Shearjashub Spooner.

A biographical history of the fine arts; being Memoirs of the lives and works of eminent painters, engravers, sculptors, and architects. From the earliest ages to the present time. Alphabetically arranged, and condensed from the best authorities. Including the works of Vasari, Lanzi, Kugler, Dr. Waa online

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Online LibraryShearjashub SpoonerA biographical history of the fine arts; being Memoirs of the lives and works of eminent painters, engravers, sculptors, and architects. From the earliest ages to the present time. Alphabetically arranged, and condensed from the best authorities. Including the works of Vasari, Lanzi, Kugler, Dr. Waa → online text (page 32 of 175)
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Region of the Shades, described in Homer's Ody.s
sey, where Ulysses invokes the departed spirit a.

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Phitsrch say* tbat Ptolemy T. of Egypt offered the
irtist sixty UlenU (about $75,000) for this pic-
tore, hat WIS refoaed hy Nicias, who presented it
to his natiTO city, Athens. Pansanias says that
on the way from Phar» to Tritsea, there was a
srpulchre of white marble, decorated with the
ptintings of Nicias. He also Minted in encaustic ;
sod, Aooording to that author^ he was the most ex-
cellent animal painter of his time^ Among theother
works of this artist was a picture in the Cura
Julia, of Neroea sittinji; on a Lion; Alexander;
To; Andromeda; a sitting Calypso; another Ca-
lypso, in the Hall of Pompey ; Bacchus ; Diana;
and an elegant Hyacinthus, in the Hall of Concord.
The latter work was brought from Alexandria to
Rome by Augustus, and was subsequently conse-
crated by Tiberius in the temple of Augustus.
Nicias appears to haye been a yei^ studious and
absent man ; JBlian says he used to forget to take
his meals. At his death, he was honored with a
public burial, and was interred in the road from
Athens to the Academy, the cemetery of all great
Athenians, where his tomb was erected.

NICOLAI, G. D. C, a German engraver, who
lived at Vienna about 1760, and, in concert with
A. J. Prenner. executed part of the plates from
the pictures in the Impenal Galleryi published in
four sets in folio.

NTCOLAT,' Isaac, a Dutch painter, bom at
Ley den in 1539. He designed correctly, and gare
peat animation to his figures. He died in 1597,
baring two sons, whom he had instructed in the
art; Nicholas Isaac Nicolay, bom at Leyden in
1566, painted history in the style of his father, and
died at Amsterdam in 1640 ; and James Isaac
Nicolay. bom at Leyden in 1569, painted in the
style of his father, gained improvement by yisiting
Italy, and died at Utrecht in 1639.

NICOLAY. Jan Hendricc, a Dutch painter,
bom at Leeawarde in 1766. His forte was in
painting dead birds, whidi he represented in a yery
skillful manner. His works were frequently ex-
hibited at AmMterdam. and they are highly es-
teemed in Hollapd. He died in 1826.

NICOLE, Nicolas, a French architect, bom
at Besan9on in 1701. Being of a poor family, he
was first apprenticed to a blacksmith, but on visit-
ing Paris, he determined to relinquish his occupa^
tion ; and accordingly he entered the free school
of Blondel. After studying some time under that
master, he returned to B^an^on, and was com-
missioned to erect the church du Refuge, of
which the beautiful facade has been often en-
graved. He afterwards executed the plan for the
collegmte church of S. Anne of Soleure, and was
invited b}- the authorities of that city, to superin-
tend the execution of the works. The church of
the Magdalen, at Be8an9on, is also the work of Ni-
cole, but has never been cqmpleted. These two
latter works have been justly criticised as to the
details. He had a yery lively imagination^ and
drew his designs with great facility ; but his edi-
fices have none of that ever attractive simplicity,
which preeminently distinguishes the antique. —
Nicole was honored with the confidence of several
soooessive intendants of the province of Franche
Comte, and was consulted concerning all architec-
tural projects. He died at Besanqon in 1784.

•^ *¥r T\ NICOLR, D. This name is affixed to a
\ \ Aj^setof yiews slightly etched, in the style

VV P of a painter, and idso marked with the
accompanying monogram, which probably repre-
sents the initials of the designer.

