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THE

CHURCH IN GERMANY



BY



S. BARING-GOULD, M.A.,
If '

AUTHOR OF "MEHALAH," "GERMANY, PAST AND PRESENT," "OLD COUNTRY

LIFE," ETC.



Wiit]) IHap^.



NEW YORK:

JAMES POTT AND CO.,

ASTOR PLACE.

1 89 1



«- 5 ,r <■



THE

CHURCH IN GERMANY



BY

S. BARING-GOULD, M.A.,

I ;

AUTHOR OF "mEHALAH," "GERMANY, PAST AND PRESENT," "OLD COUNTRY

LIFE," ETC.



OTitl; fHap^g.






NEW YORK:

JAMES POTT AND CO.,

ASTOR PLACE.

1 89 1



12 3




189I.



PREFACE.



In writing a history of the Church in Germany, one
encounters several difficulties. Abundance of valuable
and exhaustive works on the ecclesiastical history of
Germany exist, from the dawn of Christianity to the
end of the Carolingian period, but almost none
concerning the subsequent history, till we come to
the Reformation period. Among those that treat of
the early period, I would mention especially Hauck,
" Kirchen-Geschichte Deutschlands." The first vol.
extends to the death of S. Boniface, published 1887.
The second, in two parts, unfortunately reached me
too late for consultation. These parts were published
in 1889 and 1890 only. They give the history under
the Carolingians. Another good book on the same
period is Ellendorf, " Die Karolinger," 1838. For
the history of the Church at the Reformation from the
Roman Catholicside, there is Riffel, " Kirchengeschichte
der neuesten Zeit," 1842 ; and of course from the
Protestant side there are numbers, more or less good.
But the intermediate period has been sadly over-
looked, the reason being that ecclesiastical history

305603



vi PREFACE.

was so interwoven with political history that the story
of one was actually the story of the other.

The deficiency will eventually be filled by Hauck,
and my great regret is that I have had to undertake
this task without his masterly guidance further than
to the death of S. Boniface.

The difficulty of writing the history of the Church
in Germany during the mediaeval period is, as has
been said, the fact that it is almost inextricably inter-
laced with the history of the empire. As the space
accorded me did not allow of a history of Germany,
I have done what appeared to me to be the right
thing to do under the circumstances, that is, I have
indicated the general condition of affairs ecclesiastical,
and then given salient instances illustrative of the
situation.

An English Churchman regards the Reformation
in Germany from his own peculiar standpoint. He
is not in cordial sympathy with a movement which
destroys the very foundations of historic Christianity,
and formulates a doctrine of free justification, that
exercises a paralysing effect on the conscience ; and
yet he cannot deny that the exasperation caused by
the wrong-doing of the Papacy provoked it, and that
it was inevitable.



EDITOR'S PREFACE.



The object of this series of works is to lay before
English Churchmen unbroken narratives of the chief
events in the history of the National Churches of
Christendom, from the time when they were first
founded, to the present day. Twenty-five years ago
the idea of producing such a series was mooted
by the Rev. John Henry Blunt, the learned editor
of " The Annotated Book of Common Prayer," but
the plan was abandoned. It has at length been
revived, and the name of one at least of the authors
who were invited, a quarter of a century ago, to con-
tribute to the proposed series, appears now on our
list of ecclesiastical historians.

It is remarkable that no attempt has hitherto been
made to give a complete history of church life and
work in the various European countries. Not even
in the languages of many of the nations themselves
do we find such histories, and it has been left to
English writers to produce, for the first time, a con-
secutive account of the actual growth, decay, and
revival of Christian faith and practice in many of the
nations of Christendom. There are voluminous works



viii EDITORS PREFACE,

of ecclesiastical history, which contain the records of
the progress of Christianity in Europe, but it is a
difficult and perplexing task for the reader to gather
from these scattered records any clear conception of
the consecutive events in the history of any one
branch of the Catholic Church. It is hoped that
these volumes will supply the want of a trustworthy
record of the history of each National Church. Some
of the ablest ecclesiastical writers of the day have
been invited to contribute, and their names are a
guarantee of the accuracy and lasting value of the
works.

