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The lives of the British saints; the saints of Wales and Cornwall and such Irish saints as have dedications in Britain online

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256 L.ives of the British Saints

According to the " Stanzas of the Graves," in the twelfth century
Black Book of Carmarthen} the grave of " BeU ab BenUi Gawr " is
in " Maes Mawr," " on the mountain between lal and Ystrad Alun,"
where he fell in battle, and " two upright stones were placed one at
each end of the grave." ^

Sir John Rhys is disposed to regard Benlli Gawr as one of the
dark divinities of the Celtic pantheon.^

Both legends attribute BenEi's death to burning, but differ in the
details. Nennius says that it took place in his citadel ; the mediaeval
bard that it was on the banks of the Alun at a spot where the river
is called Hesp Alun (in the parish of Cilcain), that is, where it disappears
into the limestone rock, which it does thrice in its course.

Germanus is connected with this neighbourhood. At Llanarmon
in Yale is his church, and at Maes Garmon, near Mold, is the reputed
scene of the Alleluia Victory.



S. CYNHAIARN, Confessor

Cynhaiarn, or Cynhaern, was a son of Hygarfael ab Cyndrwyn, of
Caereinion in Powys, and brother of SS. Aelhaiarn and Llwchaiarn.*
See under S. Aelhaiarn. He is the patron of Ynys Gynhaiarn, in
the promontory of Lleyn, like Llanaelhaiarn, his brother's foundation.
His festival is not known.



S. CYNHEIDDON, Virgin

Cynheiddon was one of the virgin daughters of Brychan Brycheiniog.
She is mentioned thus in the Vespasian or earlier version of the Cognatio,
" Keneython in y mynid cheuor in Kedweli." The entry affords a
good instance of the manner in which Brychan's children have been
multiplied by the scribes, as well as of the process by which texts

^ Ed. Dr. J. G. Evans, 1906, p. 69.

" Carnhuanawc, Hanes Cymru, Crickhowell, 1842, p. 35.

' Arthurian Legend, p. 354.

* Peniarth MSS. 16 and 45 ; Hafod MS. 16 ; Myv. Arch., pp. 421-2 ; Cambro-
British Saints, p. 267 ; lolo MSS., p. 104. Haiarn (iron), in its different
spellings, formed rather a common element in Brythonic personal names. See
Rhys, Welsh Philology, pp. 418-9.



o . Cynheiddon 2 5 7

undergo corruption. In the Domitian or later version it has yielded
twomtries, (i) " Koneidon apud Kydwely in monte Kyfor," and
{2) " Kenedlon apud mynyd Kymorth." We are much mistaken
if in the second of these again we do not find the mountain-name
supplying us with another daughter, the Cymorth of the still later
lists. A scribe might easily misread Koneidon into Kenedlon. In
the Jesus College MS. 20 (early fifteenth century) we have " Ryneidon
ygkitweli ymynyd Kyuor "—reading R for K.

Mynydd Cyfor, in the commote of Cedweli or Kidwelly, is a hill
four miles south-east of Carmarthen, and Cynheiddon's name is still
commemorated there in the hamlet of Capel Llangynheiddon, the
chapel of which, on the hill, is now extinct. ^ It is in the parish of
Llandefeilog.

Cenedlon as a Saint on Mynydd Cymorth occurs in most of the late
lists of Brychan's children, but we are nowhere told where the mountain
was situated.*

C5Tiiorth, also written Corth, is said to have been the wife of Brynach
Wyddel, Brychan's periglor or confessor. Their son, Gerwyn, is
none other than Berwyn, the son of Brychan, and their three daughters
Mwynwen (Mwynen), Gwenan, and Gwenlliw, are also in one document
said to have been daughters of Brychan.^ See under S. Cymorth.

Cenedlon is said to have been patroness of Rockfield, riear Mon-
mouth * ; but it is a mistake for S. Kenelm.^



S. CYNHEIDDON, Confessor

Cynheiddon, Cynheiddion, or Cynheiddan, was a son of the prince-
saint Ynyr Gwent, by Madrun, daughter of Gwrthefyr Fendigaid.^
He was the brother of SS. Ceidio and Tegiwg, and of Iddon, who
succeeded his father. Nothing seems to be known of him.