NICOLET, Bernard Anthony, a Swiss en-
grayer, bom at St Imer, in the bishopric of Basle,
m 1740. He visited Paris while young, and en-
graved several plates after the marines of Vernet in
concert with Longueil ; also a number of plates for
the Abb^ de St Non's Voyage Pittoresque du Roy*
aume de NapUg, lliere is some confusion among
writers about this artist as his name is sometimes
written Benedict Alphonsius A., and the dates of
his birth are differently stated : but the above is i
the account of Nagler, who places his death in
1807. The following are among his beet works :

Noel Ha116, Painter to the King. 1775 ; after Cochin,
Tbomsi le Suear, ProfeMor of Mathematies at Rome ; do,
Franois de Paul Jaoqaler, Professor of M a theina t i^M ; do,
Nioholaa de MoothonoD ; do,


8t Apollonia ; after the picture by Outdo ; In the Or-
leani ool lection. Milo Crotoniate ; <\fler Oiorrione ; do.
Susanna and the Elden { qftcr Deahayeo, A View of Na-

flei ; a/ler Vernet, A Shipwrock ; do. A View of the
nterior of the Church of St Januarius at Naples ; <\/tcr

NICOLETTO. See Niccolo Cassana.

NICOMACHUS, an eminent Greek painter, a
naiye of Thebes, flourished in the latter part of
the fourth century B. C. Plutarch compares his
paintings with the lines of Homer; Cicero sa>'8
that, in the works of Nicomachus, Echion, Protog*
enes, and Apelles, all things are perfect He was
the most celebrated of all the Greeks for facility
of execution. In illustration of this quality,
Pliny relates that he executed, in a few days, the
decorations of the monument to the poet Telostes,
with remarkable beauty, and to the entire satis*
faction of Aristratus. tyrant of Sicyon, who short-
ly before was exceedingly angry with the artist,
liecause he thought the works would not be fin-
ished within the specified time. Nicomachns was
the first artist who represented Ulysses with the
cap of Liberty. Stob»as relates of Nicomachns
that, hearing* some one say he saw no beanty in
the Helen of Zeuxis, he obseryed, "Take my eyes,
and you will see a goddess."

Among the principal works of Nicomachns,
Pliny mentions a picture of Scylla, in the Temple
of Peace ; Bacchantes, with Satyrs creeping up to
them ; Cvbele sitting on a Lion ; Apollo and Di-
ana ; a Victory in a Chariot, consecrated in the
Capitol by Plancus ; a Rape of Proserpine, in the
Temple of Minerya on the Capitol ; and an unfin-
ished picture of the Tyndandas, which was in
greater repute than his finished works.

NICOPHANES, a Greek painter, who flour-
ished about B. C. 300. He studied under Nicom-
achus, and although little is recorded of his works,
Pliny ranks him among the most eminent artists
of his time. He possessed a liyely geniu.s, great
facility of invention, and rapidity of execution.
From his practice of frequently choosing courtesans
for his models, he was called **the Painter of

NIEULANT. Adrian, a Flemish painter, a na-
tiye of Antwerp, flourished in the latter part oi

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the 16th centoiy. He painted Itndgcapes of con-
siderahle merit, and deoorated them with small
figures. Among other works, he executed a win-
ter-piece, with masked figures skating on the moat
ot the citadel of Antwerp, which is now in the
Museum at Brussels. He died about 1601.

NIEULANT, John, a Flemish painter, bom at
Antwerp in 1569. He studied under Peter Fransz
and Francis Badens, and painted landscapes and
historical subjects of small size, very highly fin-
ished. He died at Amsterdam in 1628.

