle-
field — Dispute over a pot of burnt bones — One magpie —
Gardanne — The church — A vielle — Trouble with it — Story
of an executioner's sword ...... 156



CHAPTER XII.



Dooll, but the mutton good — Les Bains de Sextius — Ironwork
caps to towers — S. Jean de Malthe — Museum — Cathedral
Tapestries and tombs — The cloisters — View from S.
Eutrope — King Rene' of Anjou — His misfortunes — His
cheeriness — His statue at Aix — Introduces the Muscat
grape 168



CONTENTS.



CHAPTER XIII.

THE CAMARGUE.

Formation of the delta of the Rhone— The diluvial wash—
The alluvium spread over this— The three stages the river
pursues— The zone of erosion— The zone of compensation
—The zone of deposit— River mouths— Estuaries and
deltas— The formation of bars— Of lagoons— The lagoons
of the Gulf of Lyons— The ancient position of Aries
between the river and the lagoons— Neglect of the lagoons
in the Middle Ages— They become morasses— Attempt at
remedy— Embankments and drains— A mistake made—
The Camargue now a desert— Les Saintes Maries— No
evidence to support the legend — Based on a misapprehen-
sion ....•••••

CHAPTER XIV.



Position of Tarascon and Beaucaire opposite each other-
Church of S. Martha— Crypt— Ancient paintings— Cate-
chising— Ancient altar— The festival of the Tarasque -The
Phoenician goddess Martha— Story of S. Fronto— Dis-
cussion at dejeuner over the entry of M. Carnot into Mar-
seilles—The change in the French character— Pessimism
—Beaucaire— Font— Castle— Siege by Raymond VII —
Story of Aucassin and Nicolette .

CHAPTER XV.

NIMES.

The right spelling of Nimes— Derivation of name— The foun
tam — Throwing coins into springs— Collecting coins —
Symbol of Agrippa— Character of Agrippa— What he did
for Nimes— The Maison Carree— Different idea of worship
in the Heathen world from what prevails in Christendom
— S. Baudille— Vespers — Activity of the Church in
France— Behaviour of the clergy in Italy to the King and
Queen— The Revolution a blessing to the Church in



i77



CONTENTS.



France — Church services in Italy and in France — The
Tourmagne — -Uncertainty as to its use — Cathedral of
Nimes — Other churches — A canary lottery — Altars to the
Sun — The sun-wheel — The cross of Constantine —
Anecdote of Fle'chier ....... 203

CHAPTER XVI.

AIGUKS MORTES AND MAGUELONNE.

A dead town — The Rhones-morts — Bars — S. Louis and the
Crusades — How S. Louis acquired Aigues Mortes — His
canal — The four littoral chains and lagoons — The fortifica-
tions — Unique for their date — Original use of battlements
— Deserted state of the town — Maguelonne — How reached
— History of Maguelonne — Cathedral — The Bishops forge
Saracen coins — Second destruction of the place — Inscrip-
tion on door — Bernard de Treviis — His romance of Pierre
de Provence — Provencal poetry not always immoral —
Present state of Maguelonne .....

CHAPTER XVII.

BfiziERS AND NAR BONNE.

Position of Beziers— S. Nazaire— The Albigenses— Their
tenets — Albigensian " consolation "—Crusade against them
— The storming of Beziers — Massacre — Cathedral of
Beziers— Girls' faces in the train— Similar faces at Nar-
bonne, in cathedral and museum — Narbonne a Roman
colony— All the Roman buildings destroyed— Caps of
liberty— Christian sarcophagi— Children's toys of baked
clay— Cathedral unfinished— Archiepiscopal palace — Un-
satisfactory work of M. Viollet-le-Duc— In trouble with the
police— Taken for a German spy — My sketch-book gets
me off



219



237



CHAPTER XVIII

CARCASSONNE.



Siege of Carcassonne by the Crusaders— Capture— Perfidy of
legate— Death of the Viscount— Continuation of the war-
Churches of New Carcassonne— La Cite—K perfect



CONTENTS.



Mediaeval fortified town — Disappointing — Visigoth forti-
fications — Later additions— The cathedral — Tomb of
Simon de Montfort .......



PACE



'5i



CHAPTER XIX.

/

AVIGNON.