1 " The chaple of Llangenhython " in the parish of Llandefeilog, is mentioned
in -the inventories of church good's taken in 1552-3 ; Daniel-Tyssen and Evans,
Carmarthen Charters, 1878, p. 31. It is given also in the late sixteenth century-
parish list in Peniarth MS. 147 ; Dr. J. G. Evans, Report on Welsh MSS., i,
-p. 918 ; cf. p. 831.

" Once it occurs as Mynydd y Cymmod (the Mount of Atonement ! ). lolo

MSS., p. 120.

3 lolo MSS., pp. 121, 140-1 ; Myv. Arch., p. 428.

» Cambro-British Saints, p. 607. ' Rees, Welsh Saints, p. 344.

■« lolo MSS., pp. 129, 139, 144 ; My^- ^'''^^■- 422-

VOL. II. ^



258 Lives of the British Saints

S. CYNIDR, Bishop, Confessor

In both versions of the Cognatio de Brychan, S. Kenider de Glesbyri
is given as the son of Kehingayr (Keyngair), or Ceingair, daughter of
Brychan; but his father's name is not mentioned.'- We are, however,
given another account of his parentage. There is a note at the be-
ginning of the MS. containing the eariier version (Cotton MS. Vesp.
A.xiv), in one of the hands in which the Vitce Sanctorum, etc., are written,
that has a large hole in the parchment, but the portion wanting can
be restored from a copy made by Sir John Price, of Brecon, before it
became damaged. It is at the end of the MS. containing the other
Cognatio version [Cotton MS. Domitian i). This gives the pedigree
of S. Eigion, whom it calls Egwen, and says that he and Cynidr, whom
it calls Keniderus of Glesburia, were sons of Gwynllyw (Gunleuus)
and Gwladys (Gladusa), and brothers of S. Cadoc. The passage shall
be given under S. Eigion.

The scene of Cynidr's labours was principally Brecknockshire,,
where there are several churches that were originally dedicated to him ;
but his foundations have been re-dedicated to Our Lady all, with
the exception of one to S. Peter. His most important was Glasbury,
in the counties of Brecknock and Radnor, and it is here that he lies
buried. Bernard de Newmarch granted the advowson of the living in
1088 to the Monastery of S. Peter, Gloucester,^ from whence the church
derived its second dedication, S. Peter. The Wakes were until recent
years observed on S. Peter's day. His holy well, Flynnon Gynidr,
is on the common above Glasbury. To him were also originally
dedicated in the county of Brecknock, Llangynidr ^ (called also Eglwys
lail, and Eglwys Fair a Chynidr), Aberyscir (called Plwyf Mair a
Chynidr in Peniavth MS. 138), and Llanywern * (under Llanfihangel
TalyUyn). The parish of Cantref (church now dedicated to the Virgin)
is called " parochia S'ti Kenedri de Kantreff " in a document dated
1514 [Harley Charter iii, D. 3). Kenderchurch (now dedicated to the
Virgin) in Herefordshire, is called in the Book of Llan Ddv ^ Lanncinitir,
and in the Taxatio of 1291,^ Eccl'ia Sci. Kenedr'.

1 Myv. Arch., p. 429. A " Kenider Gell," the son of Cynon ab Ceredig, occurs
in the Progenies Keredic, at the end of the Vespasian Cognatio, and a " Kynedyr
Wyllt " is mentioned in Culhwch and Olwen. The Cynidr of "Kynydr ap Kyngar
m. Garthaug " in Hanesyn Hen (Cardiff MS. 25), p. 1 12, is a misreading for Cyn-
deyrn. Glasbury is in Welsh Y Clas, or Clds ar Wy, from elds, a monastic com-
munity.

2 See its Cartulary, Rolls Series, iii, p. 5, where Glasbury Church is called
" Ecclesia Sancti Kenedri."

' Lewis in his Topog. Diet, of Wales, s.v. Llangynider, says Cynidr " lived in
religious seclusion in Glamorgan, in the sixth century, and in commemoration
ot whom a festival was annually celebrated here, on the ist of August."

* In the parish list in Peniarth MS. 147 (circa 1566) it is called Llanywern
Mair a Chynidr. ^ P. 277. « P. 160.



