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On the Manurial Effect of Calcium Cyanamide under
Different Conditions.



BY



S. (UCHIYAMA.

Various reports on the efficacy of Calcium cyanamide or lime-nitrogen
(Kalkstickstoff) testify in favor of this compound, its action reaching^
about that of ammonium sulphate or sodium nitrate ; other reports
again contain a less favorable declaration. Evidently the nature of
the soil and the nature of the other manuring compounds used along
with it, have a decided influence upon the result.^* This difference of
opinion can not surprise us, since the reports on the comparative efficacy
of sodium nitrate and ammonium sulphate differ also very considerably.
Under certain conditions, ammonium sulphate was found equal and even
superior to sodium nitrate ; under other conditions again inferior to this.

The publications on the new manure show among other things, that it
can not be used for top-dressing and that it must be applied so ime
before sowing, as it would act injuriously before its decomposition by soil-
bacteria, liberating its nitrogen as ammonia, is accomplished.

Since however the manurial effect of lime-nitrogen has not yet been
compared with those of ammonium sulphate and sodium nitrate under
conditions of different reaction of the total manure, it seemed to me of
special interest to carr>^ on some experiments along this line. Since lime-
nitrogen can be decomposed by various kinds of bacteria into calcium
carbonate and ammonia, CaCK, + 3H.O = CaCOg -I- 2NH3 it must be defined



i). Compare especially ihe publications of B.Schulze, Feilitzen, Rcessler, Setlhorst, Strohmer,
Stutzer and Asa



420043



^A S. Fcliiyaina.

as an alkaline manure, while ammonium sulphate is defined as a
physiologically acid nitrogenous manure. Since the ammonia formed by the
decomposition of lime-nitrogen will of course rapidly be transformed into
carbonate, the question as to which is the best source of nitrogen would be
simplified to this : Under ivJiich conditions is aininoniurn carbonate better
ihan annnoniiivi sulpJiate or sodium nitrate ?

Kossowitch as well as Prianishnikow have demonstrated recently the
injury by too alkaline or too acid reactions. Also here at this stations as
well as at the college of agriculture at Komaba near Tokyo similar
observations have been made at about the same time. Thus it was observ'ed
by myself that ammonium sulphate in conjunction with secondary sodium
.phosphate produced a much better yield with Jirassica chinensis than when
the former was applied in conjunction with superphosphate. Since lime-
nitrogen is an actually alkaline manure, an addition of an acid phosphatic
manure would act here favorably — just the opposite from ammonium
sulphate.

The sample of lime -nitrogen at my disposal contained 18.58 % N and
56.16 % CaO ; the ammonium sulphate^^ = 20.65 % N ; the crude potassium
sulphate =47. 5 5 % K2O ; the double superphosphater=4o.42 % V.D^ soluble
in water ; and the secondary sodium phospate was the pure preparation.

I. Experiment with Hordeuin sati-uuni.

Eighteen porcelain pots (area= 1/200,000 ha.) were filled each with 14.27
■kilo, fresh alluvial loam poor in humus, and received the following manures :



A



8.752 g. ammonium sulphate
4.60 g. double superphosphate
3.91 g. potassium sulphate
8.44 g. sodium sulphate

( S.JSZ g. ammonium sulphate
H < 9-38 secondary sodium phosphate

C 3-9 1 g- potassium sulphate



i). The ammonium sulphate in this experiment was the pure preparation.



On tlie nianurlal Kflfect of Calcium Cyaiiainide.



95



C



D



lo.o g. lime-nitrogen

4.6 g. double superphosphate

3.91 g. potassium sulphate

8.44 g. sodium sulphite

lo.o g. limt-nitrogen

g.38 g. secondary sodium phosphate

3.91 g. potassium sulphate



Of these four mixtures, A was decidedly acid, D decidedly alkaline,
while B and C approached the neutral reaction. Further, in order to
provide the pots A and B with as much lime as was contained in the
lime-nitrogen, 17.27 g, gypsum were added to these pots on Sept. 7.
Gypsum was selected in order not to change chemically the ammonium
sulphate ; and in order to observe here at the same time the difference in
action between gypsum and limestone, two other pots A' and B' were
prepared in which the equivalent amount of powdered limestone was added
on Sept. 7. By this addition, perhaps a little of ammonium sulphate was
gradually transformed into ammonium carbonate, the same product which
also would be the active principle in the pots C and D. While ammonium
carbonate in high dilution is probably more favorable than ammonium
sulphate, some loss of this compound by volatilizition may take place from
soils of little absorptive power, so that the benefit produced in one respect
may be frustrated by a disadvantage in another. The following table shows
the manuring data, g :



Manure.


