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MHM^BMHB







l?/4







THE LIBRARY

OF

THE UNIVERSITY

OF CALIFORNIA

LOS ANGELES



mod below



k



* *



THE



fUtoes of tt)e Saints



REV. S. BARING-GOULD

SIXTEEN VOLUMES
VOLUME THE SIXTH



9 *



*-



-*






First Edition published 1872

Second Edition .... ,, 1897

New and Revised Edition, 16 vols. ,, /914



*~ *




PENTECOST DESCENT OF THE HOLY GHOST.
After Hemmling, Museum at Munich.
June, Frontispiece.]



* *

THE

BLtoea of tije faints

BY THE

REV. S. BARING-GOULD, M.A.



With Introduction and Additional Lives of English

Martyrs, Cornish, Scottish, and Welsh Saints,

and a full Index to the Entire Work



New and Revised Edition

ILLUSTRATED BY 473 ENGRAVINGS
VOLUME THE SIXTH

3une



EDINBURGH: JOHN GRANT

31 GEORGE IV BRIDGE

1914



* > *

734 3



*



-v



Printed by Ballantyne, Hanson & Co.
at the Ballantyne Press, Edinburgh



*"



-*




CONTENTS



A

PAGE

S. Adalbert .... 361
./Emilian .... 360
Agrippina .... 308
Alban, M., at Mainz 288
Alban, M., at Veru-

lam 294

Aldate of Gloucester 203

Alena 246

B. AleydisofScharem-

beke 147

S. Aloysius Gonzaga . 291
Anectus .... 387
Anthelm of Bellay . 378
Antidius . . . . 352
Antony of Padua . 181
Aphrodisius . . . 282
Aquilina . . . .177
SS. Anald and Herlem-

bald 389

B. ArnulfofVillars . 488



PAGE

SS. Aucejas and Luceja 342
Aureus and Justina 221
S. Aventine .... 75
Avitus 237



S. Babolen . . . .


373


B. Bardo of Mainz . .


I$1


S. Barnabas . . . .


139


Bartholomew of




Fame . . . .


338


Basil the Great . .


192


SS. Basilides and comp.


149


S. Benno of Meissen .


222


Bernard of Menthon


213


,, Bessarion . . . .


236


Boniface of Mainz .


41


Botulph . . . .


247


Breacha . . . .


36



*-



-*



PAGE

S. Calliope . ... 77
SS. Cerealis and others 127
S. ChlodulfofMetz . 82
Clothilda .... 23
Clotsendis. . . . 486
Colman of Dromore 71
\J Columba .... 90
Corbican . . . . 373
Crescens .... 386
SS. Crescentia and

others .... 207

S. Cunera 154

Cuno 6

SS. Cyriac and Julitta . 219

D

S. David 372

Deodatus .... 259
Dionysius of Bul-
garia 385

Donatus .... 484
Dorotheus of Tyre . 40
Dulas 208



Edward,Translation

of 281

Elizabeth of Schoe-

nau 252

Emma 461

Engelmund . . .291
Erasmus .... 20

Eskill 171

EusebiusofCassarea 282
Eusebius of Samo-

sata 285

Evermund. . . .132



S. Febronia .... 343

SS. Felician and Primus 87

S. Felicula . . . .176



SS. Felinus and Gratian 1
Felix and Fortunatus 143
Felix and Maurus . 221
S. Felix of Sutri . . . 307
Florentia .... 279

SS. Fortunatusand Felix 143
Four Martyrs of Ge-

rona 78

S. Francis Caracciolo. yi



S. Gemma .... 270

B. Gerard 179

,, Germaine Cousin . 216
SS. Gervasius and Pro-

tasius . . . .256

Getulius, Cerealis,
and others .

S. Gilbert of Auvergne

Goban . . .

Gotteschalk . . .
SS. Gratian and Felinus

S. Gudwall ....

,, Gurwall ....