NIEULANT, William van, a Flemish painter
of landscapes with architecture, born at Antwerp
in 1584 ; died in 1695. He acquired the element
of design from Roland Sayerj, and afterwards went
to Rome, where he studied for three years under
Paul Bril. and followed the style of that master.
On returning to the Low Countries, he settled at
Amsterdam, and adopted a more bold and expe-
ditious manner of operating. He was much em-
ployed in painting views of the ruins of ancient
architecture in the yicinity of Rome, from the de-
signs he had collected in Italy i His coloring is
bold and effectiye; his buildings are drawn with
neatness and precision; and his figures are de-
signed with tolerable correctness. There are a
humber of plates of architectural landscapes etched
by Nieulant in a free and spirited style, occasion-
ally assisted with the graver. Among them are
the following :

A LiMdseape, with niiof, mod fignrei reprMeoting tho
Merciful Samaritan ; P. Bril, inv. 6. Nuulhntf fecit.
A MoQDtainoos Landscape, with Tobit and the Angel s do.
Two Views of the Sea Coart ; do. Throe Views of Bains
in and near Rome ; OuiL Nieulant. A large print, rep-
resenting three Bridges on the Tiber, and part of the City
of Rome ; in three sheets, inscribed GuUielmtuvanNieU'
lant, fecit et txcud. AntverpicB, 1600.

NIGETTI, Matteo, a Florentine architect, who
flourished in the first part of the 17th century.
He studied under Buontalenti, and materially as-
sisted that master in the erection of the Strozzi
palace at Florence. According to Milizia, he erect-
ed a number of works in that dty, among which
were the cloister of the monks degli Angeli, com-
pleted by Silvani ; and he made the design and
model for the church of Ogni Santi, belonging to
the brothers Osservanza. Nigetti also erectml a
beautiful edifice after the design of Vasari, near S.
Lorenzo, intended as a sepulchre for the Grand
Dukes. This architect was also an engraver on
precious stones. Among his works in this branch
of the art, was the wonderful shrine in the chapel
of S. Lorenzo at Florence. He died in 1649.

NIKRELEN, J. tan, a Dutch painter of inte-
riors, who flourished about 1660. He was a good
artist in perspective, and painted interiors of
churches in the style of van Yliet, which possess
considerable merit They are signed /. V(xn Nik-

NIKKELEN, John vak, a Dutch painter, the
son of the preceding, was bom at Haerlem in 1649.
He studied the elements of design under his father,
but did not pursue the same branch of the art.
He applied himself to landscape painting, and ac-
auired considerable distinction, being invited to
the court of the Elector Palatine, for whom he
painted several pictures, and was afterwards made
painter to the Prince of Cassel. His works are
laid to resemble thofe of Rarel Dt^judin. He died

in 1716. His dau^ter, Jacoba Maria, was a pii.
pil of vander Myn, and excelled in fruit and flow-
ers. She painted several pictures at DussddorC
which are erroneously ascribed to her&ther. She
married William Troost, a portrait painter.
NILSON, JoBN Eli A 8, a German miniaturt

Siinter and engraver, born at Augsburg in 1721.
e engraved in a stiff, formal style, several por-
traits of eminent personages, among which are the
following :

poftTBArrs. , ,

Qement XIII. Pontif. Max. ; iVOsoti, hiv. etfte. ?••
iros III., Rossomm Imperator. Oatberina Aleziewna,
Roflsoram Imperatrix. Stanislaus Augustus, Bex. PoL

TT- yr NIMECTUS. Balthabar Mbneius, an
ZA/ 1 obscure German wood engraver, is said
jTj X^^ to have been a nati ve of Saxony. There
are a number of wooden cuts, sometimes marked
with the initials B. M. N., and sometimes with the
accompanying monogram, which Prof. Christ at-
tributes to Nimecius.

NIMEGUEN, Elias tan. a Dutch painter, born
at Nimeguen in 1667. He studied the elements of
design under his elder brother, an inferior paint-
er of portraits and flowers ; but as his instructor
died when Elias was only fourteen, he decided to
dispense with farther assistance, and devote him-
self chiefly to the study of nature. By grsat as-
siduity he became a good designer of the figure,
acquired a competent knowledge of architecture
and perspective, and attained excellence in land-
scape and flowers. In concert with his younger
brother Tobias, he executed an extensive series of
decorations in the palace of Baron van Wachten-
donk, which gained for the artists such high repu-
tation, that they were employed by the Princess of
Orange for several years, in painting emblematica!
and historical subjects on the walls and oeilinga
of her palaces, embellished with bas-reliefs and
other accessories. The two brothers subsequent-
ly separated, Tobias going to the court of the
Elector Palatine, and Elias to Rotterdam, where
he was fully employed. His style was happily
adapted to his subjects, being characterized by fer-
tility of invention, great promptness and facility
of execution, clear and agreeable coloring. Some
writers place his death in 1745, aged 78 ; others
in 1755, aged 87.