How Avignon passed to the Popes — The court of Clement VI.
— John XXII. — Benedict XII. — Their tombs — Petrarch
and Laura — The Palace of the Popes — The Salle Brule'e —
Cathedral— Porch— S. Agricole— Church of S. Pierre— The
museum — View from the Rocher des doms — The Rhone —
The bridge — Story of S. Benezet — Dancing on bridges —
Villeneuve — Tomb of Innocent VI. — The castle at Ville-
neuve — -Defences — Tete-du-pont of the bridge . .261

CHAPTER XX.

VALENCE.

A dull town — Cathedral — Jacques Cujas — His daughter —
Pius VI.- — His death — Maison des Tetes — Le Pendentif —
The castle of Crussol — The dukes of Uzes — A dramatic
company of the thirteenth century .... 283

CHAPTER XXI.

VIENNE.

Historic associations — Salvation Army bonnets — The fair — A
quack — A vampire — The amphitrite — A carousel — Temple
of Augustus and Livia — The Aiguille — Cathedral — Angels
and musical instruments — S. Andre'-le-Bas — Situation of
Vienne — Foundation of the Church there — Letter of the
Church on the martyrdoms at Lyons . . . • 294

CHAPTER XXII.

BOURGES.

The siege of Avaricum by Csesar — The complete subjugation
of Gaul — The statue of the Dying Gaul at Rome — Beauty
of Bourges— The cathedral — Not completed according to



CONTENTS.



design — Defect in height — Strict geometrical proportion
in design not always satisfactory — Necessity of proportion
for acoustics — Domestic architecture in Bourges — -The
house of Jacques Cceur — Story of his life— A rainy day —
Why Bourges included in this book — A silver thimble —
Que de singeries faites-t ous Id, Madeleine ? — Adieu . 307

Appendix ......... 325



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.



FULL PAGE ILLUSTRATIONS.



Tower of S. Trophimus, Aries .

Abbey of S. Victor, Marseilles .

Part of the North Cloister of Aries Cathedral

Les Baux ......

The Pont du Gard

Be'ziers from the River ....

An Entrance to Carcassonne .

The Cathedral and the Palace of the Popes, Avu



Frontispiece
To face page 55
104
118
208
238
254
268



GENERAL ILLUSTRATIONS.



The Carro

A Florentine Torch Holder

A Horse in a Hat .....

Lcrins .......

Aqueduct of Frejus. ....

Lantern of Augustus ....

Map of Massalia .....

Musical Instruments from the Tomb of Julia
Calpurnia's Monument ....

An Arelaise. {From a Photograph.) .

Part of the Amphitheatre of Aries

Back of a House at Aries ....

A Boat with two rudders at Aries

On a House at Aries ....

Samson and the Lion, from the West door of the
Aries ......

On a House at Aries ....

South Entrance to the Cloister, Aries Cathedral
Church of Notre Dame de la Majeur, Aries.




LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.



Tower of the desecrated Church of S. Croix, Aries

Part of the Courtyard of the Convent of S. Caesarius, Aries

Church of the Penitents Gris, Aries .

In the Cloisters, Montmajeur .

In the Cloister at Aries .

Les Baux .....

Range of the Alpines from Glanum Liviae

Ruins S. Gabriel . .

La Tremaie .....

Les Gaie .....

Caius Marius. {From a bust in the Vatican.)

Orgon and the Durance .

Mont Victoire and the Plain of Pourrieres

Sketch Plan of the Battle-fields .

Monument of Marius

Venus Victrix ....

Girdanne .....

TheVielle

Les Saintes Maries ....

Early Altar, Tarascon

Spire of S. Martha's Church, Tarascon

Iron Door to Safe in S. Martha's Church

King Rene's Castle, Tarascon -

A bit in Tarascon ....

The Chapel of Beaucaire Castle

Beaucaire Castle from Tarascon. — Sunset

In the Public Garden, Nimes .

The Maison Carree, Nimes

Cathedral of Nimes.— Part of West Front

Aigues Mortes. — One of the Gates

Aigues Mortes. — Tower of the Bourgignons

Sketch Map of Aigues Mortes and its Littoral Chain

Original use of Battlements. {From Viottet-k-Duc.)

Second stage of Battlements ....

East End of the Church of Maguelonne

Beziers. — Church of S. Nazaire .

Fountain in the Cloister of S. Nazaire, Beziers

Types of faces, Narbonne : Modern — Sixteenth-Century Tomb

in Cathedral— Classic Bust in Museum
Freedmen's Caps, Narbonne
Children's Toys in the Museum, Narbonne .
Towers on the Wall, Carcassonne



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.