127

67

280

73
1

57
56



H

S. Heimerad .... 417
SS. Herlembald and

Ariald .... 389

S. Herve* 239

SS. Hypatius and comp. 250

I

S. InnocentofLeMans 258
Irenaeus of Lyons . 407
SS. Ismael and others . 234
S. Ithamarof Roches-
ter . . . . .133
M Ivan 337

J
S. Jacob of Toul . . 309
Jason 341



*



*-



-*



Contents



VII



S. John the Baptist,

Nativity of . . 323
John of Chinon . . 388
John of the Goths . 374
John Francis Regis 225

SS. John and Paul . . 366
S. John of Rome . . 309
John of Sagahun . 172

SS. Judith and Salome . 455
S. Juliana Falconieri . 267

SS. Julitta and Cyriac . 219
Justina and Aureus . 221

K
S. Kevin 27



S. Ladislas .... 400
Landelin . . . .212

SS. Laurence and Pere-

grinus .... 22
S. Leo II., Pope . . 413
Leo III., Pope . . 156

SS. Leontius and comp. 250
S. Leutfried .... 290
Lietbert of Cambrai 310

SS. Luceja and Aucejas 342

S. Lucina 462

Luperculus . . .410

M

S. Macarius . . . .271

Macra 146

Maen, or Meven . 288
SS. Manuel, Sabiel, and

Ismael .... 234

Marcellinus and

comp 19

Marcellinus and

Marcus . . . .251

Marcian, Nicander,

and comp. ... 39

Marcian and Nican-
der 231



SS. Marcus and Marcel-
linus 251

S. Margaret . . . .136
Mark of Lucera . . 191
Martial of Limoges 463

SS. Martyrs under Nero 334
Martyrs of Sandomir 21
B. Mary d'Oignies . .319
S. Mary the Mother of

Mark .... 454
Mary the Sorrowful 254

SS. Maurus and Felix . 221
S. Maxentius. . . .371
Maximus of Aix . . 77
Maximus of Turin . 353
Medard of Noyon . 79
Methodius, Patr. of

Constantinople . 204
Metrophanes ... 33

SS. Modestus and others 207
S. Moling of Ferns . 249



N

Nativity of S. John the
Baptist . . .
S. Nennocha . . .
SS. Nicander, Marcian
and comp. . .
Nicander and Mar-
cian . . . .
S. Norbert of Magde

burg ....
,, Novatus . . .



323
36

39
231

58
269



O

B. Odo of Cambrai . 260
S. Onuphrius. . . .150
Optatus .... 34



SS. Pamphilus and

others .... 2
PansemneandTheo-

phanes . . . .130



*



*



*-



Vlll



Contents



S. Pappian . . . .


412


Paul, Apostle . . .


432


Paul I., Pope . .


416


Paul of Constanti-




nople . . . .


69


Paulinus of Nola .


304


Pelagia. . . .


89


Pelagius . . .


377


SS. PeregrinusandLaur






22


S. Peter, Apostle .


419


Peter of Aste . .


48 s


SS. Peter, Walabons




and comp. . .


72


S. Petrock . . .


35


Philip of Tralles .


55


n pi or


235


SS. Plutarch, Pota




miaena, and other


3 410


Potamiaena anc


1


others . . .


. 410


S. Potamiaena th(




Younger . .


. 68


SS. Pothinus and other


3 7


Primus and Feliciai


1 87


S. Prosper of Aquitaii


1 353


Prosper of Reggio


35


Q




S. Quirinus . . .


30


R




S. Ragnbert . . .


. 178


B. Raymund Lulli .


. 489




. 76






SS. Ruffinus and Vale









SS. Sabiel and others . 234
,, Salome and Judith . 455
S. Salvius 375



PAGE

S. Sampson Xeno-

dochus .... 387

Simplicius of Autun 336

SS. Sosipater and Jason 341

S. Sylverius, Pope . .271



T

SS. Ten Thousand Mar-
tyrs 299

S. Theobald .... 486
Theodehilda . . .413
SS. Theodulus and comp. 250
Theophanes and

Pansemne . . .130
Translation of S. Ed-
ward 281

S. Tygris 359

V

SS. Valerius and Ruffi-
nus 190

S. Vigilius 370

SS. Vitus, Modestus, and

Crescentia . . . 207
S. Vougas 211

W

S. Walabons .... 72
Walhere .... 318
William of York . . 82
William of Monte

Virgine .... 362

Wistan 5

Wulphlag .... 71



S. Yvo 132



SS. Zeno and Zenas . . 308
Zoilus and comp. . 387



*-



* *



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS



Pentecost : Descent of the Holy Ghost Frontispiece

After a Picture by Hemmling in the Museum at
Munich.

Corpus Christi to face p. i

From the Vienna Missal.

Pentecost : Descent of the Holy Ghost 6

S. Clotilda ,,22

After Cahier.

Baptism of Clovis ,,24

After a Painting by D. F. Lauge.