S. Cynidr 259

He had a hermitage on an island in the Wye at Winforton, in Hereford-
shire. Of this Mrs. Dawson gives an interesting account in the Archceo-
logia Camhrensis for 1898.1 " A more ideal site for a hermitage than
the isle of Winforton it would be difficult to imagine ; solitude and com-
parative safety were secured to it by the waters of the Wye around it,
while on the south it was overshadowed by the steep dark heights of
Meerbach mountains, where may yet be seen a relic of the faith of
a still earlier day, the huge cromlech known as Arthur's Stone. Though
the river has altered its course so much that it now flows half a mile
distant from the hermitage, its site may still almost claim the name
of island, for a deep moat, crossed by a stone bridge, protects it on
the north, and in time of flood it is altogether surrounded by water.
The actual remains consist of an oblong mound, artificially raised
some ten feet above the level of the soil, and approached by raised
causeways on the south-west and north-west. Stones crop out here
and there, and from the appearance of the ground it would seem as
if the building had terminated in an apse at the east end."

Winforton Church, now dedicated to S. Michael the Archangel, was
probably dedicated originally to S. Cynidr.

Cynidr is perhaps Keneder, the disciple of S. Cadoc, who is mentioned
in the Life of that Saint ^ as associated with Teilo, David, Dochu
(or Cyngar) and Maidoc in a deputation to King Arthur.

A certain Ligessauc or Llyngesog — nicknamed the Longhand —
had killed three of Arthur's retainers, and then had fled for refuge
to the sanctuary of S. Cadoc, with whom he remained in concealment
for seven years, before Arthur discovered where he was.

Then, highly incensed, the King ordered Cadoc to surrender the
fugitive that he might undergo punishment.

Now, a Saint had no right to grant sanctuary indefinitely. Properly
speaking, the right of sanctuary was for a limited number of days,
and it was his duty during these days to come to terms with the prose-
cutor, and pay the mulct or fine for the crime committed. If he did
not do this, then he must surrender the refugee. Cadoc had un-
doubtedly behaved in an underhand way in this matter, and the King
was very naturally and rightly offended. The Saint finding that he
had got into trouble, and assured that it would bring on him discredit
if he did not now secure the safety of Ligessauc, despatched his most
trusty disciples to smooth the matter over with Arthur.

They accordingly went to him, where he was holding a gorsedd, or

1 Pp. 216-221.

' Cambfo-British Saints, pp. 48-50. A Cheneder occurs as clerical witness in
the Cartulary appended to the Life.



2 6o Lives of the British Saints

assembly, on the Usk. But not venturing to put themselves in his
power, they did not cross the river, but conducted the negotiation
by shouting across.

At length it was settled that Cadoc should pay the King a hundred
cows as mulct for the men who had been slain. Cadoc had offered
three cows per man, nine in all, but Arthur had scouted at the offer.

The ultimatum of Arthur was accepted with reluctance, and when
Cadoc sent the prescribed number, he had raked together the leanest
and oldest he could find. The King peremptorily refused to receive
them, and they had to be returned, and cows of a better quality sent.

The next point of dispute was — how were they to be delivered ?
It was referred to judges, who decided that the cattle should be driven
half-way over the ford by Cadoc's men, then they would be received
by the King's men.

Accordingly, Arthur sent Cai, his steward, into the mud of the
Usk, together with the requisite number of men. But they arrived
on their return, beplastered with ooze, rolling before them bundles
of russet fern instead of cows.

Astonished at this miracle, the King gave way, and allowed Cadoc
rights of asylum to extend over seven years, seven months, and seven
days. It is not dilficult to see the truth through the dust of fiction.
The biographer of S. Cadoc could not allow his hero to come off badly
in a bargain, and he invented the miracle to disguise a somewhat
sordid transaction, Cadoc was fined heavily, as he deserved, for he
had behaved dishonourably. He paid the enormous fine imposed
on him, reluctantly, yet in full ; and then Arthur generously granted
him the extension of right of asylum, unless this also be an invention
of the Llancarfan hagiographer.

S. Cadoc certainly was in Cornwall, and he very probably took his
cousin Cynidr with him, and Cynidr would not be at all reluctant to
visit his kinsmen, thick as stars in the firmament, studded on the
windy downs of North Cornwall.

His festival is December 8. In the Calendar in Cott. Vesp. A. xiv
is entered against that day " Sti. Kenedri, Ep.," and in that prefaced
to Sir John Price's Welsh Prymer, 1546, " Gwyl Fair a Chynidr."
It occurs also in the Prymers of 1618 and 1633. Rees is wrong
in his inference that his festival is that of the Annunciation. ^ Nicolas
Roscarrock gives as his day December 9. " S. Keneder of Glasbery
or Glasberry, son of Reinwyr or Riengwar."