A Bit of Carcassonne

Inside the Wall, Carcassonne .

Papal Throne in the Cathedral of Avignon

John XXII

Benedict XII

An Angle of the Papal Palace, Avignon

Lantern at the Cathedral, Avignon .

Angel at West Door, Church of S. Agricole

A Bit of the Old Wall, Avignon

Part of Church of S. Didier, Avignon .

Bridge and Chapel of S. Benezet

At Villeneuve ....

Castle of S. Andre', at Villeneuve

At Villeneuve ....

A Well at Villeneuve

Cathedral of Valence

Doorway in the House Dupre Latour, Valence

Doorway and Niche in the Maison des Tetes, Valence

House in Vienne ....

At Vienne .....

Hurdy-Gurdy Played by an Angel

Church of S. Andre'-le-Bas.— The Tower

Porte de l'Ambulance, Vienne .

A Street Corner, Bourges

Part of Jacques Cceur's House .

Turret in the Hotel Lallemand .

Staircase in the Hotel Lallemand

Sculpture over the Kitchen Entrance at Jacques Cceur's

Jacques Cceur's Knocker. ....



PAGE
256
258
264
265
265
266
269
270
271

273
274
276
278
280
28l
284
286
289
297
299
303
304
3°5
3IO

3^
3i9
320
House 323
. 3 2 4



ERRATUM.



Frontispiece. — For St. Trophine, read St. Trophimus.



IN TROUBADOUR-LAND.



CHAPTER I.

INTRODUCTORY.

The Tiber in Flood— Typhoid fever in Rome— Florence — A Jew

acquaintance— Drinking in Provence— Buying bric-a-brac with

, the Jew— The carro on Easter Eve — Its real Origin

^k^ — My Jew friend's letters — Italian dolcefar niente.



^T' : >> v



T"£



M *«l||j| i S! fill Inl





onceive yourself confronted by a pop-gun,

some ten feet in diameter, charged with

mephitic vapours and plugged with microbes of

typhoid fever. Conceive your sensations when you

were aware that the piston was being driven home.

That was my situation in March, 1890, when I got

B



IN TROUBADOUR-LAND.



a letter from Messrs. Allen asking me to go into
Provence and Languedoc, and write them a book
thereon. I dodged the microbe, and went.

To make myself understood I must explain.

I was in Rome. For ten days with a sirocco wind
the rains had descended, as surely they had never
come down since the windows of heaven were opened
at the Flood. The Tiber rose thirty-two feet. Now
Rome is tunnelled under the streets with drains or
sewers that carry all the refuse of a great city into the
Tiber. But, naturally, when the Tiber swells high
above the crowns of the sewers, they are choked. All
the foulness of the great town is held back under the
houses and streets, and breeds gases loathsome to the
nose and noxious to life. Not only so, but a column
of water, some twenty to twenty-five feet in height, is
acting like the piston of a pop-gun, and is driving all
the accumulated gases charged with the germs of
typhoid fever into every house which has communica-
tion with the sewers. There is no help for it, the
poisonous vapours must be forced out of the drains
and must be forced into the houses. That is why,
with a rise of the Tiber, typhoid fever is certain to
break out in Rome.

As I went over Ponte S. Angelo I was wont to
look over the parapet at the opening of the sewer that
carried off the dregs of that portion of the city where I
was residing. One day I looked for it, and looked in
vain. The Tiber had swelled and was overflowing its
banks, and for a week or fortnight there could be no
question, not a sewer in the vast city would be free to
do anything else but mischief. I did not go on to the



INTRODUCTORY.



Vatican galleries that day. I could not have enjoyed
the statues in the Braccio Nuovo, nor the frescoes in
the Loggia. I went home, found Messrs. Allen's
letter, packed my Gladstone bag, and bolted. I shall
never learn who got the microbe destined for me,
which I dodged.

I went to Florence ; at the inn where I put up —
one genuinely Italian, Bonciani's, — I made an acquaint-
ance, a German Jew, a picture-dealer with a shop in
a certain capital, no matter which, editor of a bric-a-
brac paper, and a right merry fellow. I introduce
him to the reader because he afforded me some
information concerning Provence. He had a branch
establishment — never mind where, but in Provence —
and he had come to Florence to pick up pictures and
bric-a-brac.