A Semi-choir of Friars on p. 29

S. Boniface leaving England . . . to face p. 42
S. Boniface, Archbishop of Mainz . ,,48

From an Engraving in " Images de Saints et
Saintes issus de la famille de t ' Empereur
Maximilien Ier."

S. Claudius 56

After Cahier.

S. Gilbert of Auvergne .... ,,66

S. Medard . . . . . . 80

After Cahier.

S. William of York ,,84

vol. vi. U b



-*



*-



x List of Illustrations



B. Juliana Falconieri {see p. 267) . . onp.%6

S. Landric, Bishop of Paris . . . to face p. 132

After Cahier.

S. Barnabas, Apostle ,,140

From the Vienna Missal.

A Semi-choir of Franciscan Friars . . on p. 148

S. Antony of Padua to face p. 182

After Cahier.

Church of S. Antony at Padua . . 186

S. Antony of Padua The Miracle of

the Host 188

From a Miniature in a MS., " Hours of Anne of
Brittany," Fifteenth Century, in the Bib.
Nat. , Paris.

S. Antony of Padua The, Self-mutila-
tion INFLICTED BY ONE OF HIS PENI-
TENTS on p. 189

After Cahier.

Vision of S. Basil The Martyr of
C/esarea, S. Mercury, sent from
Heaven by Jesus Christ to pierce
the Emperor Julian the Apostate . to face p. 194

After a Greek Painting of the Fourteenth Century.

S. Methodius on p. 206

SS. Vitus, Modestus, and Crescentia . to face p. 206
After Cahier.



*"



*

List of Illustrations xi



S. Bernard of Menthon {seep. 213) . . . onp. 218

Tailpiece 230

SS. Peter and Paul {see June 29th) . . . ,,281

Translation of S. Edward . . . to face p. 281

S. Alban 296

Zacharias writing the Name of John . 324

After John D. Ghirlandajo.

S. John bidding Farewell to his Parents 324

After Fra Filippo Lippi.

S. John the Baptist in the Desert

After Campagnola.

Baptism of Our Lord by S. John .

From a Fresco.

Beheading of S. John the Baptist .

The Blinding of S. Solomon . .

S. Sampson Xenodochus {see p. 387) .

S. Ladislas 406

S. Peter to face p. 418

S. Peter cutting off the Ear of Malchus

The Disciples flee away ... 420

From a Painting on wood by Ducio, Sixteenth
Century, in the Cathedral of Sienna.

I 5






326





328


>


330


on p


340


j


385



*-



Xll



List of Illustrations



Martyrdom of S. Peter .... to face p. 430

From a Fresco by Filippino Lippi, in the Church
of S. M. del Carmine at Florence.

Martyrdom of SS. Peter and Paul . 432

From a Window in the Cathedral at Bourges.



S. Peter and S. Paul

After Bronzes at the Second or commencement of
the Third Century, in the Christian Museum
of the Vatican.



432



S. Paul

S. Paul Church of the Three Foun-
tains, Rome



436



454




*-



*




CORPUS CHRISTI.
From the Vienna Missal.



June, p. i.]



[June.



-*b



Lives of the Saints



June 1.

S. Nicomede, P.M. at Rome, circ. a.d. 90 {see Sept. \$th).

S. Clarus, B.M. at Lectoure in France.^

SS. Florentinus and Comp., MM. at Perugia.

SS. Gratian and Felinus, MM. at Perugia.

SS. Ammon, Zeno, and Others, MM. at Alexandria, a.d. 249.

SS. Reverian, B. and Comp., MM. at Autun, a.d. 272.

S. Secondus, M. at Amelia, in Umbria, circ. a.d. 303.

S. Pamphilus, P.M., Valens, D.M., and Paul, M. at Ca-sarea

in Palestine, a.d. 309.
S. Caprasius, Ab. o/Lerins, circ. A.D. 430.
S. Ronan, H. in Brittany, 6th cent.
S. Wistan, K.M. at Evesham, a.d. 749.
S. Symeon, H. at Treves, a.d. 1033.
S. Inigo, Ab. at Ogni, near Burgos, in Spain, a.d. 1057.
S. Cuno, Archb. Elect offreves, M. at Tholey, a.d. 1066.
S. Peter of Pisa, H. at Montebello, in Umbria, a.d. 1435.

SS. GRATIAN AND FELINUS, MM.
(uncertain.)