Quoting the Life of S. Nectan, he says S. Eneder was one of Brychan's
children and " hath a church in Cornwall." The feast there was held

' Welsh Saints, p. 241.



aS*. Cyni7i 261

on the first Wednesday in March. In his Calendar he says in Lent,
but that was doubtless a slip. The feast is now held on the last Thurs-
day in April; The church in Domesday is called Egloseunder. S&e
under S. Enoder.



S. CYNIN, Bishop, Confessor

Cynin belonged to the saintly clan of Brychan. In the two Cognatio
versions, he is said to have been the son of Brychan's daughter Hunyd
or Nunidis, wife of Tudwal Befr (the Fair or Blond), who was buried
"under the rock of Mel then." His name is entered in the earher
version as " Cunin cof (i. memorie)," so called, no doubt, from his
possessing an exceptionally retentive memory. Jesus College MS.
20 gives Brychan's daughter Goleuddydd as the wife of Tudwal
Befr. It is but right to say that in these early documents he is not
mentioned as a Saint.

In the various later documents printed in the Myvyrian Archaiology ^
and the lolo MSS.^ Cynin is said to have been son of Brychan ; but
it is much more probable that he was a grandson. It is there added
that he was a Saint of Dyfed, where was his church, and where also
he was bishop. He is the patron of Llangynin or Llanginning, near
S. Clear's, Carmarthenshire. The dedication was generally given
formerly as " Cjmin a'i Weision " ^ (" Cynin and his servants ") —
probably, from analogy, "his tonsured servants, " that is, his monks.

In the early Welsh Triads and poems Cynin Cof appears rather
in the role of a warrior than that of a Saint. He had a son named
DaUdaf, and their steeds — even their steeds' names — are mentioned.

In an ode to King Henry VII, the author supplicates " Cjmin a'i
Weision," in a long list of Welsh and other Saints, to grant the King
long hfe.* It would appear from the poems of Lewis Glyn Cothi
(fifteenth century) that he was in the habit of frequently invoking
this Saint. In one passage he exclaims " myn Cynin ! " and in two
others " myn delw Gynin ! " (" by Cynin's image or statue ! "). In an
eulogy he flatters an esquire of the bodyguard of Henry VI with the
remark that he regarded paying him a visit in January and February

.' Pp. 419, 422; Peniarth MS. 178. ' Pp. m, 119. i40-

3 E.g. the lists of parishes in Peniarth MS. 147 (c. 1566) and Myv. Arch., p. 746.
" A'i Weision, neu a'i Veibion " (or his sons) of Myv. Arch., p. 422, and Peniarth
MS. 178, probably embodies a misreading. * lolo MSS.. p. 314.



262 Lives of the British Saints

like going on a pilgrimage to S. Cynin ; and he further invokes the
protection of " Cynin a'i Weision " for his own native Caio.^ Cynin's
image was, no doubt, at Llangynin.

In the neighbourhood, the name Cynin occurs in Castell Cynin,
near Eglwys Cymmun ; Afon Cynin, flowing through Llangynin parish ;
and in three farm-names (Blaen, Godre, and Cwm Cynin), in the parish
of Newchurch, Carmarthenshire, where a stone inscribed " Cunegni "
was found, which is now at Traws Mawr. Another stone was dis-
covered not long since in the churchyard at Eglwys Cymmun, with
the inscription " Avitoria Filia (Inigina) Cunigni," ^ which was evidently
set up by Irish speakers. The form for Cunigni in modern Welsh
would be Cynin, and in Irish Coinin, which latter occurs in the Martyr-
ology of Donegal (February 12) as the name of a bishop. The topo-
graphy of this sraaU area clearly shows that Cynin was a person of
considerable importance ; and the Traws Mawr stone probably originally
marked his grave. It has been surmised that Eglwys Cymmun, or
more properly Eglwys Gymyn or Gymmun,^ involves his name, but
that cannot be. In a MS. in the British Museum, temp. Edward III,
the church is called " Ecclesia de Sancto Cumano." * The church
is now, like that of the neighbouring Llandawke, dedicated to S.
Margaret Marios, but it received this dedication in the fourteenth
century. See under S. Caemen.

The festival of S. Cynin does not occur in any of the Welsh Calendars,
but Nicolas Roscarrock gives November 24. The one fair held at
Llangynin has on January 7, Old Style ; later, on the i8th.