It is, perhaps^ necessary to explain that the title
of the series is not intended to imply that the Church
in any country, whose history we are considering, is,
at the present time, the community to which the
greater mass of the inhabitants of that country' belong.
In some countries the remains of the old National
Church are small and, in the eyes of the world, in-
significant. In the United States of America, where
there are so many sects and divisions, it would be
extremely rash to say that the " Protestant Episcopal
Church," although the oldest community of Christians
in the northern part of the New World, was in any
sense the Church of the whole nation. We are
attempting to follow the history of the true Catholic
Church in each country, to trace its origin and primal
growth, to notice the gradual development of Papal
power, the internal weakness, the reform movements,
the heresies which arose and caused endless divisions
and confusion, the revivals of truer knowledge and



EDITORS PREFACE. ix

purer faith, the severing of some branches of the true
Vine, and all the events which constitute the ab-
sorbingly interesting and varied details in the annals
of each Church.

Perchance as we mark the errors men have made,
and mourn over the divisions, rents, and schisms of
the severed robe of the Church of Christ, we may be
enabled, in some measure, to repair the torn garment
of the Bride. Perchance by the help of the Heavenly
Bridegroom we may be enabled to forge at least one
link of that chain which, we trust, will hereafter bind
together all the Churches of a United Christendom.

The Editor.



CONTENTS.



I.

THE FIRST CHRISTIAN COMMUNITIES.

Christianity among the Germans at the end of the 2nd
Century— Claims of certain Churches to have been
founded by Disciples of the Apostles not to be sub-
stantiated—The Population of what is now called
Germany in the 2nd and 3rd Centuries— The Celts on
the IVloselle, in Bavaria, Baden, and Wurtemberg— The
Germanic Races, where first found — Alamanni, Bur-
gundians, Marcomanni, Goths, Franks — The only
flourishing Churches in Noricum and Rhsetia— The
Church in Germania I. and II.— Christianity at Treves
— Ausonius — Sidonius ApoUinaris — Many cultured
Christians very indifferent— Cologne— Mainz— Aletz—
Worms — Corruption of Morals in Roman Colonies —
Rhaetia— Augsburg— The Martyrdom of S. Afra— Chur
—Ratisbon— Noricum— S. Severinus— The Alamanni
overflow Swabia — The Goths — Their Arianism—
Ulfilas

II.

THE ALAMANNI, EURGUNDIANS AND FRANKS.

The Huns move West— Displace the German Tribes—
Goths— Alamanni— The Agri Decumates occupied—
The Burgundians — Occupy Germania I. — Accept
Christianity— Driven South— The Franks — Fall on



PAGE



xii CONTENTS,

PAGE

Gaul — Occupy Batavia — Chlodovech defeats the
Romans at Soissons — Progress of the Frank Kingdom
— Its Division among the Sons of Chlodovech — Austria,
Neustria, and Burgundia i8

III.

THE FRANKS AND CHRISTIANITY.

The Condition of the Gallo-Romans under the Franks —
The Character of the Franks — Childerich's Treatment
of the Church — The Marriage of Chlodovech — His
Conversion — His conduct after Baptism — The General
Consequences of his Baptism — Law against Heathen
Practices — The Reverence of the first Frank Kings for
the Bishops — Lavish Bounty shown to the Church —
Loyalty of the Bishops to the Kings — Causes which
tended to enrich the Church — The Activity of the



Church



IV.

THE FALL OF THE FRANK CHURCH.

Royal Interference in the Affairs of the Church — The
Kings appoint Bishops — The Bishops protest — But in
vain — The Importance and Wealth of the Sees made
them to be coveted by the Nobles — The Conversion of
the Alamanni — S. Columbanus and S. Gall — The
Bavarians — First Missionaries among them — The
Thuringians — Clergy under no Episcopal Supervision
— The Irish Missions — Founding of Luxeuil — Influence
of Luxeuil in the East — S. Kihan of Wurzburg— The
Irish Missionaries failed to effect much — Their Lack
of Organising Power — Social Transformation in the
Frank Monarchy — Rise of the great Feudal Lords —
Degradation of the Freemen — After the Death of
Dagobert I., the great Vassals strive for Supreme
Power — -The Bishoprics and Abbeys given to Partisans
— Pippin of Heristal — Charles Martell — Degradation
and Demoralisation of the Church complete. ... 40



CONTENTS. xiii

V.