[Roman Martyrology, inserted by Baronius in these words: "At
Perugia the holy martyrs Gratian and Felinus, soldiers who, after suffer-
ing various tortures under Decius, received the crown of martyrdom."
And Baronius quotes as his authority the Acts preserved at Perugia. But
he laboured under a very serious mistake. The so-called Acts of SS.
Gratian and Felinus, used as lections in the Arona Passionale, are ex-
tracted from the Acts of SS. Florentinus and Companions, martyrs at
Perugia commemorated the same day. But these Acts are in their turn not
genuine ; they are, in fact, the Acts of SS. Secundianus and Comp. (Aug.
9th), which have been adapted " by some monk, more pious than learned,"
says Henschenius, we should have said "as unscrupulously as ignorantly,"
by merely altering the names of persons and places so as to make the
Acts serve for the Perugian martyrs, of whom, therefore, we may con-
clude that nothing was known. Consequently the less said about SS.
Gratian and Felinus, patrons of Arona, or of SS. Florentinus and
Companions at Perugia, the better. The relics of SS. Gratian and
Felinus are now at Arona. Those of S. Florentinus were translated to
Douai.]

1 The Bollandists suppose that several perhaps five saints of the same name
hare been confounded in one, consequently the life of S. Clarus is in inextricable
confusion.

VOL. VI. I




2 Lives of the Saints. . rjune &

SS. PAMPHILUS AND OTHERS, MM.

(a.d. 309.)

[Roman Martyrology, together with the Deacon Valens, and Paulus
and seven others, MM. But by Usuardus, Ado, Notker, &c, Pamphilus
alone, and the others on Feb. 16th. Authority : Eusebius, a friend,
perhaps a kinsman of S. Pamphilus. Eusebius says in his Eccl. Hist,
that Pamphilus was "a name thrice dear to him." "Pamphilus was a
man distinguished above the rest of us by his devotion to the Holy
Scriptures." Eusebius wrote a separate life of his friend, and refers to
this in his history. The life, which was in three books, has been lost, but
Metaphrastes apparently borrowed from it his account of the saint.]

[AINT PAMPHILUS was a native of Berytus,
and was of a rich and honourable family. In
his youth he studied jn the famous schools of
his native town, and attained great proficiency
in every branch of learning then taught. He afterwards
moved to Alexandria, and became a disciple of Pierius,
the scholar of Origen, in the great catechetical school of
Alexandria. He spent large sums in collecting books, and
having formed an extensive library, bestowed it on the
Church of Csesarea in Palestine, where he took up his
abode. Pamphilus there established a school of sacred
literature, and to his labours the Church was indebted for
a correct edition of the Bible, which he transcribed himself.
He held Origen in high esteem, and during his imprison-
ment wrote an apology for him in five books, of which the
first is extant in a Latin translation. He also wrote an
abridgment or exposition of the Acts of the Apostles,
still extant He was remarkable for his charity to the
poor, his humility of spirit, and his grave austere life. He
was ordained priest, and his eloquence caused him to be
especially obnoxious to the heathen.

la 307, Urbanus, the governor of Palestine, caused him
to be apprehended and cruelly tortured. He was then
consigned to prison, where he remained nearly two years.



-*



June i.] .5*. Pamphilus, 3

Urbanus was succeeded in the governorship of Palestine
by Firmilian, who caused S. Paraphilus and Valens, an
aged deacon of the Church of Jerusalem, and Paul of
Jamnia, a devout Christian, to be brought before him.
He ordered them all to be racked and then executed.
Porphyrius, a slave of S. Pamphilus, then asked the
governor to be allowed to bury the body of his master
when dead. Firmilian asked if he, also, were a Christian,
and when Porphyrius admitted that he was, ordered the
executioners to torment him with their utmost ingenuity.
But though his flesh was torn off his bones, and his bowels
were exposed, he did not open his mouth. He finished
his martyrdom by a slow fire, and died crying upon Jesus,
the Son of God. Seleucus, a Cappadocian, for carrying
the news of his slave's victory to Pamphilus, was con-
demned to be beheaded with the rest. He had already
been scourged for the faith in 298. Firmilian had in his
family a servant named Theodulus, whom he especially
regarded for his honesty and diligence ; but being informed
that he was a Christian, and had embraced one of the
martyrs, he condemned him to be crucified the same day.
Julian, a catechumen, for embracing the dead bodies of
the martyrs in the evening, was burnt over a slow fire. S.
Pamphilus, with his companions Valens and Paul, was
beheaded on the 16th Feb., 309. The bodies of the
martyrs were left exposed to be devoured by wild beasts j
but were not touched by them, and after four days were
taken away and buried. Eusebius of Csesarea, the his-
torian, who has written the life of S. Pamphilus, and who
had been his fellow prisoner, out of respect for his memory,
took the surname Pamphili.