A


A'


B


B'


C


D


Ammonium sulphate


8752


ditto


ditto


ditto






Lime-nitrogen










1 0.0


ditto


Double superphosphate


4.60


ditto







4.60




Secondary sodium phosphate...






9-3S


ditto





9-38


Potassium sulphate


3-9 r


ditto


ditto


ditto


ditto


ditto


Sodium sulphate


8-44


ditto






8.44




Gypsum


17.27




17.27








Lime-stone




10.03




10.03







96



S. XJcIiiyaina.



On Nov. 13, 1905, lime-nitrogen was applied. The pots were kept in a
warm house and well moistened in order to accelerate the decomposition of
lime-nitrogen. After a week, the other manures were applied. Hence
each pot contained 1.858 g N, 1.858 g P^Og, 1.859 S ^'J^> 1-626 g Na^O,
and 5.618 g CaO.

On Nov. 21, twenty seeds of sixsided barley were sown per pot.
After three weeks, the young plants were reduced to 1 5 per pot of about
equal size. The following table shows the height of the plants and number
of stalks at two different periods ; and the photograph (Plate XXIV, Fig. i)
the development on May 15.

Average of three parallel pots.



N-Manure.


Group.


Jan.


17-


Ma>


' 24.


Height (Cm.).


No. of stalks.


Height (Cm.)


No. of stalks.




A


13-7


32


97-3


53


(NH4).jS04


A'
B


14.2
13-9


30
32


104.8
982


53
51




B'


12.4


25


99-7


50


CaCNs


C
D


13-9
13-3


39
31


102.4
98.5


50
50



The plants were harvested June 3 :

Harvest, average of three parallel pots ; air-dry, g.



N-Manure.


Group.


Grains.


Straw.


Chaffs.


Total.


Comparative
yield total.


(NH4)2S04


A

A'
B
B'


62.40
48.20
58.77
5153


79-63

87.00

84.57
86.67


483
6.50
5.20
4.60


146.86
141.70

148-54
142.80


107

loS
104


CaCNs


C

D


56.00
48.50


87.40
8373


4-85
5-30


148.25
137.53


loS
100



On tHe Maiiurial Effect of Calcium Cyanamitl*-.



97



It is therefore clear that lime-nitrogen acted better when the phosphatic
manure was superphosphate (C) than when it was sodium phosphate (D) ; in
other words, the nev.tr al mixture (C) ivas better than the alkaline
mixture {D). The manuring effect of lime-nitrogen in C was here equal
to that of ammonium sulphate in B, when this was applied in conjunction
with sodium phosphate.

II. Experiment with Brassica Chinensis.

The soil was an alluvial loam, almost free of humus. Eighteen
porcelain pots (area = 1/200,000 ha.) were filled each with 14.27 Icilo. of the
fresh soil, and manured^^ as follows, g :



Manure.


A


A'


B


B'


C


D


Ammonium sulphate


12.0


ditto.


ditto.


ditto.







Lime-nitrogen










13-34


ditto.


Double superphosphate


2.2


ditto.






2.2




Secondary sodium phosphate...






4-5


ditto.




4-5


Potassium sulphate


5-2


ditto.


ditto.


ditto.


ditto.


ditto.


Sodium sulphate ...


4-05


ditto.






4-05




Gypsum


23-03




23.03








Lime-stone




13-38




1338







Each pot contained therefore 2.478 g. N, 0.89 g. PaOj, 2.473 g- KgO,
0.78 g. NaaO, and 7.493 g. CaO.

Twenty seeds of Brassica chinensis were sown per pot Sept. 29, After
two weeks, the plants were reduced to seven per pot of about equal size.
The length and number of leaves on Nov. 7 were as follows :



i). To the corresponding pots, the lime-nitrogen, gypsum, and lime-stone were applied Sept. 7,
the phosphatic manures a week later, and the other manures were applied still a week later, in
solution.



98



S. Cchiyama.



Average of three parallel pots.



N-Manure.


Group.


Length (cm.).


No. of leaves.


(NH4)2S04


A
A'
B
B'


23-3
20.7
22.1
22 5


61

58
57
57


CaCNa


C
D


23-9

21.8


56

56



The adjoining Plate XXIV, Fig. 2 shows the state of development at
that time.

The plants were harvested Nov. 1 3 with the following result, g. :

Average of three parallel pots.









Fresh state.




Air-dry state




N-Manure.


Group.














Leaves.


Roots.


Total.


Leaves.


Roots.


Total.