NIMEGUEN, Tobias van, the younger, the
brother of the preceding, bom at Nimeguen in 1670.
Like his brother Elias, he studied under his elder
brother, and wrought in concert with Elias. as de-
tailed in the preceding article, until invited to the
court of the Elector Palatine. He was retained
in the serrice of that Prince during the rest of
his life.

NIMEGUEN, DioNYSius van, a Dutch painter,
the son of EIiIm N., was bom at Rotterdam in
1705 ; died in 1798. He studied under his father,
and painted similar subjects to those of that mas-
ter. He also excelled m portraiture, and is said
to have painted at the age of 81, without specta-
cles, a perfect likeness of a young lady.

NIMEGUEN, Gerard van, a Dutdi portrait
and landscape painter, the son and scholar of Di-
onysius N., was bora at Rotterdam in 1735. He
manifested considerable ability in portraits, and
was much employed, even by Prince William V^
whom he pamted at a very early age. He formed

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Im ftyle m Imndacape from the works of ETordin-
gen, Roysdael, and Pjiucker. His pictures of
moontaiiis, laikbcapeB, and forest scenery with
riTulets, decorated with figures and animals, are
highly esteemed, and are placed in the best col-
lectioos. ' Nimegnen made many drawings and
copies after Hi^ert, Hobbema, Wynants, and
Ruysdael. BruUiot mentions twelve etchings of
landscapes by him. He died at Rotterdam in

NINFB, Cebarb dalle, a Venetian painter,
Bwntioned by Zanetti among the imitators of Tin-
toretto. He flourished about 1595. He possessed
the fertility of invention, and ftcility of execution,
which characterized his great model ; and though
inferior to him in design, he was an excellent
eolorist. His works, probably, are mostly attribu-
ted to Tintoretto.

NINO, Don Joan. See Guevara.

NTQUET, THE Elder, a French engraver, who
flourished in the present century, and was living
m 1831. He was employed by Filhol on the
Oalerie du.Muaie Napoleon, Among his princi-
pal plates, are the Triumph of Flora, ajler JV.
Foustin ; Diana hunting ; the LaocoOn ; Cupid
and Psyche; the Death of St. Bruno; and Kaf-
faelle's Transfiguration.

NIXON, an English engraver, who flourished
about 1750, and executed, among other plates, a
number of portraits, in a very neat style, the &ces
entirdy finished with dots. Among them are the
following :

Fndtriflk, Prinee of Wolet. WiliUm Aagostiu, Dnke
«f OaiaberUad ; (woplatflt. Arohbishop Tilloitoo. John,

NOBILI, DciANTB de\ a painter bom at Oalda-
Tola, who formed his style on that of Michael An-
gelo. Lanzi* commends a Madonna by him, in the
diurch of S. Pietro di Castello, at Asooli, inscribed
with his name, and dated 1571.

NOBLESSE, a French designer and engraver,
mentioned by Basan as residing at Paris, where he
died at an advanced age, in 1730. He excelled in
pen-drawing and appears to have formed his taste
from studying the works of Callot There are a
few etchings by him, in the neat and spirited style
of that master.

NOBLET, an engraver mentioned by Strutt,
who says he executM a number of vignettes, and
other lK>ok ornaments.

NOBLIN, H., an obscure engraver, who flour-
ished about 1680. Among other plates, he execu-
ted the portrait of Cardinal Howard.

NOOHER, J. £., a Frendi engraver, who flour-
ished at Pans about 1760. He studied under Ste-
phen Fessard, and engraved several book orna-
ments and portraits, among which is that of Jean
• Jacques Rousseau.

NOCRET, Jean, a French pamter and engraver,
bom at Nancy in 1618. He studied under i^lerc,
and afterwards visited Italy for improvement On
returning to France, he was much employed at the
Tuileries and St Cloud, and painted the portraits
of several members of the royal family, which
have been engraved. He is also said to have paint-
ed historical subjects. Felibien praises his abili-

ties, and Dumesnil mentions a print by him, char
acterized by simple and sracefid attitudes, drape-
ries finely cast, and excellent gradation of the dis-
tances. Nocret was appointed rector of the French
Academy. He died at Paris, according to Naglcr
in 1672, though another authority says in 1676!
His son and scholar, Charles Nocret, was bora at
Nancy in 1647 ; painted portraits with reputation ;
and died in 1719.