THE WORK OF S. BONIFACE.

PAGE

Early life of Boniface— He sails for Frisia— Returns to
England — Goes to Rome — Is sent into Thuringia — The
Scheme of Gregory II.— Makes a second attempt in
Frisia — His missionary success in Hesse — He revisits
Rome— Consecrated bishop— With metropolitan powers
—Charles Martell suffers him to proceed— Resumes
work in Hesse — Fells the oak of Geislar —Appeals
to England for helpers— Response— Monks and Nuns
come to his assistance — First visit to Bavaria, and
failure— Gregory III. — Boniface revisits Rome— Again
goes to Bavaria, and reorganises the Church there —
Founds bishoprics and abbeys — Founds bishoprics in
Thuringia and Hesse— Death of Charles ?^Iartell —
Carlmann invites Boniface to reform the Frank Church

Calls synods — Odilo of Bavaria revolts, and is

defeated — Eichstadt founded — Gewiliep of Mainz
deposed — Mainz created the MetropoHtan See —
Carlmann resigns — Boniface's letters to Fuldrad—
Resolves to make another attempt in Frisia— His
death — The services he rendered to the German
Church 58

VI.

CHARLES THE GREAT.

Providence raises up special men to execute special work
—Such a man, Charles the Great— Decay of Discipline
since the death of S. Boniface — The Clergy and
Hunting— Schools instituted — The " Missi" — Epis-
copal Visitations— Charles strengthens the position
of Metropolitans and Bishops— Synods— His Rule as
head of the Church— The Arch-chaplain's office . . 76

VII.

THE CONVERSION OF THE SAXONS.

Two Germanies : one Christian, the other heathen— The
arrival of the Saxons— The Contests with the Saxons—



xiv CONTENTS.



PAGE



Charles the Great attempts to subdue them — Revolt
again and again — Wittekind heads the Saxons — Their
stubborn Resistance to Charles — Defeat of Wittekind
— Submits to Baptism — A fresh revolt — Bishopric of
Bremen founded — The Saxons, once converted, become
zealous Christians — Translations and Versifications —
The Bishoprics of Bremen, Paderborn, Minden, Osna-
briick 86

vni.

CHARLES CROWNED EMPEROR.

The Coronation of Charles as Emperor of the West —
Charles unconscious of the intention of Leo III. — The
Mosaic of the triclinium at the Lateran — What the
Coronation implied — Disastrous both to the Empire
and to the Papacy — It provoked the Reformation . . 99

IX.

THE LATER CAROLINGIANS AND THE CHURCH.

The Character of Louis the Pious — Reaction — The
Discontent of the great vassals — Discontent of the
Hierarchy — Breaking out of Revolt — Defects in the
Carolingian Constitution — The Herr-bann — Dis-
appearance of the Freeholders — Union of Civil and
Military powers in the hands of the Counts — What
Charles had done for the Church — Could not blind the
eyes of the Bishops to the fact that he had made the
Crown supreme — Wealth of the Church — The Col-
legiate Churches — Reform by Chrodegang — The two
aims of the Hierarchy — Limitation of Royal Power
— Exaltation of the Papacy — The forged Capitularies
— The forged Decretals — Their acceptance — Writers
of the Period — The Frank Church and Image worship 104

X.

THE CHURCH AT THE EXTINCTION OF THE CAROLINGIANS.