Conigc, which would be to-day Cynin or Cyning, was the name of
an abbot of Llancarfan, who appears in three charters in the cartulary
appended to the Life of S. Cadoc.^

The personal name Cynin is not unknown elsewhere in the place-
names of South Wales, and also in Cornwall. We have it, for instance,
in Bro Gynin, the birthplace of Dafydd ab Gwilym, near Aberystwyth ;
and in Tre Gynin, in Llangathen parish, which latter turns up in
Cornwall as Tregoning, of which there are several instances.*

' Gwaith L. G. Cothi, Oxford, 1837, pp. 62, 121, 311, 453, 45(3.

2 Arch. Camb., 1889, p. 225.

' £.^., the old lists of parishes in Peniarth MS. 147 and Myv. Arch., p. 746.
The initial letter should certainly be G.

* Arch. Camb., 1907, p. 261. The local tradition connects the name with
Cymmun (communion), and points out the " Pilgrim's Path, Stile and Door,"
whereby he came to Mass. A neighbouring farm is called Pare Cymmun.

^ Cambro-British Saints, pp. 86-93.

° See Mr. Phillimore's note in Owen's Pembrokeshire, ii, pp. 420-2.



S, Cynllo 263

S. CYNLLO, King, Confessor

There is a little uncertainty as regards the parentage of this Saint.
A gloss on the Bonedd in the thirteenth century Peniarth MS. 16 makes
him the brother of S. Teilo, who was the son of Ensych or Usyllt ab
Hydwn Dwn ab Ceredig ab Cunedda Wledig, by Gwenhaf, daughter
of LUfonwy. The Bonedds in the late fifteenth century Peniarth MS.
27, pt. ii, and in Hanesyn Hen {Cardiff MS. 25), p. 112, also
couple Teilo and Cynllo together as sons of Ensych. The later
genealogies! make him the son of Mar or Mor ab Ceneu ab Coel
Godebog. In the Demetian Calendar (S) his name is entered as
CynUo Frenin, but without a festival day.

His dedications connect him with North Radnorshire and Cardigan-
shire.

In the former county are dedicated to him Nantmel, LlangynUo, and
Llanbister. Near the last church is a celebrated spring called Pistyll
CynUo. The church of Rhayader, now dedicated to S. Clement, seems
to have been also originally dedicated to him. In Cardiganshire there
are two churches under his invocation, LlangynUo and Llangoedmor.
In the topography of the former parish we have Afon, Cwm, AUt,
and Chwarel C3mllo. In the latter parish are several memorials
of him, particularly near Treforgan. There is his holy well, Ffynnon
Gynllo, to which great healing properties were formerly ascribed,
especially in rheumatic cases. There, too, is his cave, wherein tradition
says he used to pray ; also Cerwyni Cynllo, his brewing-tubs, being
cavities worn in the rocky bed of the river ; 01 traed march Cynllo,
the print of his horse's hoofs in the rock ; and 01 ghniau Cynllo, the
marks of his knees when at his devotions. ^ There is also an extensive
intrenchment in the parish called Cynllo Faes, as well as a farmhouse,
Melin Cynllo.

His festival, July 17, occurs in the Calendars in Jesus College MS.
cxli = 6 (fifteenth century), lolo MSS., Peniarth MSS. 187 and 219, the
Prymers of 1618 and 1633, Allwydd Paradwys, and by Nicolas Roscar-
rock. The i6th is given in a number of Welsh Almanacks of the eight-
eenth century, and the 14th in Sir John Prys's Prymer, 1546. Hafod
MS. 8 (late sixteenth century) gives " Gwyl Ginllo " against August
8. The wakes at Llangoedmor were held near the Meini Cyfrifol.

1 Myv. Arch., p. 422; lolo MSS., p. 126. At the former reference he is
described as a saint " in Rhaiadr Gwy." Lewis Glyn Cothi {infra) also makes
him patron of Rhayader. The llo in Cynllo as well as Catlo is of the same origin
as the Latin lupus (Rhys, Welsh Philology, p. 39°)-

2 Lewis Glyn Cothi, Poetical Works, 1837, p. 326 ; Meyrick, Hist, of Cardigan-
shire, 1808, p. 118 ; Evan Davies, Hanes Plwyf LlangynUo, Llandyssul, 1905.



264 Lives of the British Saints

In a poem entitled " Elphin's Consolation," attributed to Taliessin,
but in reality late medieval, occurs the line, " The prayer of Cynllo
shall not be in vain." ^ It doubtless refers to this Saint.