NOEL, a French marine painter, who flourished
in the present century. He studied under Silves-
tre and Joseph Vemet and painted several marine
pieces, of views on the coasts of Spain and Portu-
gal, with falls of snow, gales of wind, fogs, tem-
pests, and conflagrations. He also execut^ views
of Lisbon and Gibraltar, and exhibited many pic-
tures up to the year 1822. He was living in 1831.

NOFEHI, MicHELB, a Florentine painter, who
flourished about 1660. According to Baldinucci,
he studied under Yincenzio Dandini, and was a
reputable artist

NOGARI, Giuseppe, a reputable Venetian ^

Sinter, bora in 1699. He studied under Antonio
Jestra, and attained such excellence in portraits
and half-length figures, that, according to Lanzi,
he was much patronized hy the court of Turin for
manv years. His portraits are characterized by
trath to nature, vigor of expression, and richness
of coloring. He mso painted history with con-
siderable reputation^ among which Lanzi com-
mends his S. Pietro, in the cathedral at Bassano,
combining the styles of Balestra and Piazzetta.

NOGARI. Paris, a Roman painter, bora in
1512. He imitated the style of Rafiaellino da
Reggio, and painted a number of frescos in the
Vatican Gallery, during the pontificate of Gregory
XIII. He also executed several oil painting
Among his piincipal works is a picture of Christ
bearing his Cross, in the church della Madonna de*
Monti; the Deposition from the Cross, in the
Trinity de' Monti ; and the Circumcision, in S.
Spirito in Sassia. He died at Rome, in 1577, aged

NOIR, Nicolas le, a French architect, bora
at Paris in 1726. He studied under Blondel, and
havinff gained the grand prize of the Academy,
visit^ Rome, where he devoted himself with great
assiduity to the study of the admirable remains
of antiquity. On returaing to Paris, he soon
gained reputation, and was commissioned by Vol-
taire to erect an edifice at Ferney. His principal
work is the theatre of the' Porte St Martin. He
was much employed, and died in 1810.

NOLIN, Jean Baptists, a French engraver,
born at Paris in 1657. He studied under Poilly,
and afterwards visited Rome for improvement,
where he engraved several plates after the great
masters, aroon^ which was the Miracle of the
Loaves, after RaWaelle, He also executed scv^
plates in the work entitled Vuea^ PlanSj Coupes et
Elevatums du Chateau de VenaiUea,

NOLLEKENS. Joseph Francis. This paint-
er was bora at Antwerp in 1706, and was the fa-
ther of Joseph NoUekens, the sculptor. He visit-
ed Enelaud while young* and studied painting
under Peter Tillemans. He painted landscapes,
and musical and fashionable conversations; was
much employed in copying the works of Watteau

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and the architectural yiews of 6io. Paolo PanninL
He was patronized by the Earl of Tilney, and exe-
cuted several ornamental works for Lord CobhaoL
He died at London in 1748.

KOLLEKENS, Joseph. This eminent sculp-
tor was the son of the preceding^ bom in London
in 1737. He acquired the elements of the art un-
der Scheemakers, and subfiequently Tisited Ital^
for improvement, where he studied under Ciayetti,
and remained nine years. He executed the busts
of many distinguished Englishmen, among whom
were Garrick and Sterne ; and he also turned his
attention to a lucrative, though rather undignified
branch of the art — that of manufscturing antiques,
by vamping up fragments $ finding either heads ana
limbs for bddies, or bodies for heads and limbs.
One of the statues thus compounded was the Mi-
nerva, afterwards purchased for a thousand guineas,
and now in the Newby collection at Yorkshire.
His skill in repairs of this kind was subsequently
displayed in the Townley marbles. While at
Rome, he also purchased for a mere trifle, from the
workmen by whom they were discovered, a num-
ber of fine terra cottas, which he afterwards dispo-
sed of to Mr. Townl^, and which are now let
into the walls of the British Museum. He also ;
obtained the patronage of Lord Tarborough. and |
the Earl of Besborough. for the former of whom i
he executed a group of Mercury and Venus chid-
ing Cupid. During his residence at Rome, he
gained a gold meaal from the Academy of St Luke.