-I



Lives of the Saints. [junex.



S. RON AN, B.H.
(6th cent.)

[Venerated in Brittany, and especially at Quimper. There was another
S. Ronan, first abbot of Drumshallon, in Ireland, who died of the great
plague in the year 665. Another S. Ronan was brother of S. Carnech,
who died in 530. Another S. Ronan was a monk, who having learned
abroad the right time for celebrating Easter, endeavoured to force S.
Finan, the successor of S. Aidan in the see of Lindisfarne, to give up the
Keltic rite for the Roman one. Ronan, says Bede III., c. 28, " nequaquana
Finanum emendare potuit ; quia potius, quod esset homo ferocis animi,
acerbiorem castigando et apertum veritatis adversariura reddidit." It is
not easy at first sight to determine whether by the ' ' man of ferocious or
rough mind" Bede meant Finan or Ronan ; but the phrase "castigando,"
used by him to denote Ronan's mode of arguing, a mode very unbecoming
towards a bishop, inclines one to think that he alluded to Ronan, who
appears to have been a bitter (acerrimus) disputant. Colgan says that this
S. Ronan was venerated in Brittany, and he has printed the Acts of the
Brittany saint on Jan. 8th, the day on which the Ronan mentioned by
Bede is venerated. But he made a mistake, the two saints are quite
distinct. Authority : The life of S. Ronan in the Quimper Breviary.
In France S. Ronan is called S. Renan.~\

S. Ronan, an Irish bishop, left his native island at the
end of the 5 th century, and came to Leon in Brittany,
where he retired into a hermitage in the forest of Nevet
He received Grallo, king of Brittany, in his little cell on
many occasions, as the king loved to spend long hours
with him, hearing him speak and asking him questions.
The story told in the Quimper Breviary is that the wife of
the king, whose name was Queban, one day put her little
daughter, a^ed five, in a box with bread and milk, whilst
she devoted her time to more agreeable pursuits than
looking after the children. But the little girl got a crust
down her throat and choked. The queen, in a great
fright, shut up the box and rushed screaming about in
quest of her child, who, she pretended, had strayed. She
found her way to the hermits' cell, where her husband was
conversing on theology with the Irish saint The woman



*fr-



* $

June i.] 6*. Wistan. 5

at once began to storm at the hermit for detaining the king
so long from home. " But for you !" exclaimed she, with
truly feminine rapidity of arriving at a conclusion, "my
daughter would not have been lost"

"Fie, bold woman," said S. Ronan; "tell no more
falsehoods, the child is in a box with a bowl of milk and
some bread at home." And he rose up, and followed by
the king and the queen, sought the palace, where he found
the damsel, in the box, as he had said. Then Queban was
stoned with stones till she died, and Ronan, casting him-
self on his knees, restored the dead girl to life.



S. WISTAN, K.M.

(a.d. 749.)

[Anglican Martyrologies. Authorities : William of Malmesbury in
his History and in his Gesta Pontificum. Also a legend given by Cap-
grave.]

Witlaf, king of Mercia, had a son named Wimund,
who had married Elfleda, daughter of Ceolwulf. Wimund
died of dysentery before his father, and left a son, Wistan,
who was still a child when his grandfather Witlaf died.
Bertulf, the brother of Witlaf, at once seized on the throne,
but it was necessary to put Wistan, the rightful heir, out of
the way. Bithfar, the son of Bertulf, accordingly having
gone in quest of the boy, asked him for a kiss, and whilst
the child was kissing him, he struck him on the head with
the haft of his dagger, and a follower ran him through with
his sword. The body, it is pretended, was discovered by a
column of light standing over it, and it was removed to Repton
and afterwards to Evesham. The place of the murder
was afterwards called Wistanstow.



-v



Lives of the Saints. [junex.



S. CUNO, ABP. M.
(a.d. 1066.)

[Treves Martyrology. Greven in his additions to Usuardus, Molanus,
Canisius, Saussaye, &c. Authority : His life by Dietrich, Monk of Tholey,
a contemporary.]