The result to the Church of Papal Supremacy — Of the
decline of the Royal Power — Abuse of their office by



CONTENTS. XV

PAGE

the Arch-deacons — The Canons recover their Inde-
pendence — The parochial Clergy — Enforcement of
Celibacy — The Permanency of the Conditions in which
the Church was placed — Louis the Child — Hatto of
Mainz — The Babenberg feud — Bishop Solomon of
Constance — The feud with the Vice-Dukes of Swabia . 122

XI.

THE MONASTERIES.

The Utility of the Monasteries — The services they rendered
to Culture and Science — The transcription of Books —
The Abbey of S. Gall — Its Scribes — The principal
room in S. Gall in the 9th and loth centuries — I so —
Moengal — The Song-school — Notker Balbulus — Tutilo
— Walram — The abbey Library — The abbey Schools
— The outer and the inner Schools — The Trivium and
Quadrivium — Ser\-ice done to Philology 136

XII.

THE CHURCH UNDER THE SAXON EMPERORS.

The Saxon dynasty — Henry I. refuses to be crowned by
the Archbishop of Mainz — Coronation of Otto I. —
Transformation of the Monarchy into one aristocratico-
monarchical — The Dukes recover power — How the
Saxon emperors attempted to limit it — Their reliance on
the Church — Investiture — Meinwerk, bishop of Pader-
born — His rapacity — Bernward, bishop of Hildesheim
— Willigis, archbishop of Mainz — The contest over
Gandersheim — The Synod of Pohlde — Writers of the
Epoch : Widukind, Dietmar, Roswitha — Cultural
advantage of intercourse with Romie 155

XIII.

THE CHURCH UNDER THE FRANK AND HOHENSTAUFFEN

EMPERORS.

The policy of Carolingian and Saxon emperors the same
— The Church under the various races — The Bishops



xvi CONTENTS.

PAGE

become princes of the Empire — And military leaders
— Simony — The divided authority in the Church — The
Popes purposely excite rebellion in Germany — S. Anno,
Archbishop of Cologne — Kidnaps the young prince
Henry — Adalbert, archbishop of Bremen — Rapacity of
these Prelates — Anno and the Citizens of Cologne —
Contest between the Abbot of Fulda and the Bishop
of Hildesheim — Arnold, archbishop of Mainz —
Murdered — The Abbess Hildegarde — The ecclesias-
tical provinces of Germany — The foundation of
Bamberg — Gregory VII. and the celibacy of the Clergy
— Gregory and Investitures — Pilgrimages — The
Crusades — The moral result of the encouragement of
the Crusades— Massacre of the Jews— Conquest of Sclav
races in the East — The Brotherhood of the Sword —
The Teutonic Order — Retrospect : . 169 (

XIV.

THE HIERARCHY IN THE I2TH CENTURY.

S. Bernard lays bare the causes of Corruption in his age —
S. Bernard on the Encroachments of the Papacy — On
Appeals to Rome — How these destroy all Discipline —
Hildebert of Tours on Appeals — The parallel opera-
tions of Church and State — Confusion produced by
investing the same Officer with functions in both —
Simony — Gerohus of Reigersperg on the Bishops —
S. Bernard on the Bishops — The Canons — The Clergy
generally 207

XV.

THE CHURCH IN THE I3TH [AND I4TH CENTURIES.

The factors of Modern Civilization — The Church preserves
its Classic Culture during the inroads of Teutonic Bar-
barians — Chivalry, the regulation of Destructive Force
— The Burgessdom, the development of Trade and
Manufacture — The Nursery of the Homely and Social
Virtues — The rise of the German Cities — The Consti-



CONTENTS. xvii

PAGE

tution therein — The Patricians — The Guilds — The
Bishops and the Cities — The story of Archbishops
Conrad and Engelbert of Cologne — The story of Arch-
bishop Burkhard III. of Magdeburg — The Prelates
and the Empire — Encourage Disorder — Opposition
Kings — The history of Archbishop Gerhard of Mainz
and the Election of Adolf of Nassau and of Albert
of Austria 225

XVI.

THE RENAISSANCE AND THE CHURCH.