S. CYNOG AB BRYCHAN, Martyr

Cynog, called in Welsh hagiology Cynog Sant and Cynog Ferthyr,
is invariably represented as the eldest son of Brychan. " Anlach
gave his son Brachan as hostage to the King of Powys, and afterwards,,
in process of time, Brachan violated Banadlinet the daughter of
Benadel. And she became pregnant and bore a son, Kynauc by
name , who was carried to the caer and baptized. After this Brachan
took a torque from his arm, and gave it to his son Kynauc. That
Saint Kynauc is very celebrated in his own county of Brecheniauc,
and that torque is preserved to the present time in the said province
among its most precious relics." ^

Giraldus Cambrensis describes this armlet. " I must not be silent
concerning the collar {torques) which they call S. Canauc's ; for it
is most like to gold in weight, nature and colour ; it is in four pieces
wrought round, joined together artificially, and clef ted as it were in
the middle, with a dog's head, the teeth projecting. It is considered
by the inhabitants so powerful a relic, that no man ventures to swear
falsely upon it when laid before him. It bears the marks of heavy
blows, as if made by an iron hammer ; for a certain man, it is said,
endeavouring to break the torque for the sake of the gold, experienced
divine vengeance, was deprived of his eyesight, and lingered out
the rest of his days in darkness." ^ It was preserved long in the
district.

His mother's name in the Domitian Cognatio is Banadylued, and is
usually given in the late documents as Banhadlwedd ("Broom-aspect"),
the daughter of Banhadle of Banhadla in Powys.* There are three
townships in the parish of Llanrhaiadr ym Mochnant (patron, his
half-brother S. Doewan), which contain the name Banhadla, and

1 Myv. Arch., p. 69.

^ Cognatio de Brychan in Cott. Vesp. A. xiv. In the Domitian version he is said
to have been baptized by S. Gastayn, to whom is dedicated Llangasty Talyllyn,
who became his preceptor. His name occurs in the genitive Cunaci on the
seventh or eighth century inscribed stone at Gesel Gyfarch, near Tremadoc. •
With the prefix Ty (anciently To) we have it in the Toquonocus (Tygynog) of
Wrmonoc's Life of S. Paul de Lion {Revue Celtique, v, p. 437). ■

' Itin. Camb., i, chap. 2. ^ Peniarth MS. 127 ; Myv. Arch., p. 421.



S. Cynog ab Brychan 265

the parish adjoins that of Llangynog, Montgomeryshire. Banhadel
was at the time prince of Powys.

Most of the churches dedicated to Cynog in Wales are situated in
Brychan-land. He has the following dedications : Merthyr Cynog
(where he is buried), Defynog or Devynock, Ystradgynlais, Penderin,
Battle, and Llangynog, in Brecknockshire ; Boughrood, in Radnor-
shire ; and Llangynog, in Montgomeryshire. Llang3niog in Carmar-
thenshire is probably not dedicated to him. Two other Llangynogs
mentioned in the Book of Llan Ddv, but now extinct, were in all
probabihty dedicated to him. One, Lann Cinauc, is Llangunnock,
on the Garran, in Herefordshire, i The other, called Lann Guern
Cinuc and Henlenic Cinauc,^ is Llangunnock, on the PiH, in Mon-
mouthshire. The latter was united at an early date with Llanddewi
Fach, and is not mentioned in the Taxatio of 1291 or the Valor of
1535. Its ruins are near a farmhouse called Llys Brychan. It has
been supposed that it was dedicated to a Cynog ab Cynwyl ab Gwyngon,
who was nephew to a Brychan ab Gwyngon, ^ but the two names are
misreadings of Conhae and Bricon. Devynock, formerly called Y
Ddyfynog,* is sometimes said to have been re-dedicated to S. Dyfnog,
but this is a mere guess from the name. In a document dated 1315
in the Cartulary of S. Peter's, Gloucester, ^ the church is called " Ecclesia
Sancti Kannoci de Devennock." The church of Aberhafesp, Mont-
gomeryshire, is also sometimes said to be dedicated to him,® but this
is a mistake for Gwynog.

According to Welsh tradition Cynog ended his days in Brecknock-
shire. It is stated that he was murdered by the pagan Saxons, upon
a mountain called Y Fan Oleu, or the Van, in the parish of Merthyr



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