A


169.2


9.0


178.2


18.2


1-3


19-5


(NA4)2S04


A'
B


156-3

182.8


8.2

10.2


164.5
193.0


17.7
20.2


I.I

1.4


18.8
21.6




B'


173-3


8.8


182. 1


19.1


1.2


■ 20.3


CaCNg


C
D


177-4
155-6


1X.7

IC.5


189.1
166.1


19.7
17.4


1-5
1-3


21.2
18.7



If we now assume the total yield (in the air-dry state) of the pots D to
be= 100, we obtain the following ratio :



On the Maiiurial KflTect of Calcium Cyanainide.



99



N-Manure.


Group.


Comparative yield.




A


104


(NH4),S04


A'
B


101
116




B'


109


CaCNa


C
D


"3

100



The result shows that Hme-nitrogen acted better when the phosphatic
manure was superphosphate (C) than when it was sodium phosphate (D) ;
in other words : tJie neutral mixture {C) was better than the alkaline
mixture {D). The physiologically acid ammonium sulphate acted however
better with sodium phosphate (B) than with superphosphate (A) ; also this
result leads to the inference : the neutral reaction of the total manure in B
was more favorable than the acidic reaction in A.

The moderate dose of calcium carbonate in A' and B' was of no special
effect in connection with the ammonium sulphate, but this can be easily
understood, because the soil contained already some carbonate of lime.



III. Second Experiment with Brassica Chinensis.

The amount of nitrogen zvas here diminished to one third of that in
the preceding experiment, and two different kinds of soils^^ i.e. diluvial loamy
and alluvial sandy soils served for the test. Forty eight zinc pots (area=
1/200,000 ha.) were filled with the respective soils (15.75 ^'^o. per pot).
Twelve series were prepared, each consisting of four pots. To the respective
pots, the following manures were applied, g :



i). The loimy soil from the upland of our station is very rich in humu;, while the sandy soil
fiO.ii the paddy field of Kawaguchi near Tokyo is almoit free from organic matter.



lOO



S. Uchiyaina.



Manure.


A


A'


B


B'


C


D


Ammonium sulphate


4.0


ditto.


ditto.


ditto.






Lime-nitrogen










4-45


ditto.


Double superphosphate


2.2


ditto.






2.2




Secondary sodium phosphate...






4-5


4-5


. ,


4-5


Potassium sulphate


4.0


ditto.


ditto.


ditto.


ditto.


ditto.


Sodium sulphate


4-05


ditto.






4-05




Gypsum


7.68




7.68








Lime-stone




4.46




4.46







On December 25, lime-nitrogen was applied, while four months later
the other manuring ingredients. Hence each pot contained 0.83 g. N,
0.89 g. P2O5, 1.90 g. K2O, 0.78 g. Na^O and 2.50 g. CaO. On April 11,
twenty seeds of Brassica Chinensis were sown per pot. The young plants
appeared five days later in all pots with the loamy soil, while the germination
in all pots with the sandy soil commenced two days later. On April 25, the
young plants were thinned to eight of about equal size.

During vegetation, the plants of the pots B in both series seemed most
luxuriant. The following table shows the average length of leaves,
measured on May 21 :



Averaged of four parallel pots.



Soil.


N-Manure


Group.


Length (c.ni.).






A


26.1




(NH4),S0,


A'
B


25.?

28.8


L amy soil




B'


27.9


CaCNo


C
D


25.2
26.1



On tlie Manurial Effect of Calcium Cyanainide.



lOI



Soil.


N-manure.


Group.


Length (cm.).


Sandy soil


(NH4),S04


A
A'
B
B'


28.2
27.0
27.6
273


CaCNs


C

D


22.7
2T.5



The plants were harvested May 2 1 with the following result, g. :



Average of four parallel pots.



Soil.


N-manure.


Group.


Fresh state.


Air-dry state.


Leaves.


Roots.


Total.


Leaves.


Roots.


Total.


Loamy soil


(NH4)2S04


A
A'
B
B'


192.06
188.55
217.38
210.17


11.90
12.20
14.25
12.93


203.96
200.75
231-63
223.10


22.98
22.53

24-33
2257


1.50
1-35
1-53
1-53


24.48
23.88
25.86
24.10




CaCN.^


C
D


165.79
159.89


14.40
14.07


180.19
173-96


19.07
18.13


I. Co
1-77


20.67
19.90


Sandy soil


(NH4)2S04


A
A'
B
B'


186.60
176.44
189.65
178.66


13-38
10.50
12.83
12.23


199.98
186.94

202.48
190.89


17.80
17.90
18.75
18.65


1.30
0.98
1.25
1.25


19.10
18.88
20.00I)
19.90




CaCNo


C

D


113.25
"3-71


13-50
10.90


126.75
124.61


12.37
12.35


1-37
1. 10


13-74
1345



i). With sandy soil the maximum harvest was obtained from the pots B. In the pots B, the
average weight of one plant was 2.5 g. (20/8=2.5) and average yield from one kilo, soil amounted to
1.27 g. (20/15.75= 1,27), while one plant of the corresponding pots in the preceding e.xperiment with
a large supply of nitrogen amounted to 3.1 g. (21.6/7 = 3.1) and one kilo, soil produced 1.51 g.
(21.6/14.27 = 1.51).