Peoples, like Individuals, have their Times of Childhood
and Adolescence — The Renaissance, the Epoch when
Germany passed out of Infancy — The Renaissance,
the Revolt of Individualism — The new Birth of
Paganism — Corruption of the Mediaeval Clergy
exaggerated — The study of Classic Antiquity in Italy
— It is carried into Germany — yEneas Sylvius Piccolo-
mini — Humanism — Its rapid spread — Philosophy and
Theology — Attempt to combine them in Scholasticism
— The German Humanists — Reuchlin — Erasmus —
Zwingli — Ulric von Hutten — Epistolie obscurorum
virorum — Mysticism — The double Nature in Man —
The function of the Soul — Forms of Mysticism — The
German Mystics — Eckhart — Nicolas of Basle — Tauler
— The Friends of God — The main Forces that brought
about the Reformation, Humanism and Mysticism —
Inevitable Consequences of the Revolt 259

XVII.

THE PRELUDE TO THE REFORMATION.

Necessity for the Reformation of the Empire — The Insti-
tution of Prince-bishops and Prince-abbots — Efforts
made by Berthold, Archbishop of Mainz, to strengthen
and consolidate the Empire — Frustrated by Maxi-
milian I. — The love of the Germans for the Hohen-
stauffen family — They considered the Papacy guilty of

h



xviii CONTENTS.

Page

the Extinction of that Family — Frederick II.'s Appeal
to Christendom against the Pope — Intolerable
Exactions of the See of Rome — Respect for the
Apostohc Throne ceases — The Schism — John XXIII.
— His abandoned Life — Sale of Indulgences — Council
of Constance — Huss — Deposition of the Pope — He
withdraws his Abdication — Election of Martin V. —
Mistaken Policy — He sets himself to neutralise the
Efforts of the Council — It dissolves — The Council of
Pavia — The Council of Basle— Eugenius IV. — The
Hussite Wars — Eugenius dissolves the Council — It
refuses to be dissolved — He summons the Council of
Florence — Failure and Dispersion of the Council of
Basle — Confidence of Christendom in Councils shaken
— Church and State — The Pragmatic Sanction . . 281



XVHI.

THE REFORMATION.

Martin Luther — His sincerity — His Deficiency in Culture
and in Political Insight — Luther's great Doctrine of
Free Justification — Compared with the CathoHc
Doctrine of Justification — The dangerous Nature of
his Doctrine — Indulgences : the Doctrine of — Luther's
Appeal to the German Nobility — Burns the Bull of
Excommunication — The Diet of Worms — The Wart-
burg Retreat — Luther's System essentially one of In-
dividualism — Niirnberg — Carlstadt — Spread of the
Reformation — The Peasants' War — Further spread of
Lutheranism — The Episcopal Jurisdiction transferred
to the Princes — The Augsburg Confession — Political
questions involved — Miinzer defeated — The Ana-
baptists of Miinster — Wiirtemberg, Basle, Geneva
accept the Reformation — Brandenburg and Thuringia
— The Schmalcald Union — The Holy AUiance — The
demand for a General Council — Evaded, postponed
by the Popes — The Council of Trent summoned — The
Protestants refuse to acknowledge it — Calvinism —
Zwinglianism — Lutheranism 302



CONTENTS. xix

XIX.

THE COUNTER-REFORMATION.

PAGE

Popularity of the Reformation — Reasons for this — Strife
about Secular and Ecclesiastical territories — The
cooling of Enthusiasm among the Protestants — Revival
of Zeal among the Catholics — Disturbance of Ideas by
rapid Changes in Religion — Aristocratic tendency of
Lutheranism — Luther impatient of Opposition — His
Subserviency to the Princes — Moral Degeneration of
the Protestants — The Result of Free Justification —
Increased Strictness of Life among Catholics — The
Jesuits — Theologic Controversies among the Pro-
testants — The Spread of the Jesuits — The Capuchins —
The Thirty Years' War — The Peace of Westphalia —
Petrifaction 'X'X'x



XX.

RELIGIOUS STAGNATION.