Archbishop Anno of Cologne 1 was one of the most
ambitious men of his day. He carried off the youthful
Emperor Henry IV. from Kaiserswerth, by stratagem, to
obtain complete control over him ; and for a long time he
ruled the empire in his name, and heaped to himself abbeys
and lands, and bestowed benefices on his relations. On
the vacancy of the see of Treves, he appointed to it, with
the emperor's consent, his nephew Cuno, or Conrad, Arch-
deacon of Cologne, in high-handed defiance of the rights
of the chapter and people of Treves to choose their own
prince-bishop. The clergy and people of Treves rose to
oppose the intrusion. Anno sent Cuno under the charge
of the Bishop of Spires, and a goodly retinue, to take
possession of the see, but Cuno was waylaid at Bideburg
by the Vogt, or protector of the see, Count Dietrich, who
dispersed the troop, plundered the treasure of the arch-
bishop, and took him prisoner. The Bishop of Spires, who
had taken refuge behind the altar of the church, was
drawn forth, cudgelled, and obliged to escape half-naked,
on an old horse. The archbishop was thrown into chains,
treated with savage barbarity, and finally thrown down a
rock, and stabbed to death, as he was found to be still
breathing. Cuno seems to have been a pious, well-meaning
man, and was the victim of the unscrupulous and ambitious
schemes of his uncle. His body was removed to Tholey.
His murderers remained unpunished.



1 See Dec. 4th, S. Anno.



*-




PENTECOST.
Descent of the Holy Ghost.



June, p. 6.]



[June.



junea.] 3VS. Pothinus & Others.



June 2.

SS. Pothinus, B., and Comp, MM. at Lyons, a.d. 177.

SS, Marcellinus, P., Peter, xorcist, and Comp., MM. at

Rome, circ. A.D. 304.
S. Erasmus, B.M. at Gaeta, circ. a.d. 304.
S. Eugenius L| Pope of Rome, a.d. 657.
S. Adalgisl, C. in Picardy, -jth cent.
S. Stephen, B.M. at Norrtelge, in Sweden, gth cent.
S. Nicolas the Pilgrim, C. at Trani, a.d. 1096.
SS. Forty-nine Martyrs, at Sandomir, in Poland, a.d. 1260.

SS. POTHINUS AND OTHERS, MM.
(a.d. 177.)

[Almost all Martyrologies. Authority : The letter written by the
Churches of Vienne and Lyons to their brethren in Asia and Phrygia,
giving an account of their sufferings, preserved, though not in its
entirety, by Eusebius, in his Ecclesiastical History.]

E have, in the letter of the Churches of Vienne

and Lyons describing their sufferings under

the Emperor Marcus Aurelius, one of the most

touching records of primitive Christian times.

In the year 177, S. Pothinus was Bishop of Lyons, and

S. Irenseus, who had been sent thither by S. Polycarp

out of Asia, according to a tradition preserved by

Gregory of Tours, was priest of that city.

"It is impossible," say the authors of the letter, "for us
to give an exact account, nor will it be easy to conceive
the extent of our present calamities, the rage of the
pagans against the saints, and the sufferings of the holy
martyrs among us. For the adversary directs his whole
force against us, and lets us see already what we are to
expect when he is let loose, and is in the end of the
world allowed to attack the Church. He makes his
assaults boldly, and stirs up his agents against the servants

^ *




*-



8 Lives of the Saints. [junea.

of God. Their animosity runs so high, that we are not
only driven from private houses, from the baths and
public places, but even forbidden to show ourselves at
all. But the grace of God, which overmasters all the
powers of hell, hath rescued the weak from the danger,
and from the temptation of the fiery trial, and exposed
such only to the combat as are strong."

At first the people attacked them in a tumultuous
manner, struck them, dragged them about the streets,
threw stones at them, plundered them. But afterwards
they proceeded more regularly. The tribune and the
magistrates of the town ordered them to appear in the
public place where they were examined before the popu-
lace, made a glorious confession of their faith, and then
were sent to prison, where they were to wait the arrival of
the governor. When the judge came to town, they were
carried before him, and used with so much cruelty, that
Vettius Epagathus, one of the number, fired with a holy
resentment at their treatment, desired to be heard on that
subject "He was full of the love of God and his neigh-
bour; a man so virtuous, that, though young, he may
be said, like Zacharias, to have walked in all the com-
mandments blameless. He undertook the defence of the
injured brethren; and promised to show that the Christians
were guilty of no impious practices. But the crowd broke
into noisy and tumultuous opposition ; and the governor,
determined not to grant him that reasonable request,
interrupted him, by asking whether he was a Christian.
Upon his boldly declaring his faith, he was ranked among
the martyrs, with the additional title of The Advocate



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