Our acquaintance began as follows. We sat
opposite each other at table in the evening. A large
rush-encased flask is set before each guest in a swing
carriage, that enables him to pour out his glassful
from the big-bellied flask without effort. Each flask
is labelled variously Chianti, Asti, Pomino, but all the
wines have a like substance and flavour, and each is
an equally good light dinner-wine. A flask when full
costs three francs twenty centimes ; and .when the
guest falls back in his seat, with a smile of satisfaction
on his face, and his heart full of good will towards all
men, for that he has done his dinner, then the bottle
is taken out, weighed, and the guest charged the
amount of wine he has consumed. He gets a fresh
flask at every meal.
■ -— " Du lieber Himmel ! " exclaimed my vis-ct-vis. " I



IN TRO UBADO UR-LAND.



do b'lieve I hev drunk dree francs. Take up de
flasche and weigh her. Tink so ? "

" I can believe it without weighing the bottle," I
replied.

" And only four sous — twenty centimes left ! "
exclaimed the old gentleman, meditatively. " But
four sous is four sous. It is de price of mine paper "
— brightening in his reflections — " I can but shell one
copy more, and I am all right." Brightening to greater
brilliancy as he turns to me : " Will you buy de last
number of my paper? She is in my pocket. She
is ver' interesting. Oh ! ver' so. Moche information
for two pence."

" I shall be charmed," I said, and extended twenty
centimes across the table.

" Ach Tausend ! Dass ist herrlich ! " and he drew
off the last drops of Pomino. " Now I will tell you
vun ding. Hev you been in Provence ? "

" Provence ! Why — I am on my way there, now."

" Den listen to me. Ebery peoples hev different
ways of doing de same ding. You go into a cabaret
dere, and you ask for wine. De patron brings you a
bottle, and at de same time looks at de clock and wid
a bit of chalk he mark you down your time. You say
you will drink at two pence, or dree pence, or four pence.
You drink at dat price you have covenanted for one
hour, you drink at same price anodder hour, and you
sleep — but you pay all de same, wedder you drink or
wedder you sleep, two pence, or dree pence, or four
pence de hour. It is an old custom. You under-
stand? It is de custom of de country — of La belle
Provence."



INTRODUCTORY.



" I quite understand that it is to the interest of the
taverner to make his customers drunk."

" Drunk! " repeated my Mosaic acquaintance. "I
will tell you one ding more, ver characteristic of de
nationalities. A Frenchman — il bolt ; a German — er
sauft; and an Englishman — he gets fresh. Der you
hev de natures of de dree peoples as in a picture. De
Frenchman, he looks to de moment, and not beyond.
II boit. De German, he looks to de end. Er sauft.
De Englishman, he sits down fresh and intends to get
fuddled ; but he is a hypocrite. He does not say de
truth to hisself nor to nobody, he says, / will get fresh,
when he means de odder ding. Big humbug. You
understand ? "

One morning my Jew friend said to me : " Do you
want to see de, what you call behind-de-scenes of
Florence ? Ver' well, you come wid me. I am going
after pictures."

He had a carriage at the door. I jumped in with
him, and we spent the day in driving about the town,
visiting palaces and the houses of professional men
and tradesmen — of all who were " down on their luck,"
and wanted to part with art-treasures. Here we
entered a palace, of roughed stone blocks after the
ancient Florentine style, where a splendid porter with
cocked hat, a silver-headed bdton, and gorgeous livery
kept guard. Up the white marble stairs, into stately
halls overladen with gilding, the walls crowded with
paintings in cumbrous but resplendent frames. Prince
So-and-So had got into financial difficulties, and
wanted to part with some of his heirlooms.

There we entered a mean door in a back street,



IN TR UBADO UR-LAND.



ascended a dirty stair, and came into a suite of
apartments, where a dishevelled woman in a dirty
split dressing-gown received us and showed us into
her husband's sanctum, crowded with rare old paintings
on gold grounds. Her good man had been a collector
of the early school of art ; now he was ill, he could
not attend to his business, he might not recover, and
whilst he was ill his wife was getting rid of some of
his treasures.

There we entered the mansion of a widow, who had
lost her husband recently, a rich merchant. The heirs
were quarrelling over the spoil, and she was in a hurry
to make what she could for herself before a valuer
came to reckon the worth of the paintings and silver
and cabinets.

In that day I saw many sides of life.

" But how in the world," I asked of my guide, "did


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