Condition of Religion after the Thirty Years' War —
General Religious Indifference — Pietism — Spenner- —
Franke — Zinzendorf — Gottfried Arnold — The Magde-
burg Centuriators — Arnold follows their Steps — The
Roman Church in Germany — Futile Attempts at
Union — Conversions — No Famous Preachers — Ac-
cumulation of Bishoprics in the same hands — Appoint-
ment of Nuncios — Hontheim — Reforms of Maria
Theresa — Of Joseph II. — The Congress of Ems — The
Archbishops insincere — The Archbishop of Treves—
Of Cologne— The University of Bonn — The Archbishop
of Mainz — The Archbishop of Salzburg — Expulsion of
Protestants — The Court at Salzburg — Protestantism
in Prussia — Rationalism 349



XX CONTENTS.

XXI.

FROM THE FRENCH REVOLUTION TO THE PRESENT TIME.

I'AGE

The French Revolution — Suppression of the Ecclesiastical
Electorates after the Peace of Luneville — The Empire
comes to an end — Congress of Vienna — The Resettle-
ment of the Dioceses in Germany by Papal Bulls
— The Schism of Ronge — The " German-Catholic
Church " — Its End — The Decree of Papal Infallibility
—The " Alt-Katholik Church "— Its Decline — The
Kultur-Kampf — Despotic Conduct of the Princes in
the matter of Religion — The Suppression of the
Lutheran and Calvinist Churches and Erection of an
Evangelical Church — Decline of Faith among German
Protestants — What Prospect is in Store for Religion in
Germany 370



) J » «



> » > >



HISTORY OF THE CHURCH

IN GERMANY.

■♦<>•■

I.

THE FIRST CHRISTIAN COMMUNITIES.

Christianity among the Germans at the end of the 2nd
Century — Claims of certain Churches to have been founded
by Disciples of the Apostles not to be substantiated — The
Population of what is now called Germany in the 2nd
and 3rd Centuries — The Celts on the Moselle, in Bavaria,
Baden, and Wiirtemberg — The Germanic Races, where
first found — Alamanni, Burgundians, Marcomanni, Goths,
Franks — The only flourishing Churches in Noricum and
Rhaetia — The Church in Germania I. and II. — Christianity
at Treves — Ausonius — Sidonius Apollinaris — Many cultured
Christians very indifferent — Cologne — Mainz — Metz —
Worms — Corruption of Morals in Roman Colonies — Rhaetia
— 'Augsburg — The Martyrdom of S. Afra — Chur — Ratisbon
— Noricum — S. Severinus — The Alamanni overflow Swabia
— The Goths — Their Arianism — Ulfilas.

The beginnings of the Church in what we now call
Germany are obscure rather than uncertain. We
know that Christianity had found foothold on the
Danube, on the Rhine, and on the Moselle ; but we
have no record as to who brought it there, nor do
we know much as to the fortunes of those Christian
communities that did exist on these rivers.

B



2 HIST on V OF THE CHURCH IN GERMANY.

The first notice we have of Christianity among the
Germans is from the pen of Irenseus, Bishop of
Lyons — Bishop among the Celts, as he says of
himself (a.d. 177-202) — who in his treatise against
Heresies, in a beautiful passage in which he compares
the One Faith, spread throughout the world, to the one
sunlight, everywhere diffused by the one solar orb of
heaven, says, "Though the languages of the world
differ, yet is their tradition one. For the churches
that have been planted in Germany do not believe
or hand down aught different, nor do those in Spain,
in Gaul, in the East, in Libya, &c." (i. 10, 3).
Tertullian, much about the same time, in his treatise
against the Jews, reckons the Germans among those
who had bowed the neck to the yoke of Christ. This
passage may be merely rhetorical, but such is not the
case with that of Irenaeus, who must have had certain
information as to the progress of the Gospel in
Germany.

We can, however, draw no other conclusion from
his words than that, at such an early period, there was
no more than the rudest beginnings of a church among
the Germans, that the Church had, indeed, extended
beyond the Roman colonists living on their confines,
and that these beginnings were to be found only at
rare intervals.

When Irenaeus wrote, he meant no more than that



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