I02



!$. Vcliiyaina.



If we now assume the total yield (in the air-dry state) of the pots D in
each case of soil respectively to be= lOO, we obtain the following ratio :



Soil.


N-manure.


Group.


Comparative yield.






A


123






A'


120




(NH4)2S04


B


130


Loamy soil




B'


121


CaCN.2


C


104






D


100






A


142




(NH4).S04


A'
B


1 40
149


Sand soil




B'


148




C


102




CaCNg










D


100



The manurial effect of lime-nitrogen, was in this case, with a small
dose of nitrogen, far smaller than that of ammonium sulphate. This
difference of the manurial effects between lime-nitrogen and ammonium
sulphate was further much larger in the case of sandy soil than in
the case of loamy soil. In the case of loamy soil, if we assume the
comparative yield from the group B (130) to be =100, and compare the
respective yield from the group C (104), we obtain the following ratio :



Ammonium sulphate.
100



Lime-nitrogen.
80



The comparative yields in the case of sandy soil would be :



Ammonium sulphate.
100



Lime-nitrogen.
69



On the Itlanarlal KfFtect of Calcium Cyananiide. {O?

IV. General Conclusion.

i). The nianurial effect of lime-nitrogen varies greatly with the reaction of
the other manuring compounds : it acts best when the total reaction in
the soil approaches neutrality.

2). The manurial effect of ammonium sulphate varies also greatly with
the reaction of the other manuring compounds : it acts better when
sodium phosphate than when superphosphate is applied along with it.
Also from this fact, it must be inferred that ammonium sulphate acts
best when the reaction of the total manure approaches neutrality.

3). The manurial effect of lime-nitrogen is under favorable conditions
equal (see barley experiment) to that of ammonium sulphate ; but
when the nitrogenous manures are compared in small applications,
ammonium sulphate proved superior. This result may be due to the
changed state of the reaction.

4). On sandy soil, the action of lime-nitrogen was farther below that of
ammonium sulphate than on loamy soil.



I04 ® tlchlyama,

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXIV.

Fig. I.

A3 Manured with 8.752 g. ammonium sulphate, 4.6 g. double super-
phosphate, 3.91 g. potassium sulphate, 8.44 g. sodium sulphate, and
^7-^7 S- gypsum.

A'2 • Manured like A3, but gypsum was here substituted by 10.03 S-
limestone meal.

Bg Manured with 8.752 g ammonium sulphate, 9.38 g. secondary sodium
phosphate, 3.91 g. potassium sulphate and 17.27 g. gypsum.

B'2 Manured like Bg, but gypsum was here replaced by 10.03 g. limestone
meal.

Q Manured with 10 g. lime-nitrogen, 4.6 g. double superphosphate,
3.91 g. potassium sulphate and 8.44 g. sodium sulphate.

Dg Manured witlj 10 g. lime-nitrogen, 9.38 g. secondary sodium phosphate
and 3.91 g. potassium sulphate.

Fig. 2

Ai Manured with 12 g. ammonium sulphate, 2.2 g. double superphosphate,

5.2 g. potassium sulphate, 4.05 g. sodium sulphate, and 23.03 g.

gypsum.
A'2 Manured like Aj, but gypsum was here replaced by 13.38 g. limestone

meal.
Bi Manured with 12 g. ammonium sulphate, 4.5 g. secondary sodium

phosphate, 5.2 g. potassium sulphate, and 23.03 g. gypsum.
B'3 Manured like Bj, but gypsum was here suljstituted by 13.38 g.

limestone meal.
C2 Manured with 13.34 g. lime-nitrogen, 2.2 g. double , superphosphate,

5.2 g. potassium sulphate and 4.05 g. sodium sulphate.
Di Manured with 13.34 g. lime-nitrogen, 4.5 g. secondary sodium

phosphate and 5.2 g. potassium sulphate.



BUL. IMP. CENTR. AGRIC. EXPT. STAT. VOL. I.



PLATE XXIV.



(1)




To Page 96.



(2)




To Page 98.



Caylord Bros

Makers

Syracuse, N. Y.

PAT. JAN. 21. 1908



4-20043



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LIBRARY





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Online LibraryS UchiyamaOn the manurial effect of calcium cyanamide under different conditions → online text (page 1 of 1)