Nollekens returned to England in 1/70, and soon
after married Mary, the youngest daughter of
Justice Welchj with a handsome fortune. He soon
took the lead m his profession, and attained a high
reputation. Without the advantages of education
It IS rather surprising that he accomplished what he
did in the superior branches of the art, than that
his poetical subjects display so little of the higher
powers of the i magination. His chief pxoel lence was
m executing busts, and he gkined an extensive pat-
ronage in this branch of the art Among his pie-
ces in poetic sculpture were no fewer than five Ve-
nuses, one of them since known as the Rocking-
ham Venus; and one representing the goddess
anointing her hair. The latter was considered by
the artist his master-piece. Amone his groups
were a Paetus and Arria, and a Cupid and Psyche.
His best monumental sculpture was executed for
the tomb of Mrs. Howard of Corby Castle. It is
pathetic in composition, and elegant and tasteful
m execution. In 1772, Nollekens was chosen a
royal academician. He was a great favorite with
George III. Eccentrks'in many points of his char-
acter, he was also distinguished for great penuri-
ousness during his whole life, until the age of
eighty, and the death of his wife, in 1817, when he
began to relax a little of that economy which had
always prevailed in his establishment His whole
history abundantly proves that he had a most
contemptible idea of the art, regarding it merely
as a means of acquiring wealth. During the
tew remaining years of his life, he was beset bf a
swarm of greedy legacy-hunters, all professmg
sympathy and attachment. He died in 1823,
leaving a fortune of about $1 000,000, excepting a
few small legacies, to his friends Francis Palmer,
and Francis Douce, the antiquary.

NOLLET, DoMiHicK. a distinguished Flemish
painter, bom at Bruges in 1640. He studied un-

der Jacob van Oost the elder, and painted history
with reputation ; but was more distinguished m
landscapes in a grand style, and for sieges ani Ijat*
tie pieces, with figures and horses correctly drawn,
and touched with great freedom and spirit On a
dose inspection, his pictures appear crude ; but
when viewed at a proper distance, they have a fine
effect His style greatly resembles that of vander
Meulen, and his Ulents nearly equaled thofle« of
that master. Nollet was patronised by Maximil-
ian, Duke of Bavaria, the eovemor of the Low
Countries, who appointed him his principal paint-
er. He was chosen a member of the Society of
Painters at Bruges, in 1687. There are a number
of his works in the Flemish collections ; and in
the church of the Carmelites, at Bruges, is his pic-
ture of St Louis embarking for the Holy LmmL
He died in 1736.

NOLLI, Gio. Battista, an Italian engraver,
who flourished about 1755, and executed, among
oUier plates, several plans and views of buildings.

NOLLI, Carlo, an Italian engraver, the son of
Gio. Battista N., flourished a^ Naples about 1760,
and was employed upon the plates engraved b^ com-
mand of the king, representing the Antiouities of
Herculaneum. Be is said to have etched several
plates in imitation of the drawings of Parmiggi-

NOLPE, Peter, a Dutch painter and eograver,
bom at the Hague in 1601. Little is known con-
cerning his pictures, but he engraved a number of
plates, etched with the point and finished with the
mver, in a style of considerable ability ; although
his drawing is often incorrect, and his chiaro-scuro
is fll managed. His best works are his landscapes,
engraved in a free^ bold, and masterly style. Na-
:ler is of the opinion that he flourished until 1670.

le following are his principal plates :

The Portrait of John Adl«r Salriui, Swedlth MialflM
PlonipotentUry. A foi of eight Cavaliora • otobod, Maiee.

Online LibraryShearjashub SpoonerA biographical history of the fine arts; being Memoirs of the lives and works of eminent painters, engravers, sculptors, and architects. From the earliest ages to the present time. Alphabetically arranged, and condensed from the best authorities. Including the works of Vasari, Lanzi, Kugler, Dr. Waa → online text (page 32 of 175)